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fess the women of Cadiz are as far superior scription, natural and artificial. Palaces and to the English women in beauty as the gardens rising in the midst of rocks, cataracts, Spaniards are inferior to the English in and precipices ; convents on stupendous every quality that dignifies the name of man. heights—a distant view of the sea and the Just as I began to know the principal persons Tagus; and, besides (though that is a of the city, I was obliged to sail.

secondary consideration), is remarkable as * You will not expect a long letter after the scene of Sir Hew Dalrymple's Conmy riding so far ‘on hollow pampered jades vention. It unites in itself all the wildof Asia. Talking of Asia puts me in mind ness of the western highlands, with the of Africa, which is within five miles of my verdure of the south of France. Near this present residence. I am going over before I place, about ten miles to the right, is the go on to Constantinople.

palace of Mafra, the boast of Portugal, as it “ Cadiz is a complete Cythera. Many of might be of any other country, in point of the grandees who have left Madrid during magnificence without elegance. There is a the troubles reside there, and I do believe it convent annexed; the monks, who possess is the prettiest and cleanest town in Europe. large revenues, are courteous enough, and London is filthy in the comparison. The Spa- understand Latin, so that we had a long nish women are all alike, their education the conversation : they have a large library, and

The wife of a duke is, in information, asked me if the English had any books in as the wife of a peasant, — the wife of pea- their country?” sant, in manner, equal to a duchess. Cer- An adventure which he met with at tainly they are fascinating ; but their minds Seville, characteristic both of the country have only one idea, and the business of their and of himself, is thus described in the same lives is intrigue.

letter to Mrs. Byron :“ I have seen Sir John Carr at Seville and We lodged in the house of two Spanish Cadiz, and, like Swift's barber, have been unmarried ladies, who possess six houses in down on my knees to beg he would not put Seville, and gave me a curious specimen of me into black and white. Pray remember Spanish manners. They are women of chame to the Drurys and the Davies, and all of racter, and the eldest a fine woman, the that stamp who are yet extant. 2

youngest pretty, but not so good a figure as a letter and news to Malta. My next epistle Donna Josepha. The freedom of manner, shall be from Mount Caucasus or Mount which is general here, astonished me not a Sion. I shall return to Spain before I see little ; and in the course of further observ. England, for I am enamoured of the country. ation, I find that reserve is not the characAdieu, and believe me," &c. teristic of the Spanish belles, who are, in

general, very handsome, with large black In a letter to Mrs. Byron, dated a few eyes, and very fine forms. The eldest days later, from Gibraltar, he recapitulates honoured your unworthy son with very parthe same account of his progress, only ticular attention, embracing him with great dwelling rather more diffusely on some of the tenderness at parting (I was there but three details. Thus, of Cintra and Mafra :-“ To days), after cutting off a lock of his hair, and make amends for this 3, the village of Cintra, presenting him with one of her own, about about fifteen miles from the capital, is, per- three feet in length, which I send, and beg haps in every respect, the most delightful in you will retain till my return. Her last Europe ; it contains beauties of every de- words were, ' Adios, tu hermoso! me gusto

Send me


" ("Once stopping at an inn at Dundalk, the Dean was so much amused with a prating barber, that rather than be alone he invited him to dinner. The fellow was rejoiced at this unexpected honour, and being dressed out in his best apparel came to the inn, first inquiring of the groom what the clergyman's name was who had so kindly invited him. • What the vengeance,' said the servant, 'don't you know Dean Swift ?' At which the barber turned pale, and running into the house fell upon his knees and intreated the Dean not to put him into print ; for that he was a poor barber, had a large family to maintain, and if his reverence put him into black and white he should lose all his customers.' Swift laughed heartily at the poor fellow's simplicity, bade him sit down and eat his dinner in peace, for he assured him he would neither put him nor his wife in print." - Sheridan's Life of Swift.]

2 “ This sort of passage,” says Mr. Hodgson, in a note

on his copy of this letter, constantly occurs in his correspondence. Nor was his interest confined to mere remembrances and inquiries after health. Were it possible to state all he has done for numerous friends, he would appear amiable indeed. For myself, I am bound to acknowledge, in the fullest and warmest manner, his most generous and well-timed aid ; and, were my poor friend Bland alive, he would as gladly bear the like testimony ;-though I have most reason, of all men, to do so."

3 The filthiness of Lisbon and its inhabitants.

4 Colonel Napier, in a note in his able History of the Peninsular War, notices the mistake into which Lord Byron and others were led on this subject ;- the sig. nature of the Convention, as well as all the other proceedings connected with it, having taken place at a distance of thirty miles from Cintra. (See Works, p. 67.)

