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cy examination according to the univer- should be kept as large as possible; that sity rule. The regulation is:

they involve expense and thus unneces"Delinquent examinations and exam- sarily raise a distinction between the inations held by special permission of children of the poor and the others; that the dean are special examinations, the they go to lug into the nursery of our fee of each of which is $5, which must be American democracy those more or less paid by the student before being admit- meretricious social differences which obted to the examination.”

tain quite strongly enough as it is outIf a student were so unfortunate as side of the schools; and that these groupto register the grade of "D" in two ings must and do become, under the courses each year, although that is not a veil of secrecy, centers of influence disflat failure, like "F," he would lose a tracting to the students and subversive point, or $5 worth, for that, and another of the school authority-little feudal $5 for his make-up examination. In other powers which operate invisibly to weakwords, he stands to lose $40 in four en the central authority and sometimes years.

openly dispute its proper exercise. In discussing the new system the These views were presented in a hearSpectator says: “It would be going lit- ing where only the lower schools were tle farther to barter and purchase de- concerned. Do the same objections apgrees. For example, a man will pay un- ply with equal or even greater force to der the new scheme $150 for a fifteen- the existence of secret fraternities in the hour course; should he get high marks universities? he will gain a 'point' or more without

A writer in a Cincinnati paper says: paying for it, and it is this that is to be "In addition to the curb being held regretted. Forcing the student to pay on undue athletics, high school authori$5 for every 'D' in excess of one is, we ties are turning their attention to secret think, a forced measure.

All societies organized among the pupils, these measures place an unfortunate who make selections of certain of the commercial atmosphere on academic classes with rejection of others, tending work, and we hope that the trustees will to form an aristocracy among pupils at reconsider them at their next meeting. an age when school matters ought to be

first in importance. So great has the

evil grown in the high schools of ChiA sub-committee of the Springfield cago, and so rigidly drawn are the lines (Mass.) School Board has been hearing between societies and between members

both sides of the seFraternities in High

and nonmembers of societies, that the cret Society ques- governing board now requires of each Schools Under

tion related to high school matriculant subscription to Discussion

the public schools. the following pledge: The question was brought before them “ 'I hereby declare that I am not a by a petition for the exclusion of the member of any fraternity, sorority or fraternities from the technical high other secret society, and that I am not school. That there was deep public in- pledged to any such society. I hereby terest in the matter was proved by the promise, without any mental reservation, large attendance at the hearing. The ar- that so long as I shall be a member of guments against these secret fraternities, the university high school I will not join summed up, were that they are undemo- any secret society; that I will have no cratic in developing in a public institu- connection with any secret society, nor tion supported by all for the benefit of be present at the meeting of any secret all, distinctions and differences based society in this school or elsewhere. I upon no considerations related to the also declare that I regard myself bound school and its work; that they establish to keep these promises and on no acspecial and exclusive groupings which count to violate them.' tend to narrow the pupil's associations "Commenting on the requirement of with his fellows at a period when they the pledge, the Boston Herald says: “The

as

general reasons that make against them ally exercised in Eastern schools of as factors in school life are sufficient. higher learning. So far, however, as the The little benefit they may sometimes remarks of the official referred to may confer on a few individuals, under favor- be construed as an attack upon the able conditions, can not weigh against whole institution of college secret frathe evils which teachers perceive and de- ternities, they will meet with strong and, plore. Time enough when the high we think, deserved opposition from the school pupil leaves that institution and great body of college graduates. Apenters the college or the university for parently the old bugaboo of secrecy does affiliation with societies. The age of the not enter into his objections to fraternihigh school pupil forbids the exercise of ties. It is too well understood, even by right judgment and his inembership in non-fraternity men, that their mysteries school secret societies tends to the devel- are innocent concessions to the romantic opment of clannishess and classes where predilections of youth. As to the imneither ought to exist."

