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sors have gone to Mexico to search for a has held pastorates at Espyville, Mercer, rare species of moss which grows near Twelfth Church, Allegheny, and three the craters of extinct volcanoes. They years ago was called to Carnegie. hope to make important botanical discoveries, and will devote thirty days to

Instructor T. M. Taylor of the departtheir research of the country in the

ment of chemistry in Oberlin College, vicinity of Jalapa. The professors are

has accepted a position with the Carnegie T. C. Chamberlain, C. R. Barnes, and W.

Technical Schools of Pittsburg. Since J. G. Land. The expedition is financed

1901 he has been engaged at Oberlin by the Botanical Society of America and

as instructor in chemistry, and during by the following railroads : Missouri

this time has been engaged in practical Pacific, Texas Pacific, International and

work, being interested in various imGreat Northern, and the International

provements in the methods of chemical Railway Company of Mexico.

manufacture. He has also done consider

able assaying. Dr. Harry C. Jones, professor of physical chemistry at the Johns Hopkins Professor Frank Hamsher, for several University, is preparing a monograph

years head of the preparatory departwhich will appear in book form about

ment at the University of Illinois, is the the middle of the fall. It is the compila

new principal at Smith Academy, St. tion of the results of investigations car- Louis. He succeeds the late Professor ried on by him and his assistant, Dr.

Charles P. Curd, whose death occurred Horace S. Uhler, now an instructor in

last spring. physics at Yale University, concerning the hydrate problem. These experiments Professor H. M. Cottrell, formerly of have been carried on in the chemical

the Kansas Agricultural Coilege, has laboratory of the Hopkins during the last

been placed at the head of the animal inthree years on a grant from the Carnegie dustry department of the Colorado AgriInstitution.

cultural College at Fort Collins. Dr. W. C. Farabee of the anthropo

Professor Zepheniah Hopper, of logical department at Harvard University, with three students, will next year

Philadelphia, has begun his sixty-third conduct a research expedition about the

year as an instructor in the Central headwaters of the Amazon river in South

High School of that city. He recently America. For a time a base will be

celebrated his 82d birthday, and is still established at Arequipa, Peru. The party

active and alert. He graduated with the will be gone about three years.

first class of the high school in which he

is now instructor, in 1842, and two years Rev. Dr. William R. Wilson, pastor of

later began to teach mathematics. the First United Presbyterian Church of Carnegie, has been elected to the chair Rev. John K. Morley, president of of homiletics and pastoral theology at

Fargo College, Fargo, North Dakota, the Allegheny Theological Seminary of

has accepted a call to a Springfield, Vt., the United Presbyterian denomination.

Congregational church. Rev. Dr. Wilson has been in the ministry 17 years. He is one of the most General James A. Beaver, the presiprominent members of the Monogahela dent of the Board of Trustees of Pennpresbytery and his election meets with sylvania State College, has been requestuniversal approval. He was born at Fair ed to act as president of the college for Haven, O., was graduated at Washing- the time being, and has signified his ton-Jefferson College in the class of '86, willingness to do so. Dr. Judson P. and the Allegheny Seminary in '89. He

Welsh, formerly principal of the Bloomsburg State Normal School, has nois. Dr. James has been much interestbeen elected vice president and financial ed in the work of the trust and has enagent of the college, and also registrar. deavored to interest colleges and univer

sities in the ideas which underlie the gift Professor C. Larsen, formerly asso

of Cecil Rhodes. He will do all he can ciate professor in the dairy department

to acquaint the college men of Illinois of the Iowa State College, at Ames,

with the opportunities offered by these Iowa, will have charge of that depart- scholarships. ment in the Agricultural College of Utah at Logan this year.

Professor Lowell B. Judson has acProfessor Larsen came to America cepted the position of assistant professor from Denmark fifteen years ago, going of horticulture at Cornell University, to Iowa where he secured work. A few

New York. years later he entered the Iowa college. Professor Judson is a native of LanBefore finishing his course at the college sing, Mich., born in 1877. He remained he had become instructor in the labora- in the schools of Lansing until he had tory of the dairy department and upon completed the eighth grade. His prepgraduating in 1902 was made a regular aratory work was taken at Olivet Colinstructor. From this position he lege, Michigan, a Congregational school. worked up until the title of associate For two years he was at Northwestern professor was earned.

University, Evanston, Ill., going thence Professor Larsen went to Massachu- to Harvard, where he was graduated in setts in 1901, where he was appointed the full course in two years, receiving instructor in a special class in dairy work his diploma in 1900, with the degree of at the Amherst Agricultural College. A. B. He is joint author with Professor G. L. In January, 1903, he was elected proMcKay of a text book entitled, "Prin- fessor of horticulture in the University ciples of Butter Making." He is a con- of Idaho, to fill the vacancy caused by tributor to the Pacafic Dairy Review, the resignation of Prof. F. B. Huntley, Chicago Dairy Produce and New York state horticultural inspector for Produce Review.