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mucho.'-'Adieu, you pretty fellow! you possessed an old woman (an aunt or a please me much. She offered me a share of duenna) of her chair, and commanded me to her apartment, which my virtue induced me be seated next herself, at a tolerable distance to decline : she laughed, and said I had from her mamma. At the close of the persome English • amante' (lover), and added formance I withdrew, and was lounging with that she was going to be married to an officer a party of men in the passage, when, en in the Spanish army."

passant, the lady turned round and called Among the beauties of Cadiz, his imagin- | me, and I had the honour of attending her ation, dazzled by the attractions of the many, to the admiral's mansion. I have an inwas on the point, it would appear from the vitation on my return to Cadiz, which I shall following, of being fixed by one :

accept if I repass through the country on my

return from Asia.” 1 Cadiz, sweet Cadiz, is the most delightful town I ever beheld, very different from our To these adventures, or rather glimpses of English cities in every respect except cleanli- adventures, which he met with in his hasty ness (and it is as clean as London), but still passage through Spain, he adverted, I recolbeautiful, and full of the finest women in lect, briefly, in the early part of his “ MemoSpain, the Cadiz belles being the Lancashire randa ;” and it was the younger, I think, of witches of their land. Just as I was intro- | his fair hostesses at Seville, whom he there duced and began to like the grandees, I was described himself as making earnest love to, forced to leave it for this cursed place ; but with the help of a dictionary. “ For some before I return to England I will visit it time,” he said, “ I went on prosperously both again.

as a linguist and a lover 2, till at length, the The night before I left it, I sat in the lady took a fancy to a ring which I wore, box at the opera with admiral Cordova's and set her heart on my giving it to her, as family; he is the commander whom Lord a pledge of my sincerity. This, however, St. Vincent defeated in 1797, and has an could not be :- any thing but the ring, I aged wife and a fine daughter, Sennorita declared, was at her service, and much more Cordova. The girl is very pretty, in the than its value, - but the ring itself I had Spanish style ; in my opinion, by no means made a vow never to give away.” The inferior to the English in charms, and cer- young Spaniard grew angry as the contention tainly superior in fascination. Long black went on, and it was not long before the lover hair, dark languishing eyes, clear olive com- became angry also ; till, at length, the attair plexions, and forms more graceful in motion ended by their separating unsuccessful on than can be conceived by an Englishman both sides. “ Soon after this," said he, “I used to the drowsy, listless air of his coun- sailed for Malta, and there parted with both trywomen, added to the most becoming dress, my heart and ring." and, at the same time, the most decent in the In the letter from Gibraltar, just cited, he world, render a Spanish beauty irresistible. adds —“I am going over to Africa to

“ Miss Cordova and her little brother morrow; it is only six miles from this understood a little French, and, after regret- fortress. My next stage is Cagliari in Sarting my ignorance of the Spanish, she pro- dinia, where I shall be presented to his posed to become my preceptress in that majesty. I have a most superb uniform as language. I could only reply by a low bow, a court-dress, indispensable in travelling." and express my regret that I quitted Cadiz His plan of visiting Africa was, however, retoo soon to permit me to make the progress linquished. After a short stay at Gibraltar, which would doubtless attend my studies during which he dined one day with Lady under so charming a directress. I was Westmoreland, and another with General standing at the back of the box, which re- Castanos, he, on the 19th of August, took sembles our Opera boxes, (the theatre is his departure for Malta, in the packet, having large and finely decorated, the music ad- first sent Joe Murray and young Rushton mirable,) in the manner which Englishmen back to England, — the latter being unable, generally adopt, for fear of incommoding the from ill health, to accompany him

any further. ladies in front, when this fair Spaniard dis- Pray,” he says to his mother, “show the

(In a letter of the same date Lord Byron says: beg leave to observe, that intrigue here is the business of life ; when a woman marries she throws off all restraint, but I believe their conduct is chaste enough before. If you make a proposal, which in England would bring a box on the ear from the meekest of virgins, to a Spanish girl, she thanks you for the honour you intend her, and

replies, 'Wait till I am married, and I shall be too happy.' This is literally and strictly true.'']