portant counts of the indictment, we are not prepared to say that some chapters

of some fraternities are not too exclurecent meeting of the Board of sive and may not fairly be charged with Regents at the University of Wisconsin extravagance. If such conditions exist

one of the members at Madison, by all means let the offendDemocracy in College Fraterni

is reported to have ing chapters be "restricted,” if by that is

said: ties.

meant a fatherly talking to by their "I am going to

alumni in the faculty or in the general make a thorough investigation of frater- body of graduates, and if such remonnities and sororities at Wisconsin and strances are vain, let them be dissolved other universities, and, if the facts war- by faculty order. But there is too much rant it

, at a future meeting a resolu- of good in the way of honest, helpful, tion to restrict these organizations will brotherly effort among the members of be introduced. It seems to me that they these societies, which, far from being are undemocratic in the highest degree. undemocratic in essence, appeal to the They form a caste among the students natural instincts for organization of the that is inexcusable. They are expensive American boy (so much so in some into the parents. There may be something stitutions that nearly every student is a 'to say about the benefits of these or- member of some fraternity—and where, ganizations, and if there is the advocates then, is your "exclusiveness”?) to warof the system will be given ample time rant any educational authorities to "reto have a hearing. But my present im- stricting" them out of existence. pressions are not at all favorable. The

S11 proposed dormitory system, when carried into effect, will do away with the That the supremacy of the Anglomajor reason given for their existence.” Saxon races is largely the result of their

Following the order of the faculty that hereafter tickets for the junior "prom"

Supremacy of Race physical environ

ment was the ex

Due to Physical shall be sold for $3 instead of $6, the

Environment.

pressed opinion of proposal of an investigation may be

Professor A. Cort looked upon as a movement in the direc- Haddon of Cambridge, England, in an tion of simplicity in college social life, address before the Geographical Society and, as such, deserving of commenda- of Chicago. tion.

"We Anglo-Saxon peoples," said ProThe University of Wisconsin is sup- fessor Haddon, "believe that we ported by the state, and tuition for resi- made especially by God Almighty to boss dents of Wisconsin is free, a circum- the earth, but as a matter of fact, our stance which gives the Regents excuse supremacy is largely due to geographfor more minute supervision of the so- ical environments. No nation ever becial activities of students than is gener- came great that had not a great natural cereal and also suitable animals to assist tellectual or moral purpose will upman. We blame the people of Australia hold the frail tenement long after its for their savagery, but what could they downfall has been predicted by the do in a desert country, assisted only by physician? Had Immanuel Kant, the the kangaroo?"

were

poor saddler's son, been debarred by his Professor Haddon urged the Geo- physical frailty from receiving the pegraphical Society of Chicago to devote cuniary aid he must have received in its energies to the subject of ethnology, order to get an education, should we which he claimed was the most important now have any 'Critique of Pure Reason,' branch of scientific research for the pres- and what would modern philosophy be ent generation on account of the fact that like?" the barbarian races were rapidly disap- This critic misses the mark. It is not pearing beneath the baneful influence of proposed that scholarships shall be the white peoples.

awarded for physical fitness. It is only "We spend our time and energy,” said reasoned that, intellectual equipment bethe professor, “in searching for the north ing equal, a healthy student is a more pole and delving thousands of feet into desirable candidate than a weakling, for the sea, all of which could be done just he is likely to enjoy longer and fuller as well 500 or 1,000 years hence, while use of the benefits of university educawe are neglecting the work which can tion, to be a stronger influence in the only be done now. What will posterity world. And what are scholarships for, say of us? What answer will there be if not to help in the freeing of strong when they ask why we did not do this souls ? As to students of extraordinary work so important to the understanding ability, they can always obtain needed asof the history of the human race ?" sistance, from college authorities or “The enthusiast should be encouraged philanthropic persons.

