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that is to say, of hazard, for I hate all card which clouded, as has been shown, his boyish games, -even faro. When macco (or what thoughts, and, at the time of which I am ever they spell it) was introduced, I gave up speaking, gathered still more darkly over his the whole thing, for I loved and missed the mind. In general we find the young too rattle and dash of the box and dice, and the ardently occupied with the enjoyments which glorious uncertainty, not only of good luck this life gives or promises to afford either or bad luck, but of any luck at all, as one had leisure or inclination for much inquiry into sometimes to throw often to decide at all. I the mysteries of the next. But with him it have thrown as many as fourteen mains was unluckily otherwise ; and to have, at running, and carried off all the cash upon once, anticipated the worst experience both the table occasionally ; but I had no cool of the voluptuary and the reasoner, -- to have ness, or judgment, or calculation. It was reached, as he supposed, the boundary of the delight of the thing that pleased me. this world's pleasures, and see nothing but Upon the whole, I left off in time, without “ clouds and darkness” beyond, was the being much a winner or loser. Since one- doom, the anomalous doom, which a nature, and-twenty years of age I played but little, premature in all its passions and powers, inand then never above a hundred, or two, or Aicted on Lord Byron. three."

When Pope, at the age of five-and-twenty, To this, and other follies of the same complained of being weary of the world, he period, he alludes in the following note :- was told by Swift that he “had not yet acted

or suffered enough in the world to have TO MR. WILLIAM BANKES.

become weary of it.” 1 But far different

was the youth of Pope and of Byron ; "Twelve o'clock, Friday night. what the former but anticipated in thought, * My dear Bankes,

the latter had drunk deep of in reality; " I have just received your note ; believe at an age when the one was but looking me I regret most sincerely that I was not forth on the sea of life, the other had plunged fortunate enough to see it before, as I need in, and tried its depths. Swift himself, in not repeat to you that your conversation for whom early disappointments and wrongs had half an hour would have been much more opened a vein of bitterness that never again agreeable to me than gambling or drinking, closed, affords a far closer parallel to the fate or any other fashionable mode of passing an of our noble poet?, as well in the untimeevening abroad or at home.— I really am liness of the trials he had been doomed to very sorry that I went out previous to the encounter, as in the traces of their havoc arrival of your despatch : in future pray let which they left in his character. me hear from you before six, and whatever That the romantic fancy of youth, which my engagements may be, I will always post- courts melancholy as an indulgence, and pone them.- Believe


with that deference loves to assume a sadness, it has not had which I have always from my childhood paid time to earn, may have had some share in, to your talents, and with somewhat a better at least, fostering the gloom by which the opinion of your heart than I have hitherto mind of the young poet was overcast, I am entertained,

not disposed to deny. The circumstance, “ Yours ever,” &c. indeed, of his having, at this time, among the

ornaments of his study, a number of skulls Among the causes — if not rather among highly polished, and placed on light stands the results of that disposition to melan- round the room, would seem to indicate that choly, which, after all, perhaps, naturally he rather courted than shunned such gloomy belonged to his temperament, must not be associations. 3 Being a sort of boyish miforgotten those sceptical views of religion, mickry, too, of the use to which the poet

Scott has written —"A man must like money well, or son has thus attributed to Swift: “ The suspicions of play very deep, to admire gambling."]

Swift's irreligion," he says, " proceeded, in a great mea"I give the words as Johnson has reported them ;- sure, from his dread of hypocrisy ; instead of wishing to in Swift's own letter they are, if I recollect right, rather seem better, he delighted in seeming worse than he was." different. (" I have no very strong faith in your pre- 3 Another use to which he appropriated one of the tenders to retirement: you are not of an age for it, nor skulls found in digging at Newstead was the having it bare gone through either good or bad fortune enough to mounted in silver, and converted into a drinking-cup. go into a corner, and form conclusions de contemptu This whim has been commemorated in some well-known mundi at fuga sæculi, unless a poet grows weary of too

verses of his own ; and the cup itself, which, apart from much applause, as ministers do of too much weight of

any revolting ideas it may excite, forms by no means an business." - Swift to Pope, Sep. 20. 1723.]

inelegant object to the eye, is, with many other inte9 There is, at least, one striking point of similarity resting relics of Lord Byron, in the possession of the between their characters in the disposition which John- present proprietor of Newstead Abbey, Colonel Wildman. [When Young was writing one of his tragedies, Grafton, according to Spence, sent him a human skull, with a candle in it as a lamp ; and the poet is said to have used it. — Spence's Anecdotes.)