We find an allusion to this incident in Don Juan :“ 'Tis pleasing to be school'd in a strange tongue

By female lips and eyes -- that is, I mean,
When both the teacher and the taught are young,

As was the case, at least, where I have been," &c.


lad every kindness, as he is my great fa- and her life has been from its commencevourite."

meni so fertile in remarkable incidents, that He also wrote a letter to the father of the in a romance they would appear improbable. boy, which gives so favourable an impression She was born at Constantinople, where her of his thoughtfulness and kindliness, that I father, Baron H* (Herbert] was Austrian have much pleasure in being enabled to in- ambassador ; married unhappily, yet has troduce it here.

never been impeached in point of character ;

excited the vengeance of Buonaparte by a LETTER 39. TO MR. RUSHTON,

part in some conspiracy; several times risked “ Gibraltar, August 15. 1809.

her life ; and is not yet twenty-five. She is · Mr. Rushton,

here on her way to England, to join her “ I have sent Robert home with Mr. husband, being obliged to leave Trieste, Murray, because the country which I am where she was paying a visit to her mother, about to travel through is in a state which by the approach of the French, and embarks renders it unsafe, particularly for one

soon in a ship of war. Since my arrival young. I allow you deduct five-and

here, I have had scarcely any other comtwenty pounds a year for his education for panion. I have found her very pretty, three years, provided I do not return before very accomplished, and extremely eccentric. that time, and I desire he may be considered Buonaparte is even now so incensed against as in my service. Let every care be taken

her, that her life would be in some danger if of him, and let him be sent to school. In she were taken prisoner a second time.” case of my death I have provided enough in

The tone in which he addresses this fair my will to render him independent. He has

heroine in Childe Harold is (consistently behaved extremely well, and has travelled a with the above dispassionate account of her) great deal for the time of his absence. De- that of the purest admiration and interest, duct the expense of his education from your unwarmed by any more ardent sentiment : rent.


This wayward, loveless heart, it would be thine: It was the fate of Lord Byron, throughout But, check'd by every tie, I may not dare life, to meet, wherever he went, with per

To cast a worthless offering at thy shrine, sons who, by some tinge of the extraordinary

Nor ask so dear a breast to feel one pang for mine. in their own fates or characters, were pre

Thus Harold deem'd as on that lady's eye pared to enter, at once, into full sympathy

He look'd, and met its beam without a thought, with his ; and to this attraction, by which

Save admiration, glancing harmless by," &c. &c. he drew towards him all strange and eccen- In one so imaginative as Lord Byron, tric spirits, he owed some of the most agree- who, while he infused so much of his life able connections of his life, as well as some into his poetry, mingled also not a little of the most troublesome. Of the former of poetry with his life, it is difficult, in undescription was an intimacy which he now ravelling the texture of his feelings, to cultivated during his short sojourn at Malta. distinguish at all times between the fanciful The lady with whom he formed this ac- and the real. His description here, for quaintance was the same addressed by him instance, of the unmoved and “loveless under the name of “ Florence” in Childe heart," with which he contemplated even Harold ; and in a letter to his mother from the charms of this attractive person, is Malta, he thus describes her in prose : wholly at variance, not only with the anecThis letter is committed to the charge of dote from his “ Memorandă” which I have a very extraordinary woman, whom you recalled, but with the statements in many of have doubtless heard of, Mrs. S * S * his subsequent letters, and, above all, with [Spencer Smith), of whose escape the Mar- one of the most graceful of his lesser poems, quis de Salvo published a narrative a few purporting to be addressed to this same lady years ago.2 She has since been shipwrecked, during a thunder-storm, on his road to Zitza.

“ Sweet Florence ! could another ever share

1 The postscript to this letter is as follows : -" P.S. So Lord G. is married to a rustic! Well done! If I wed, I will bring you home a sultana, with half a dozen cities for a dowry, and reconcile you to an Ottoman daughter. in-law with a bushel of pearls, not larger than ostrich eggs, or smaller than walnuts.” (Henry-Edward, nineteenth Baron Grey de Ruthyn, married, 21 June, 1809, Anna-Maria, daughter of Mr. William Kellam, of Rytonupon-Dunsmore, Warwick. His lordship died in Oct. 1810.)

? (Entitled “ Travels, in the year 1806, from Italy to

England, through the Tyrol, &c.; containing an account of the liberation of Mrs. Spencer Smith from the French Police." 12mo. 1807.)

3 The following stanzas from this little poem have a music in them, which, independently of all meaning, is enchanting :

“ And since I now remember thee

In darkness and in dread,
As in those hours of revelry,

Which mirth and music sped ;

Ær. 21.





