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sidered. Essays must not exceed 2,500 herst College, the idea of student governwords; they must be typewritten, on one ment spread rapidly in the men's colside of the paper only. The author's leges, but in women's colleges it was not name must not be signed to his essay- tried until some years later, when Wellesonly his nom de plume, which latter, with ley introduced the system of government his full name and address, must accom- as an experiment. pany the essay in a separate sealed en- The plan was more or less successful velope. No limitation is set upon the and was adopted by a number of the method of plan that may be advocated; women's colleges, until there are now 12 it may be along the line of protection or which stand as distinctly representative free trade. The contests will close No- of student government. These are Wellesvember 15, and the prizes will be award- ley, Brown, Smith, Vassar, Wells, Bryn ed about December 15, 1906.

Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Barnard, CorThe Merchant Marine League of the nell, Wilson, Simons and the Woman's United States has for its president Har- College of Baltimore. vey D. Goulder, a leading member of the However, the individual organizations bar of this country, and president of the have felt the need of a common mode of National Rivers and Harbors Congress. government, a constitution which will Its treasurer, Colonel J. J. Sullivan, is regulate the system and place it on a firm president of the Central National Bank basis, and a means of consulting and adand also president of the Superior Sav- vising between colleges. For this purings & Trust Company of Cleveland. For pose the Woman's Intercollegiate Assothe last two years he was president of the ciation for Student Government National Board of Trade. The secretary started at Wellesley College in 1904. of the League is Mr. John A. Penton, This was the first convention of such a one of the leading publishers of Cleve- character—the second was held at Bryn land. The League was formed by men Mawr College in 1905 and the third conhaving no direct or personal interest in vention is to be held at the Woman's Colour deep sea shipping, but who are im- lege November 16 to 19. Each college is bued with a patriotic desire to aid in plac- represented by two delegates. They will ing American ships once more upon the gather on the 16th, being received and seas; and the offer of these prizes is entertained by the students in the hall, made for the purpose of arousing wide- the hall girls giving up the use of their spread public interest in the condition

rooms to their guests. The business at and needs of our foreign-going mer- hand will be the forming of a permanent chant marine, and to bring out the best association between the colleges and the thought by which to accomplish our mar- adoption of the constitution, which has itime rehabilitation, The Merchant Ma- been in the charge of the intercollegiate rine League was organized in November, committee appointed last year. 1904, in Cleveland, O., and is a wholly national, non-political, non-partisan organization.

"PROFESSOR."

It is a truism to reflect that in a demWOMAN'S INTERCOLLEGIATE ASSOCIATION

ocracy two processes keep going on at

the same time—leveling up and leveling FOR STUDENT GOVERNMENT.

down. The melancholy protest of our The Woman's College of Baltimore is English cousins, however, remindsius that to be the seat of the coming conference their much-honored title “professor” has of the Woman's Intercollegiate Associa- in America been processed in one direction for Student Government. During tion and been leveled down, the last decade the growing tendency to- No law in the domain of liberty and ward student government in schools, and equality compels a man to be labeled proespecially colleges, has been a strong and fessor. But vanity, that gay vice, is inprominent feature. Originating in Am- sidious even in republican souls. To the

reverent Englishman his professor is a These lectures, many of which will be in personage of simple yet awful mien-to German, will be of interest not only to be respected and obeyed. In Scotland students but to all German-Americans of the same, in Germany more so.

the state. And in America ? The word first knew This form of memorial is generally its traditional value. Only the mighty considered the most appropriate to the pugilists of England, descendants of Tom memory of Carl Schurz, and it is also fitFigg, inherited from their pink and white ting that the professorship should be espupils the title that was hallowed at tablished at the University of Wisconsin, Brasenose and Balliol.

as he was identified with the institution Yet a hint from the pugnacious was in its early history as a member of the enough for fraternal America. All who board of regents. In recognition of his rose to eminence as teachers—who work as

great German-American wished to be respected and obeyed— statesman and scholar the state university adopted the venerable title. The balloon- conferred upon him in 1905 the honorist raised it aloft. The juggler flourished ary degree of doctor of laws. His last it. The acrobat handled it. The phren- appearance in Wisconsin was at the comologist fondled it. The dancing master mencement exercises of that year, when dandled it. It was their symbol of ma- he delivered the principal address, one of jesty and might-a writ on fame, a plea his most memorable addresses. for honor and authority.