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Young is said to have applied a skull', such a display might well induce some suspicion

CHAPTER IX. of the sincerity of his gloom, did we not, through the whole course of his subsequent

1809-1810. life and writings, track visibly the deep vein of melancholy which nature had imbedded


MRS. BYRON, in his character.

HENRY DRURY, AND HODGSON. Such was the state of mind and heart, – as, from his own testimony and that of others,

LISBON. SEVILLE. CADIZ. - CINI have collected it, — in which Lord Byron now set out on his indefinite pilgrimage ;

TAR.-MALTA. —MRS, SPENCER SMITH. and never was there a change wrought in SWEET FLORENCE." disposition and character to which Shakspeare's fancy of “sweet bells jangled out of

CHA. -JANINA. -ZITZA.-ACARNANIA. — tune more truly applied. The unwillingness of Lord Carlisle to countenance him, and his humiliating position in consequence, completed the full measure of that mortification towards which so many other causes had concurred. Baffled, as he had been, in his own ardent pursuit of affection and The following letter to his mother, written friendship, his sole revenge and consolation a few days before he sailed, gives some parlay in doubting that any such feelings really ticulars respecting the persons who comexisted. The various crosses he had met posed his suite. Robert Rushton, whom he with, in themselves sufficiently irritating and mentions so feelingly in the postscript, was wounding, were rendered still more so by the the boy introduced, as his page, in the first high, impatient temper with which he en- canto of Childe Harold. countered them. What others would have bowed to, as misfortunes, his proud spirit

TO MRS. BYRON. rose against, as wrongs ; and the vehemence

Falmouth, June 22. 1809. of this re-action produced, at once, a revo- Dear Mother, lution throughout his whole character ?, in

“ I am about to sail in a few days ; prowhich, as in revolutions of the political bably before this reaches you.

Fletcher world, all that was bad and irregular in his begged so hard, that I have continued him nature burst forth with all that was most in my service. If he does not behave well energetic and grand. The very virtues and abroad, I will send him back in a transport. excellences of his disposition ministered to I have a German servant, (who has been the violence of this change. The same ardour with Mr. Wilbraham in Persia before, and that had burned through his friendships and was strongly recommended to me by Dr. loves now fed the fierce explosions of his indig: Butler, of Harrow,) Robert and William ; nation and scorn. His natural vivacity and they constitute my whole suite. I have humour but lent a fresher flow to his bitter- letters in plenty : — you shall hear from me ness', till he at last revelled in it as an indul

at the different ports I touch upon ; but gence ; and that hatred of hypocrisy, which you must not be alarmed if my letters mishad hitherto only shown itselfina too shadowy carry. The Continent is in a fine state colouring of his own youthful frailties, now an insurrection has broken out at Paris, and hurried him, from his horror of all false pre- the Austrians are beating Buonaparte — the tensions to virtue, into the still more dan- Tyrolese have risen. gerous boast and ostentation of vice.

" There is a picture of me in oil, to be sent down to Newstead soon. — I wish the


2 Rousseau appears to have been conscious of a similar sort of change in his own nature :-" They have laboured without intermission," he says, in a letter to Madame de Boufflers, " to give to my heart, and, perhaps, at the same time to my genius, a spring and stimulus of action, which they have not inherited from nature. I was born

weak, -- ill treatment has made me strong." - HOME'S Private Correspondence.

3 [" Dr. Adams told me that Johnson, while he was at Pembroke College,' was a gay and frolicsome fellow;' but this is a striking proof of the fallacy of appearances, and how little any of us know of the real internal state even of those whom we see most frequently. When I mentioned to him this account, he said, " Ah, sir, I was mad and violent: it was bitterness which they mistook for frolic.'”_ Boswell, vol. i. p. 74.]