Notwithstanding, however, these counter abled, however, by the letters of the noble evidences, I am much disposed to believe poet to his mother, as well as by other, still that the representation of the state of heart more curious, which are now, for the first time in the foregoing extract from Childe Harold published, to give his own rapid and lively may be regarded as the true one ; and that sketches of his wanderings, I shall content the notion of his being in love was but a myself, after this general reference to the dream that sprung up afterwards, when the volume of Mr. Hobhouse, with such occaimage of the fair Florence had become ideal- sional extracts from its pages as may throw ised in his fancy, and every remembrance of light upon the letters of his friend. their pleasant hours among“Calypso's isles” came invested by his imagination with the

LETTER 40. warm aspect of love. It will be recollected that to the chilled and sated feelings which

“ Prevesa, November 12. 1809. early indulgence, and almost as early disen- • My dear Mother, chantment, had left behind, he attributes in “ I have now been some time in Turkey: these verses the calm and passionless regard this place is on the coast, but I have trawith which even attractions like those of versed the interior of the province of Albania Florence were viewed by him. That such on a visit to the Pacha. "I left Malta in the was actually his distaste, at this period, to Spider, a brig of war, on the 21st of Sepall real objects of love or passion (however tember, and arrived in eight days at Prevesa. his fancy could call up creatures of its own I thence have been about 150 miles, as far to worship) there is every reason to believe; as Tepaleen, his Highness's country palace, and the same morbid indifference to those where I stayed three days. The name of pleasures he had once so ardently pursued the Pacha is Ali, and he is considered a man still continued to be professed by him on his of the first abilities : he governs the whole return to England. No anchoret, indeed, of Albania (the ancient Illyricum), Epirus, could claim for himself much more apathy and part of Macedonia. His son, Vely towards all such allurements than he did at Pacha, to whom he has given me letters, that period. But to be thus saved from governs the Morea, and has great influence in temptation was a dear-bought safety, and, at Egypt ; in short, he is one of the most powerthe age of three-and-twenty, satiety and dis- ful men in the Ottoman empire. When I gustare but melancholy substitutes for reached Yanina, the capital, after a journey of virtue.

three days over the mountains, through a The brig of war, in which they sailed, country of the most picturesque beauty, I having been ordered to convoy a feet of found that Ali Pacha was with his army in Ilsmall merchant-men to Patras and Prevesa, lyricum, besieging Ibrahim Pacha in the castle they remained, for two or three days, at of Berat. He had heard that an Englishman anchor off the former place. From thence, of rank was in his dominions, and had left proceeding to their ultimate destination, and orders in Yanina with the commandant to catching a sunset view of Missolonghi in provide a house, and supply me with every their way, they landed, on the 29th of Sep- kind of necessary gratis ; and, though I tember, at Prevesa,

have been allowed to make presents to the The route which Lord Byron now took slaves, &c., I have not been permitted to through Albania, as well as those subsequent pay for a single article of household conjourneys through other parts of Turkey, sumption. which he performed in company with his friend “I rode out on the vizier's horses, and Mr. Hobhouse, may be traced, by such as saw the palaces of himself and grandsons : are desirous of details on the subject, in the they are splendid, but too much ornamented account which the latter gentleman has given with silk and gold. I then went over the of his travels ; an account which, interesting mountains through Zitza, a village with a from its own excellence in every merit that Greek monastery (where I slept on my should adorn such a work, becomes still return), in the most beautiful situation more so from the feeling that Lord Byron (always excepting Cintra, in Portugal) I is, as it were, present through its


and ever beheld. In nine days I reached Tethat we there follow his first youthful foot- paleen. Our journey was much prolonged steps into the land with whose name he has by the torrents that had fallen from the intertwined his own for ever. As I am en

mountains, and intersected the roads. I shall

* Do thou, amidst the fair white walls,

If Cadiz yet be free,
At times, from out her latticed halls,

Look o'er the dark blue sea ;

“ Then think upon Calypso's isles,

Endear'd by days gone by ;
To others give a thousand smiles,

To me a single sigh," &c. &c.

never forget the singular scene' on entering altogether, with the singular appearance of Tepaleen at five in the afternoon, as the sun the building itself, formed a new and dewas going down. It brought to my mind lightful spectacle to a stranger.3 I was (with some change of dress, however) Scott's conducted to a very handsome apartment, description of Branksome Castle in his Lay, and my health inquired after by the vizir's and the feudal system. The Albanians, in secretary, ‘à-la-mode Turque!' their dresses, (the most magnificent in the “ The next day I was introduced to Ali world, consisting of a long white kilt, gold Pacha. I was dressed in a full suit of staff worked cloak, crimson velvet gold-laced uniform, with a very magnificent sabre, &c. jacket and waistcoat, silver-mounted pistols The vizier received me in a large room paved and daggers,) the Tartars with their high with marble ; a fountain was playing in the caps, the Turks in their vast pelisses and centre ; the apartment was surrounded by turbans, the soldiers and black slaves with scarlet ottomans. He received me standing, the horses, the former in groups in an im- a wonderful compliment from a Mussulman, mense large open gallery in front of the and made me sit down on his right hand. I palace, the latter placed in a kind of cloister have a Greek interpreter for general use, below it, two hundred steeds ready capa- but a physician of Ali's named Femlario, who risoned to move in a moment, couriers en- understands Latin, acted for me on this octering or passing out with the despatches, casion. His first question was, why, at so the kettle-drums beating, boys calling the early an age, I left my country? ; - (the hour from the minaret of the mosque, Turks have no idea of travelling for amuse