Formal organization to carry the projOn such practitioners as barbers and ect into effect will be begun with the apchiropodists, specialists who treat pointment of a large executive committee "humped or dish nose" and other un- with branches in the most important pleasing features, the word is unwillingly cities of the state. This committee will and unromantically bestowed. But it is take charge of raising the fund of $50,all the penalty of democracy-and the 000 among the friends and admirers of pride.

the great German-American statesman

and scholar. It is expected that alumni MEMORIAL TO CARL SCHURZ.

and friends of the university will conA "Carl Schurz Memorial Professor- tribute toward the memorial. The plan ship" is to be established at the Univer- is reported to have the hearty approval sity of Wisconsin as a result of the move

of President Charles R. Van Hise and ment started in Milwaukee by a number

the university professors. of prominent German-Americans. The plan is to raise an endowment of $50,000, the income from which will be used for

A PROBLEM OF CO-EDUCATION. the establishment of an annual course of The University of Paris is confronted lectures at the university, to be given by by a problem that is bothering every prominent professors of German univer- large college that admits women students. sities.

It is the largest university in the world, This memorial professorship, to be having 15,000 students, but of recent held by German university men, will be years the proportion of women has inthe first of the kind in any American creased until it is now two-thirds of the state school. It is hoped that the new whole and the men are staying away. chair will lead to the exchange of profes- The same situation is observable in sors between the University of Wiscon

this country, in the large co-educational sin and German universities.

colleges, where a generation ago the The proposed endowment will make it number of girls was possibly a tenth of possible for the students to enjoy each the entire student body they now outvear the advantages of lectures and in- number the boys. That this is objectionstruction by the prominent German spe- able a large percentage of the graduates, cialists in history, literature, science, and at least those of the male persuasion, all other important fields of knowledge.

agree.

The tendency, as a whole, is rather to a business career; but within the wide make the girls masculine than the boys range of elective studies an appropriate “lady-like.” The general atmosphere of selection must be made. More specialized student life to a girl just freed from the training for a business career, as for any watchful and protecting care of the home other career, should come in the latter is not apt to foster innocence and nai- part of the student's college course. So vete, but rather cynicism and skepticism. far as there is expectation of engaging in

In the classroom the mixing of the a particular branch of industry, there may sexes is even more objectionable, ham- be choice of those parts of natural scipering a wholly desirable and in some in- ence that bear on the industry in view ; stances an almost indispensable freedom as, for example, of the advanced courses of expression and discussion. It means in physics, chemistry, geology, mineralan expurgating of texts, a cutting of ogy or economic botany. As a rule, howcourses and a social toning of what ever, it is not training for a special inshould be entirely an intellectual and stu- dustry that is desired by the student, but dent research relationship.

a general training for business. For What the ultimate result will be is this, the most important single subject mere surmise, but at present there is a is economics." growing inclination observable among The general list of courses suggested parents to send their children to schools includes Economics I, the elementary where the sexes are not co-educated.

course; and courses in public finance; advanced study of economic principles;

economics of transportation ; European TRAINING FOR BUSINESS.

industry and commerce in the Nineteenth For the last two or three years the de

century; economic and financial history partment of economics at Harvard has of the United States; money and curbeen at work with a view to gradually rency legislation; banking and foreign raising to a position of more importance exchange; problems of labor; economics that part of the economic instruction de- of corporations; modern economic hissigned to prepare for a business career. tory of Europe; commercial crises and This tendency is in line with recent de

cycles of trade; and economics of agrivelopments in college economic teaching

culture. generally, especially with the work of A course in the principles of accountPennsylvania in establishing the Whar- ing is designated primary for students ton School of Commerce and Finance. who expect to enter a business career, and of New York University in the and who wish to understand the processes School of Commerce, Accounts and Fi- by which the earnings and values of innance. It is not expected that any sepa- dustrial properties are computed. It is rate school will be established at Har- not intended primarily to afford practice vard, but the department has aimed to in bookkeeping, although this forms a strengthen the practical as distinguished part of the course, but to give students from theoretical instruction, this work a grasp of principles which may enable being especially noticeable in the exten- them to comprehend the significance of sion of the course in the principles of ac- accounts. This line of instruction incounting and the beginning of a new cludes analysis of receipts, disbursements, course in railroad practice. A further assets and liabilities, in various kinds of step in the same general direction has industry, and a consideration of cost of just been taken, in the publication of a manufacture, cost of service, depreciaseparate pamphlet, apart from the gen- tion and appreciation of stock and equiperal announcement of the department of ment, interest, sinking funds, terminable history and political science, on values, etc. Publisned accounts of cor"Courses Leading to a Business Career." porations are studit 1 and an opportunity

"A broad general education," students is given for practic ; in interpretation. are told, "gives the best preparation for An interesting new course is that to be

given in the second half-year by Dr. students to resume work, assuring them Stuart Daggett, or "Railroad Practice." that the revolution is now perfectly able The course is designed to supplement to take care of itself, as it has affected all and continue the general course in the sorts and conditions of men and assumed economics of transportation, and in prep- a character which renders passive resistaration for it the instructor, Dr. Daggett, ance ineffective. has spent some time in the offices of rail- Moreover, it is pointed out, the press road corporations studying their meth- is much less restricted, a douma has been ods of management at first hand. The created and "legal" constitutional agitaprincipal railroad systems will be de- tion is tolerated-after a fashion. The scribed, with an account of the organiza- students have done enough, and they can tion of railroad service, development of now take up their books again and turn permanent way, equipment methods of their attention to nonpolitical subjects. administration, origin and growth of It is announced that the students of St. classifications, freight and passenger Petersburg University have voted to retraffic associations, railway clearing- sume work; but their resolution is so house, and similar matters.

phrased that the government may withThere are also courses in insurance draw its permission.