Dr. E. T. Reed, former president of

The Rev. N. P. Simonsen of WauBuena Vista College, Storm Lake, Iowa, paca, Wis., has been elected president of has been elected president of Lenox Col- the Luther College Association, conductiege, Hopkinton, Iowa. Dr. Reed is a ing Luther College in Racine, Wis. The graduate of Parsons College, Iowa, and College Association was organized but a of McCormick Theological Seminary, few years ago by ministers and members graduating from the latter in 1888.

of Danish Lutheran churches of the Northwest and has met with marked

success. Dr. James Wallace, president of MacAlester College, St. Paul, Minn., has ac

Dr. Franklin B. Gault, formerly presicepted an offer to teach Greek new tes

dent of Whitworth College, Tacoma, tament temporarily at the W. W. White Bible School at Montclare, N. J.

Wash., has been elected president of the
University of South Dakota.

Dr. Lillian Wyckoff Johnson because The trustees of the Rhodes scholar- of insomnia has resigned the presidency ship fund of London, Eng., have request of the Western College for Women at ed Dr. Edmund J. James, president of Oxford, Ohio. Dr. Johnson is well the University of Illinois, to act as chair- known as an educator. She has studied man of the committee of the Rhodes in the University of Michigan, at Corscholarship trust for the State of Illi- nell, in the Sorbonne at Paris and in


Germany, and has l. structor at ly returned from Ceylon, India, where Vassar and profess

listory in the

for seven years he was President of University of Tennessee Miss Johnson Jaffna College, operated under the was born at Memphis in 1864. She is a American Missionary Board. member of the American Historical Association, and holds honorary membership in the Vassar Alumnae Historical

Dr. Kuno Fischer, the famous proAssociation, the Daughters of the Amer

fessor of philosophy at Heidelberg Uniican Revolution and the United Daugh- versity, has retired on the ground of illters of the Confederacy.


George W. Neal, late professor of InDr. James R. L. Diggs, of the Vir

dianola College, has accepted the deanginia Union University, of Richmond,

ship and chair of languages in Arkansas has been elected president of the Ken

Cumberland College, at Clarksville. Dr. tucky State University.

Neal is a post-graduate of the Univer

sity of Arkansas, at which ine received Rev. F. G. Golden, member of the the degree of Ph. D. North Georgia conference and recent pastor of the South Baldwin circuit, has

Professor H. M. Bowman, head of the been elected president of Hutchinson

department of political science at DartCollegiate Institute, at Whitesburg, Ga.

mouth College, has resigned to accept a

position as political editor of the New Acting on the recommendation of the York Globe. His successor has not yet executive committee, the Board of Di- been appointed. rectors of Butler College, Irvington, Ind., have elected Prof. Scot Butler

Dr. S. D. Fess, of the University of president of the college for the ensuing Chicago, has been elected president of year. President Butler will have charge

Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. of the Latin department and he will

Dr. Fess is a well known educator and have an assistant who will take charge of lecturer, and in addition to his chair at beginners. John S. Kenyon of Harvard

the University of Chicago, is the editor University was elected head of the Eng

of "World's Events." lish department.

Chancellor Henry A. Buchtel of the

The Indiana State Board of Education University of Denver, has been selected has appointed Demarthus C. Brown of to be Republican candidate for governor

the faculty of Butler College as State liof Colorado, vice Philip Stewart, re

brarian. signed.

Mr. Brown succeeds to the place re

cently vacated by William E. Henry, Rev. Richard Hastings, M. A., has ac

who went to Seattle, Wash., to take up cepted the presidency of Straight Uni- library work. versity, New Orleans. He succeeds Professor Oscar Atwood, M. A., who Dr. Amos A. Kiehle, after more than resigned the presidency at the close of twenty-five years' service as pastor of the last season. Professor Hastings is Calvary Presbyterian Church of Milwaua graduate of Hamilton College and Au- kee, has resigned to become professor burn Theological Seminary. He recent- in Carroll College, Waukesha, Wis.