No Kant who and protected," said Professor Haddon, lets his needs be known will be deprived "for he is the man who will do the work of necessary aid by any plan for disbursof the world, asking for no pay. One ing scholarship funds. man is specially fitted for the making of money, but the enthusiast in science can not do this and the means should be provided for him to do this all-important The changes that have so profoundly work."

affected the ideals and tendencies of

modern life within Greek and Latin in

the last fifty years

American Schools President Eliot's widely discussed plan

and Colleges.

have had a marked for limiting the bestowal of college aid

effect upon the aims for indigent Limiting the Bestow

indigent stu- and methods of professional teachers in al of College

dents, so that the educational institutions of every grade.

trust fund at the President Eliot, of Harvard, referring to Aid.

disposal of the col- this fact, declares that the changes in the lege may be given only to applicants like- requirements for admission and for gradly to live long enough to give an ade- uation made by so many colleges within quate return, is bitterly attacked in some a comparatively recent past have been quarters. "As if, forsooth," one critic for the most part brought about by says, “it were merely a matter of prefer- changes in our national life and thought ence with the physically weak whether beyond the control of college or univerthey shall resign this pleasing, anxious sity. Prof. Norton, also of Harvard, takbeing, or continue to haunt the warm ing this view, in a lengthy communicaprecincts of the cheerful day! More- tion published in a recent issue of the over, is it not known to be often true New York Nation, says: "In the long that genius, no less than conceit, 'in run those institutions, as well as the secweakest bodies strongest works,' and ondary school, must adapt themselves to that the sustaining power of a lofty in- new conditions if they would survive. It is not merely ridiculous, but impossible, was made to extend the buildings of to uphold a scheme of education which Marischal College, one of the two colno longer commands the respect of the leges of the university, in order that scipublic.”

ence may be more adequately taught. The principle thus announced, that Through the efforts of such men as even the higher education takes shape Lord Strathcona, who is rector at presin the democratic world, is noteworthy. ent, and of the Mitchells of NewcastleThe changes that have been made may on-Tyne, aided by public subscriptions, a be ascribed to a growing sense of the very handsome addition has been made importance of physical science and to an to the buildings and on Sept. 27 these impression that the old course of study were opened by King Edward, with was of comparatively little practical whom was the queen. For the visit of value. It was contended that education the king the Aberdonians spent in decwas a failure if it did not prepare the orations from their public funds somestudent to take an active and effective thing like £10,000 ($50,000) and every part in the world's necessary work. That house along a three-mile royal route was view became popular in Europe as well decorated. Nothing like it has ever been as in the United States. In their news- seen before in the history of the town. papers and magazines, in public ad- The academic functions were of a most dresses and even at college commence- interesting nature, taken part in, as they ments, the people of Great Britain are were, by representatives from the uniconstantly reminded that it is the prac- versities of America, Europe, Africa and tical character of German education that Asia, "gallant little Japan" sending the has made Germany so formidable a com- professor of botany at Tokyo to repremercial rival of their country, and they sent it on the occasion. are thus admonished that unless their

Among the delegates from America schools and colleges devote less time to

were Prof. Hale, Chicago; Prof. White, Latin and Greek and more to chemistry Brown; Prof. Damon and Dr. Kellen, and physics they are destined to lose Pennsylvania; Dr.

Pennsylvania; Dr. Hague, Columbia ; their lead among the trading nations of

Prof. Hull, Cornell; Profs. Lanman and Europe. The other day Lord Strathcona

Lowell, Harvard; Prof. Kelly, Leland told the patrons and governors of the

Stanford, Jr.; Professor Anderson, old University of Aberdeen that the Johns Hopkins University; Prof. CushAmerican institutions of higher learning

ny, Michigan; Vice-Chancellor McKelenjoyed a special advantage in the fact

way, New York State; Dr. Carnegie, that they were not tied to the past by the

American Philosophical Society, Philavenerable traditions of a system of edu

delphia ; Prof. Daniels, Princeton ; Prof. cation that had not been devised in an

Merrill, Trinity, Hartford; President ticipation of the most urgent demands

Buckham, Vermont; Prof. Kent, Virof the present day.

ginia ; Dr. Clarke, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, and Prof. Lounsbury,

