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I. The Way to be happy.

XI. Sing of the Tongue.

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LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1868. when called “Mr. Macfarlane," he considered

himself disrespectfully referred to: “Mr. MacCONTENTS.-N° 36.

farlane (said he) may be applied to many; but I, NOTES:-"Or that Ilk": Hunterstoun, 217 - Transposi. / and I only, am Macfarlane." Dunlop of that tion of Words, 218 — Widsith and Vidförull, 219 - Folk ilk," as the writer adds, “or The Dunlop, are of Lore, 220 - Jasper Mayne - Fairford Windows - The Signature of Columbus - A Year and a Day - Christmas

the same import.” (Note to a History of the Waits - Song. “Com hidder" - Descendants of Oliver Counties of Ayr and Wigton, by James Paterson, Cromwell – Waldensian Colony near Monte-Video - 1866, vol. iii. p. 131, Cuninghame.) Prince Rupert, Duke of Cumberland, K.G., 221.

The same note mentions that this title “has QUERIES:- Anonymous - Seal of R. le Archer, Norfolk, circa 1366 - Rectors of Beaconsfield, Bucks - Edmond Brydges and William Gregory, Serjeants-at-Law - Buddhist Coinages of India - Caroline Matilda, Queen of

truly well, or correctly defined? The second is, Denmark - "Chronicle of the Abbey of Cirencester" Coroners' Inquests - Court of France-Croom Castle - and it is more special: Has Dunlop of Dunlop, or Flies - Inscription at Castlegough, Cornwall - Jewish

" of that ilk," or, as Latinised by De eodem (loco), Observance-John de Koel: Pasquils — The Block Books - Pomeroy Family - The Popish Plots and State Trials had quite the same meaning attached to it as in the Reign of Charles II.- Reculver - Sanskrit Inscrip “Dunlop,” or “ The Dunlop," in past times ? tions in England - Tinder-Boxes – "Up to Snuff," 224.

These queries will, no doubt, be readily answered QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: -- Francis Bancroft - Dr. Raffles's Autographs - The “Myrroure of our Lady" - Ivory,

| by some of your learned antiquarian contributors the Mathematician - Privileged Regiment, &c. - Black under whose notice the subject has come. buru - Bric-a-Brac, 227.

One may be made to understand how “The REPLIES: - Goldsmith's Epitaph, 228 - How Cato was a Dunlop " should denote the chief of a family or

Paynim and a Christian too, 229 - Adverse and Averse, 230
Variation of Surnames, 231 - St. Herefrid, 232 - Daniel

clan, in the same way as, The Macfarlane, The
Defoe and John Dove, D.D.-Ingulph's "Chronicle" - Macintosh, The Chisholm, The Macpherson, &c.,
Rough Piety - Pocket Sheriff - Cattern's Day - Double
Tower - Disembowelment - Sir Ambrose Crowley - Long

do; but there is more doubt surely, whether “of Family Connection with Church Livings - Little Fors. that ilk(ilk referring to a place, land, or an ters, Egham, Surrey - Louth - Opopanax – Faith, Hope,

estate, of the same name as the owner,) ever did and Charity - Parish Register - Matthew Bacon-Easter, Esther - Noble of Edward III., &c., 232.

properly and certainly import chieftainship. At Notes on Books, &c.

the same time, it may be doubtful whether the

person in full right of the lands, say of Dunlop, Aotes.

although of the name of Dunlop, yet not being

the representative of the ancient family, taking “OF THAT ILK”: HUNTERSTOUN.