The college season is again approach- ten or fourteen to sweep out the office ing and the annual exodus of young and rose by virtues and industry to bemen and young women to the schools come members of the firm. This is true. of higher learning will soon begin. In But you follow the career of the office many households the time worn ques- boy who began his utilitarian studies tion, "Does a college education pay?" with a broom, and the college boy who has become a new and vital one. It has began with his books, and you will find been asked and answered many times by that when the office boy reaches thirty many different men and from many dif- he is still an employee, whereas the colferent points of view, each time to be lege graduate is probably at the age his repeated with the returning fall, when, employer. at the family council, it is debated "Statistics show that out of 10,000 whether or not to send Henry to college. Successful men in the world, taken in all

Each individual case will be settled classes of life, 8,000 are college graduaccording to the circumstances which ates. Look at the tremendous increase surround that particular case, and the de- of educational effort all over the United cision will be governed in part by what States in the last few years. Why, I the people concerned consider adequate have parents come to me with tears in "pay," what the object of the education their eyes and ask me to tell them how may be and a thousand and one matters they can get their boys through college pertinent to the young man in question with only the small sum of money they In his case it may be primarily one of can afford to do it with. Even your ability to meet the expense. No attempt self-made man isn't satisfied unless his can or would be made by anyone else son can go to college.” to decide the matter for him, but when One answer to the question as to the question becomes an abstract prop- whether a college education pays is to osition and is considered in its relation point to the ever-increasing number of to social economy, it is a subject for colleges and their larger matriculation universal consideration.

lists each year. Evidently people in the Thorough business men

majority of cases believe it does pay times disposed to make sport of the or the colleges would cease to show young college graduate's self-conceit growth and prosperity as they do. The and lack of practical business knowledge. hankering after adornment on the part Leading educators, on the other hand, of those who go to college for adornmake a strong showing, backed by sta- ment only would not sustain the showtistics and corroborating detail, to prove ing made in this respect. While only that a college education is the best foun- a comparatively small per cent. of the dation in all the work of life. The sub- high school graduates go to college, it ject has been discussed, probably, since is unfair to hold this up as an indication men of education first left the cloisters that only a small per cent. of them beand went out into the world.

lieve a college education pays. It is "President Nicholas Murray Butler, too often a matter of dollars and cents, of Columbia University, presents this where the spirit is only too willing but brief for the college man:

the purse is weak. “No doubt there are many who be- Another answer is to point to the lieve a college education is a hindrance career of those who have had the col. to the necessary business wisdom of the lege training, and here the evidence is age. There are merchants down town not so clear, inasmuch as it all depends who will tell you how they started at upon what the college man chooses for



his life work and whether the training gence among the people the higher their he has received is of assistance to him civilization and the higher the moral tone in his chosen field. In the professions of the community. The answer to the it is agreed that the college training is question then becomes simple. essential, but in business there is still The argument often advanced by those a wide divergence of opinion as to its who do not espouse the cause of the real value, many men of equally success- college on the ground that it makes ful experience holding diametrically op- people discontented, deserves a good deal posed views. By the majority, however, of censure.

of censure. It assumes that a condition it seems to be the opinion that an educa- of ignorance and subdued ambition is tion is a good thing, even in business, best for the majority. That is the Rusand it is admitted by those who don't sian autocracy's idea. It ignores that consider it essential, that it doesn't at discontent is the lever of the world's most, do any harm.

progress; that the discontent which folIt is to be noted that in all of these lows a realization of all the possibilities views the matter is looked upon almost that lie within range of human power entirely as to its bearing on the earning is a healthy discontent and is the potent capacity of the individual and nothing factor in every step toward that pinnacle is said as to the effect on his happiness of perfection which man hopes some day or on society at large. It is evidently to attain. taken for granted that the principal ob- So far as it may affect the individual ject in life is to get rich or at least to and through him society in general an lay by a competence.

affirmative answer seems to be the only If education in itself is considered logical one that can be given. If one essential, and of vital importance to the can afford it, then, by all means go to stability of government and the general college. If not for your own sake then uplifting of the race, it ought to follow for the sake of that duty which you owe that the higher the standard of intelli- to your country and to the world.


The term "realism" is used in a va

And finally Realism is used as opriety of meanings. It is used:

posed to the unusual, the extraordinary 1. As opposed to conventionalism. and imaginative. Instead of setting This applies particularly to drawing and forth events and characters which are expainting. There are certain conventional ceedingly common and of ordinary ocways of painting leaves, sunsets, and currence, the Romanticist seeks for that animals, ways that have prevailed al- which is unusual and uncommon. This most since the beginning of art. Now tendency the Realist combats, and holds the realist steps in and says: "Hold !” that literature, in all its forms, but espeThese things are not as art delineates cially in that of fiction, should unceasthem, and truth demands that they be ingly "hold the minor up to nature.” depicted exactly as they are.

This con

Such, in brief, are the current interflict of Realism and Conventionalism en- pretations put on the work, and it is ters into fiction also, but not to the ex- therefore necessary in discussing this tent that it does into the other forms of subject to have the terms strictly defined. art.

Now there are certain standing criti2. A second usage of the term is as cisms of Realism, and critics of great opposed to idealism, the effort to por- repute have ardently taken sides for and tray the highest possible type of any ob- against it. Perhaps the keenest oppoject by eliminating all its frailties and nent of the school, the one who has imperfections.

most concisely and aptly stated the ob

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