Yale. In the last week of September they celebrated the 400th anniversary of the Canada was represented by Principal

foundation of the Petersen, Prof. Walton and Dr. Shirres, Aberdeen University

Aberdeen Univer- Montreal; Prof. Macgregor, Halifax; Celebrates 400th

sity. It was estab- Chancellor Sir S. Fleming and Prof. Anniversary

lished by papal bull Macnaughton, Kingston; Wilfred Campin catholic days by Bishop Elphinstone bell of the Royal society, Ottawa ; Prof. and during its long career it has done Macallum, Toronto, and Prof. Parker, much to advance the cause of education Winnipeg. and culture in the north of Scotland. In Among those on whom honorary dethe list of its graduates are many distin- grees were conferred were Prof. Melguished men, especially in the teaching ville Best, California ; Frank Wigglesprofession. Lately a successful effort worth Clark, chief chemist United States

are

are

geological survey, Washington ; Howard tionary government. Indeed, 75 per cent A. Kelly, professor of gynecology, Johns of the women students in the Swiss uniHopkins University, Baltimore; Charles versities are of Russian birth. They inRockwell Lanman, professor of Sanskrit, tend to return to and practice in their Harvard; Thomas R. Lounsbury, Yale; native country, "if things improve," but Prof. Petersen and Prof. Walton, Mon- many of them are lost to Russia. treal; Prof. Macallum, Toronto, and W. However, the Russian ministry, Wilfred Campbell, who was introduced among other reforms granted or promas the poet of Canala.

ised, has raised the status and extended the academic opportunities of the women.

They are now allowed to attend all the In the United States the higher edu- lectures in the St. Petersburg University cation of women presents no "question." and in the Polytechnic Institute. Other

There

differHigher Education for

concessions have been made, and if the Women

ence of intelligent universities remain open-which is very in Eu

opinion as to the de- doubtful, it would seem, owing to the rope.

sirability of higher tyranny of the police and the revolutionco-education, but no one would for a ary attitude of the students, and also of nioment propose the women be deprived some of the professors—the women are of any educational opportunities they certain to make full and excellent use of now possess and improve.

their new privileges. It is different in Europe, where woman There clever but superficial has had hoary prejudice and feudal in- writers in Europe who say that women fluences to fight and overcome. There have "done nothing with their higher edlthe higher education of women is still ucation.” They forget that after one acamong the unsettled questions, and pol- quires an education he or she needs opicy and practice are not uniform even in portunity to apply it. The prejudice the same countries. Nevertheless, woman against women physicians or lawyers or has made steady progress, has refuted all teachers is still so strong in Europe, esof the early objections to her intellectual pecially in Germany, that if women have advancement and has successfully storm- made no mark it is the men who are reed educational citadels.

sponsible. It is the men's higher educaA leading German paper recently pub- tion that has failed, if it has not cured lished interesting figures, complete as far them of absurd prejudices and baseless as they go, in regard to women who en- notions. ter the universities of the fatherland and become candidates for degrees. Last "The new undergraduate is in danger summer there were 211 women students of being merged into the mass. Let him in the German universities, as compared

remember his indi

Students Urged to with 140 during the winter semester. Of

viduality.” This was

Retain Their Inthese 108 studied medicine, 66 philoso

the keynote of a

dividuality. phy, 22 mathematics, 10 economic science

noteworthy address and 4 law. In the universities that admit to the freshman class made by Dean women only as "hospitanten,” that is, ir- George E. Vincent at the anniversary regular students without right to de- chapel services at the University of Chigrees, there were last summer 1,268 such

cago. students, as compared with 1,050 a year "Use your

intellectual apparatus, " ago.

continued the dean. “Do not wander In the universities of Switzerland, al- around the campus like a lost sheep waitways liberal and generous, there were ing for some kindly policeman to come during the summer 2,193 women, as

around and show you where to register against but 500 a decade ago. The great and where to do this and that. Those increase is largely due to the inpour of who can't look after themselves now will Russian women, who have been ham- probably be unable to look after thempered in every way by their own reac- selves in after life."

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