I The following is Mr. Hobhouse's less embellished description of this scene : -" The court at Tepellene, which was enclosed on two sides by the palace, and on the other two sides by a high wall, presented us, at our first entrance, with a sight something like what we might have, perhaps, beheld some hundred years ago in the castle-yard of a great feudal lord. Soldiers, with their arms piled against the wall near them, were assembled in different parts of the square ; some of them pacing slowly backwards and forwards, and others sitting on the ground in groups. Several horses, completely caparisoned, were leading about, whilst others were neighing under the hands of the grooms. In the part farthest from the dwelling, preparations were making for the feast of the night; and several kids and sheep were being dressed by cooks who were themselves half armed. Every thing wore a most martial look, though not exactly in the style of the head-quarters of a Christian general ; for many of the soldiers were in the most common dress, without shoes, and having more wildness in their air and manner than the Albanians we had before seen."

On comparing this description, which is itself suffi-
ciently striking, with those which Lord Byron has given
of the same scene, both in the letter to his mother, and
in the second canto of Childe Harold, we gain some
insight into the process by which imagination elevates,
without falsifying, reality, and facts become brightened
and refined into poetry. Ascending from the repre-
sentation drawn faithfully on the spot by the traveller,
to the more fanciful arrangement of the same materials
in the letter of the poet, we at length, by one step more,
arrive at that consummate, idealised picture, the result
of both memory and invention combined, which in the
following splendid stanzas is presented to us :-
“ Amidst no common pomp the despot sate,

While busy preparations shook the court,
Slaves, eunuchs, soldiers, guests, and santons wait ;

Within a palace, and without a fort :
Here men of every clime appear to make resort.

And oft-times through the area's echoing door
Some high-capp'd Tartar spurr'd his steed away
The Turk, the Greek, the Albanian, and the Moor,

Here mingled in their many-hued array, (of day. While the deep war-drum's sound announced the close “ The wild Albanian, kirtled to his knee,

With shawl.girt head and ornamented gun,
And gold-embroider'd garments, fair to see ;
The crimson-scarfed men of Macedon;
The Delhi, with his cap of terror on,
And crooked glaive ; the lively, supple Greek;
And swarthy Nubia's mutilated son ;

The bearded Turk that rarely deigns to speak,
Master of all around - too potent to be meek,
“ Are mix'd, conspicuous : some recline in groups,

Scanning the motley scene that varies round;
There some grave Moslem to devotion stoops,
And some that smoke, and some that play, are found ;
Here the Albanian proudly treads the ground;
Half whispering there the Greek is heard to prate ;
Hark! from the mosque the nightly solemn sound,
The Muezzin's call doth shake the minaret,
"There is no god but God ! - to prayer - lo! God is

Childe Harold, Canto IL
? (See Lay of the Last Minstrel, canto i. Scott's Po-
etical Works, vol. vi. p. 49. ed. 1833.)

3 [" In the second canto of Childe Harold, Lord Byron
has admirably characterised this scene as he saw it in the
seraglio of the Virgin at Tepaleni. His pictures are as
minutely accurate in their descriptive details, as they are
splendid and imposing in the poetry which conveys them
to the eye of the reader." - DR. HOLLAND.)
* [" In marble-pared pavilion, where a spring

Of living water from the centre rose,
Whose bubbling did a genial freshness fling,
And soft voluptuous couches breathed repose,

Ali reclined, &c. - Childe Harold, c. ü. st. 62.]
S[“ We told him the desire of seeing so great a man
as himself. • Aye,' returned he, did you ever hear of
me in England ?' We, of course, assured bin that he
was a very common subject of conversation in our
country; and he seemed by no means inaccessible to the
flattery.” — HOBHOUSE.]

great !'"

“ Richly caparison'd, a ready row

Of armed horse, and many a warlike store,
Circled the wide-extending court below;
Above, strange groups adorn'd the corridore ;

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