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Miss Pigots had something better to do than being at last procured, by this time tocarry my miniatures to Nottingham to copy. morrow evening we shall be embarked on the Now they have done it, you may ask them vide vorld of vaters, vor all the vorld like to copy the others, which are greater fa- Robinson Crusoe. The Malta vessel not vourites than my own. As to money mat- sailing for some weeks, we have determined ters, I am ruined - - at least till Rochdale is to go by way of Lisbon, and, as my servants sold; and if that does not turn out well, 1 term it, to see that there Portingale'shall enter into the Austrian or Russian thence to Cadiz and Gibraltar, and so on service - perhaps the Turkish, if I like their our old route to Malta and Constantinople, manners. The world is all before me, and I if so be that Captain Kidd, our gallant comleave England without regret, and without mander, understands plain sailing and Mera wish to revisit any thing it contains, except cator, and takes us on our voyage all acyourself, and your present residence. cording to the chart. “ Believe me, yours ever sincerely. Will you tell Dr. Butler 2 that I have

taken the treasure of a servant, Friese, the “P. S. — Pray tell Mr. Rushton his son native of Prussia Proper, into my service is well, and doing well; so is Murray, indeed from his recommendation. He has been all better than I ever saw him ; he will be back in about a month. I ought to add the leaving and has seen Persepolis and all that.

among the Worshippers of Fire in Persia, Murray to my few regrets, as his age perhaps will prevent my seeing him again. Robert for a book on his return ; 100 pens, two

“Hobhouse has made woundy preparations I take with me; I like him, because, like gallons of japan ink, and several volumes of myself, he seems a friendless animal.”

best blank, is no bad provision for a discernTo those who have in their remembrance have promised to contribute a chapter on

ing public. I have laid down my pen, but his poetical description of the state of mind the state of morals, &c. &c. in which he now took leave of England, the

« • The cock is crowing, gaiety and levity of the letters I am about

I must be going, to give will appear, it is not improbable, strange and startling. But in a temperament

Ghost of Gaffer Thumb. like that of Lord Byron, such bursts of vivacity

“ Adieu. — Believe me," &c. &c. on the surface are by no means incompatible with a wounded spirit underneath '; and the light, laughing tone that pervades these letters, but makes the feeling of solitariness

“ Falmouth, June 25. 1809. that breaks out in them the more striking “My dear Hodgson, and affecting

“Before this reaches you, Hobhouse,

two officers' wives, three children, two LETTER 35. TO MR. HENRY DRURY.

waiting-maids, ditto subalterns for the troops, * Falm

three Portuguese esquires and domestics, in “My dear Drury,

all nineteen souls, will have sailed in the “We sail to-morrow in the Lisbon Lisbon packet, with the noble Captain Kidd, packet, having been detained till now by the a gallant commander as ever smuggled an lack of wind, and other necessaries. These anker of right Nantz.

And can no more.'



June 25. 1809.

1 The poet Cowper, it is well known, produced that verses against that gentleman a frank avowal of the masterpiece of humour, John Gilpin, during one of his wrong he had been guilty of in giving vent to them. fits of morbid dejection ; and he himself says, “ Strange This fact, so creditable to the candour of his nature, I as it may seem, the most ludicrous lines I ever wrote learn from a loose sheet in his hand-writing, containing have been written in the saddest mood, and but for that the following corrections. In place of the passage besaddest mood, perhaps, had never been written at all." ginning " Or if my Muse a pedant's portrait drew," he (See Southey's Life of Cowper, vol. ii. p. 38.]

meant to insert - The reconciliation which took place between him “ If once my Muse a harsher portrait drew, and Dr. Butler, before his departure, is one of those Warm with her wrongs, and deem'd the likeness true, Instances of placability and pliableness with which his By cooler judgment taught, her fault she owns, life abounded. We have seen, too, from the manner in With noble minds a fault, confessed, atones." which he mentions the circumstance in one of his notebooks, that the reconcilement was of that generously praise of Dr. Drury –“ Pomposus fills his magisterial

And to the passage immediately succeeding his warm retrospective kind, in which not only the feeling of hostility is renounced in future, but a strong regret ex

chair," it was his intention to give the following turn:pressed that it had been ever entertained.

" Another fills his magisterial chair ; Not content with this private ator.ement to Dr. Butler, Reluctant Ida owns a stranger's care ; it was his intention, had he published another edition of Oh may like honours crown his future name, the Hours of Idleness, to substitute for the offensive If such his virtues, such shall be his fame."


“We are going to Lisbon first, because the Malta packet has sailed, d'ye see? from Lisbon to Gibraltar, Malta, Constanti. nople, and all that,' as Orator Henley said, when he put the Church, and all that,' in danger.