The resolution considered as a business, given by Pro- speaks of "mobilizing the youth of the fessor Wambaugh, and in the principles land" and converting passive into active of law governing industrial relations, by warfare. This is not what the governAssistant Professor Bruce Wyman. ment is after, and it has reason for thinkREOPENING THE RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES. ing that the youth of the land has been

Two years ago the students of the sufficiently “mobile” anyway. If the unileading universities in Russia "struck" versities reopen this fall, it will be for against autocracy on the ground that it

"neutral” study, and not as temples of was utterly incompatible with education,

political liberty or centers of revolutionscience or any intellectual activity in Rus- ary agitation. sia. Last year the faculties of certain Premier Stolypin favors "free teachuniversities indorsed this remarkable ing," provided the universities mind their strike and joined it. What with these “proper business.” forms of "passive resistance to the gov- It is probably difficult for most Ameriernment and the closing of schools by

cans to understand the apparently reckofficial decree on account of student dem

less enthusiasm of the Russian student as onstrations and open fraternization with a class in the extreme declaration for revolutionary proletariat organizations, freedom of speech and press and for the the higher education has been completely true democracy. For explanation, it paralyzed.

must be understood that conditions in Much has happened in the past two Europe, under other monarchies as well years. The government has granted cer- as under the autocracy of Russia, are altain reforms to the universities and freed most the antithesis of conditions in them in a measure from bureaucratic America. It is within the last generation control. The faculties and students, on that Italy has become free and united, the other hand, have realized that the and that France transformed the moncause of progress is not benefited by the archy won by the coup d'etat of Naposuspension of the higher education, and leon III. into one of the most admirable that the autocracy has other and more republics of the world. Forty years ago powerful enemies to contend with than were as repressive as Russia in the matpassive resisters of the student class. ter of freedom of speech and the press. Accordingly, for some time there has From these partially obsolete condibeen a quiet agitation in favor of a re- tions sprang Socialism, the very extreme opening of the universities and higher of the principle of democracy. It had its technical and professional schools. The inception not with the proletariat, but advanced papers have mildly advised the among the students of economics. Its most eloquent advocates were professors educated class generally, with the excepin the colleges. William Liebknecht, tion of that element which makes more who, for a quarter of a century, until his profit from autocracy than it possibly death a few years ago, was the leader of could from democracy.

could from democracy. But in Russia the German Socialists in the Reichstag, the sentiment is heated to a white heat was bred for a chair in the University of by the rebellion of intellect against the Berlin. In France the Socialist leaders absolute domination of physical force were almost all men of the highest intel- employed to support class privilege. The lectual type. In England William Mor- Russian student has witnessed the overris, poet and artist, and millionaire man- throw of represssion in the neighboring ufacturer as well, and such others as Sir country of Germany, and a mighty Edward Burne-Jones, the pre-Raphael- growth of the democratic spirit, and an ite painter, were the chief inspiration of a almost similar growth in Austria-Hunmovement which came to pervade all the gary. The events of years in Russia great universities of the kingdom. So- have forced to the surface the fact that cialist organizations were formed within the advanced thought has permeated all the colleges, and the “professorial classes. The potency of human sentischool” almost came to be a distinct ele- ment has driven autocracy into a cul de ment apart from the general movement sac. Royalty and bureaucracy have their into which Morris plunged, and which backs to the wall and are making a last included all classes of the proletariat. stand to save what they can from the

To an extent this theorizing was the wreck. In these conditions the Russian oxygen of the college atmosphere. It mouth is opened as it never was before, swept over Russia and produced a host and students meet in the rooms of their of poets and novelists, the prophets of

universities and in the presence of spies the new regime. It penetrated even to and the police cry out for the destruc-, democratic America, and Professor Ely tion of the dynasty. was but one of many who preached at It is impossible not to assume that least a far broader democracy, if not the this spirit has permeated the circles of extreme doctrine of Socialism, based up- the military and the police as well as on the French motto “Chacun pour tout, among the various classes in civic life. tout pour chacun,” or each one for all, It cannot be doubted by any studious oband all for each one, and demanding server that the full scope of the Russian that all the means of production, com- sentiment for democracy is not yet fully munication and distribution shall be the estimated and crystallized, and that if property of all the people, and not the the crown would save a semblance of its monopoly of a few and the sport of com- glitter it must concede, and concede, and bined capital.

concede again. The divinity that doth This explains the economic religion of hedge about a king is being shifted the Russian student and of the Russian anew.

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