" This town of Falmouth, as you will partly conjecture, is no great ways from the

It is defended on the sea-side by tway castles, St. Maws and Pendennis, extremely well calculated for annoying every body except an enemy. St. Maws is garrisoned by an able-bodied person of fourscore, a widower. He has the whole command and sole management of six most unmanageable pieces of ordnance, admirably adapted for the destruction of Pendennis, a like tower of strength on the opposite side of the Channel. We have seen St. Maws, but Pendennis they will not let us behold, save at a distance, because Hobhouse and I are suspected of having already taken St. Maws by a coup de main.

“The town contains many Quakers and salt fish — the oysters have a taste of copper, owing to the soil of a mining country — the women (blessed be the Corporation therefor!) are flogged at the cart's tail when they pick and steal, as happened to one of the fair sex yesterday noon. She was pertinacious in her behaviour, and damned the mayor.

I don't know when I can write again, because it depends on that experienced navigator, Captain Kidd, and the 'stormy winds that (don't) blow' at this season. I leave England without regret - I shall return to it without pleasure. I am like Adam, the first convict sentenced to transportation, but I have no Eve, and have eaten no apple but what was sour as a crab ; and thus ends my first chapter. Adieu.

“ Yours," &c.

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In this letter the following lively verses were enclosed :

“ Falmouth Roads, June 30. 1809. " Huzza ! Hodgson, we are going,

Our embargo's off at last ; Favourable breezes blowing

Bend the canvass o'er the mast. From aloft the signal's streaming,

Hark! the farewell gun is fired, Women screeching, tars blaspheming,

Tell us that our time's expired.

" (Henley, in one of his publications entitled “ Oratory Transactions," engaged “to execute singly what would sprain a dozen of modern doctors of the tribe of Issachar - to write, read, and study twelve hours a day, and yet appear as untouched by the yoke as if he never wore it

Here's a rascal

Come to task all,
Prying from the Custom-house ;

Trunks unpacking,

Cases cracking,
Not a corner for a mouse
'Scapes unsearch'd amid the racket,

Ere we sail on board the Packet.
"Now our boatmen quit their mooring,

And all hands must ply the oar ;
Baggage from the quay is lowering,

We're impatient – push from shore.
• Have a care I that case holds liquor -

Stop the boat — I'm sick - oh Lord !'
* Sick, ma'am, damme, you'll be sicker
Ere you've been an hour on board.'

Thus are screaming

Men and women,
Gemmen, ladies, servants, Jacks ;

Here entangling,

All are wrangling,
Stuck together close as wax.-
Such the general noise and racket,

Ere we reach the Lisbon Packet.
“Now we've reach'd her, lo ! the captain,

Gallant Kidd, commands the crew;
Passengers their berths are clapt in,

Some to grumble, some to spew.
Hey day! call you that a cabin ?

Why 'tis hardly three feet square ;
Not enough to stow Queen Mab in
Who the deuce can harbour there ?'

• Who, sir ? plenty –

Nobles twenty
Did at once my vessel ill'-

• Did they? Jesus,

How you squeeze us !
Would to God they did so still :
Then I'd scape the heat and racket,

of the good ship, Lisbon Packet.'
“ Fletcher ! Murray! Bob ! where are you?

Stretch'd along the deck like logs —
Bear a hand, you jolly tar you !

Here's a rope's end for the dogs.
Hobhouse muttering fearful curses,

As the hatchway down he rolls;
Now his breakfast, now his verses,
Vomits forth — and damns our souls.

• Here's a stanza

On Braganza -
Help!'-'A couplet ?' -'No, a cup

Of warm water.'

• What's the matter?'
• Zounds ! my liver's coming up ;
I shall not survive the racket
of this brutal Lisbon Packet.'
Now at length we're off for Turkey,

Lord knows when we shall come back !
Breezes foul and tempests murky

May unship us in a crack.
But, since life at most a jest is,

As philosophers allow,
Still to laugh by far the best is,

Then laugh on- as I do now,

– to teach in one year what schools or universities teach in five;" and he furthermore pledged himself to persevere in his bold scheme, until he had "put the Church, and all that, in danger."]

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upon him.

Laugh at all things,

of 'Damme,' — and, when dissatisfied with Great and small things, Sick or well, at sea or shore ;

my neighbour, I pronounce him · Ambra di While we're quaffing,

merdo.' With these two phrases, and a Let's have laughing

third, 'Avra bouro,' which signifieth ‘Get Who the devil cares for more ?

an ass,' I am universally understood to be a Some good wine ! and who would lack it, person of degree and a master of languages. Ev'n on board the Lisbon Packet?

How merrily we lives that travellers be! “ BYRON."

if we had food and raiment. But, in sober On the 2d of July the packet sailed sadness, any thing is better than England, from Falmouth, and, after a favourable pas- and I am infinitely amused with my pilgrimsage of four days and a half, the voyagers age as far as it has gone. reached Lisbon, and took up their abode in “ To-morrow we start to ride post near that city.'

400 miles as far as Gibraltar, where we emThe following letters, from Lord Byron bark for Melita and Byzantium. A letter to his friend Mr. Hodgson, though written to Malta will find me, or to be forwarded, if in his most light and schoolboy

I am absent. Pray embrace the Drury and will give some idea of the first impres- Dwyer, and all the Ephesians you encounter. sions that his residence in Lisbon made I am writing with Butler's donative pencil,

Such letters, too, contrasted which makes my bad hand worse. Excuse with the noble stanzas on Portugal in illegibility. “ Childe Harold,” will show how various Hodgson! send me the news, and the were the moods of his versatile mind, and deaths and defeats and capital crimes and what different aspects it could take when in the misfortunes of one's friends; and let us repose or on the wing.

hear of literary matters, and the contro

versies and the criticisms. All this will be LETTER 37. TO MR. HODGSON.

pleasant-Suave mari magno,'&c. Talking

“ Lisbon, July 16. 1809. of that, I have been sea-sick, and sick of the * Thus far have we pursued our route, and seen all sorts of marvellous sights, pa

“Adieu. Yours faithfully,” &c. laces, convents, &c. ;; which, being to be heard in my friend Hobhouse's forthcoming LETTER 38. Book of Travels, I shall not anticipate by

* Gibraltar, August 6. 1809. smuggling any account whatsoever to you in “ I have just arrived at this place after a a private and clandestine manner. I must journey through Portugal, and a part of just observe, that the village of Cintra in Spain, of nearly 500 miles. We left Lisbon Estremadura is the most beautiful, perhaps, and travelled on horseback 2 to Seville and in the world.

Cadiz, and thence in the Hyperion frigate “ I am very happy here, because I loves to Gibraltar. The horses are excellent oranges, and talk bad Latin to the monks, we rode seventy miles a day. Eggs and who understand it, as it is like their own,- wine, and hard beds, are all the accommodation and I goes into society (with my pocket- we found, and, in such torrid weather, quite pistols), and I swims in the Tagus all across enough. My health is better than in England. at once, and I rides on an ass or a mule, “ Seville is a fine town, and the Sierra and swears Portuguese, and have got a Morena, part of which we crossed, a very diarrhea and bites from the musquitoes. sufficient mountain ; but damn description, But what of that? Comfort must not be it is always disgusting.. Cadiz, sweet Cadiz! expected by folks that go a pleasuring. it is the first spot in the creation. The

“ When the Portuguese are pertinacious, beauty of its streets and mansions is only I say, 'Carracho!' -the great oath of the excelled by the loveliness of its inhabitants. grandees, that very well supplies the place For, with all national prejudice, I must con



Lord Byron used sometimes to mention a strange he saw the figure lying across him in the saine position. story, which the commander of the packet, Captain Kidd, To add to the wonder, on putting his hand forth to touch related to him on the passage. This officer stated that, this form, he found the uniform, in which it appeared to being asleep one night in his berth, he was awakened by be dressed, dripping wet. On the entrance of one of the pressure of something heavy on his limbs, and, there his brother officers, to whom he called out in alarm, the being a faint light in the room, could see, as he thought, apparition vanished; but in a few months after he redistinctly, the figure of his brother, who was at that time ceived the startling intelligence that on that pight his in the naval service in the East Indies, dressed in his brother had been drowned in the Indian seas. Of the uniform, and stretched across the bed. Concluding it to supernatural character of this appearance, Captain Kidd be an illusion of the senses, he shut his eyes and made himself did not appear to have the slightest doubt. an effort to sleep. But still the same pressure continued, 2 The baggage and part of the servants were sent by and still, as often as he ventured to take another look, sea to Gibraltar,

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