their name originally from these lands, could be In a note enunciating some curious views properly designed" of that ilk," although virwhich came under our observation recently, this tually or legally the Laird. is said to be an ancient and noble title, and We are told that some of the old Scottish peculiar to the 'Scots; and to denote, not the lairds (domini or barones) were wont to subscribe gentleman alone, but also “the chief of all the even legal documents by writing their Christian clan of his own surname." It is added, that it name, and that of their estate, only; as Robert does not necessarily or essentially refer to the Huntar of Huntarston subscribed “Ro Huntarestate, because many chiefs parted with their ston,” and Patrick Huntar of Huntarston, “Pa original estates, and afterwards used that title long Huntarston”; as did Blair of Blair, an ancient -as for example, Porterfield, Ralstoun, White- family also in Ayrshire, subscribe "Blair of yt furd, &c. of that ilk. This title gives, as it is Ilk” —which last, in a court of law, was found a further stated, the party entitled to use it the legal and binding mode of subscription. The preright of supporters in his armorial arms, and is sent Laird of Huntarston (West Kylbride, Ayrcharacterised as “a nobility really patriarchal, shire) has, as it would appear by this History of venerable, and ancient.” It is also said, that the Ayr and Wigton, adopted a more doubtful course. King of Great Britain at one time offered a title He has changed the name of his estate from Ilunof nobility to the chief of the Grants, who de- tarston to Hunter, and called himself “Hunter of clined to receive it; asking, as showing a reason | Hunter," or " of that ilk," as if Hunter was the for his refusal, “And wha would be the Laird of name of the land, while unquestionably it was not, Grant?” in the event of his acceptance. Dr. John- but that of an employment or office-a hunter. son, in his Tour to the Hebrides in 1773, mentions | An “Aylmere le Huntere" (not “de la Huntar," that the chief of a clan is addressed by his name as we find it mentioned), who swore fealty to Edsimply, as the Laird of Dunvegan, who was called ward I. in 1296, he assumes as one of his ancestors “ Macleod”; while other gentlemen of the same (Ragman Rolls, Ban. Club, p. 148); but whether he surname and family were designated by the names was so or not, does not satisfactorily appear, as his of their estates or residences, as Raasa and Tal- | estate, or residence is not mentioned in the roll, and isker. It is also mentioned regarding the Laird is not otherwise known; and the roll only bears of Macfarlane, the antiquary and genealogist, that that he was “del Counte de Are.” This Aylmere was “the hunter” (“le huntere"), the designation any connection with Arnele until the year 1375, having no application whatever to land, and only when part, if not the whole, of that property, was to the party's calling or employment. At an after resigned by an Andrew Campbell, Knt., to be period, in 1375, when a William Hunter acquired given out to William Huntar as before mentioned. the lands now called Hunterston, upon the resig- The charter by Robert II., proceeding upon this nation of Sir Andrew Campbell, they were called resignation, is still in good preservation at HunArnele, as appears from a charter in favour of terstoun, and is the earliest which the family William granted by Robert II. Some time after possess regarding these lands. The lands were to this, they came to be called “Arnele-Huntar," be held under the king, as the charter declares, in in order to distinguish them probably from some feu or in fee and heritage by William and the heirs part of Arnele owned by another party; and lat- male lawfully procreated, or to be, of his body, terly they are called “Huntarston," that is, “the for payment annually of one penny of silver only, dwelling-place of Huntar”—from some successor at the land of Arnele, at the Feast of Pentecost, of this William Huntar, or from William him- in name of blench ferm; and that in satisfacself, fixing his seat thereon. Thereafter, the tion of all wards, reliefs, marriages, and other property was truthfully called “Hunterstoun”— feudal services whatsoever. In consequence of à designation which it has borne invariably for this blench ferm return, reckoned a base holding, some centuries; but to call it now Hunter, seems John, laird of Huntarston, produced this charter not less than a misapplication of language; and to the king's justices in Itinere or Eyre, sitting at better it would seem to be for the laird to change Ayr in 1505, June 13, and was excused from giving his own surname to Hunterston, and then he further suit and service in their courts: a duty would be “of that ilk.” For this, he has the which then by law only devolved on those holding precedent of some of his own ancestors mentioned land by the then reckoned much more honourable above; and there is Fowlertoun, and Hawkers- service of ward and relief-otherwise called militoun, both “of that ilk,” besides Eglintoun, and tary service, and knight service. An instrument Ralphstoun (Ralstoun)."

taken of the above decision, by the king's JustiAppearing in the Ragman Rolls, besides Ayl- ciars, is also preserved at Huntarston. mere already mentioned, there were John Hunter, The following statement, militating against the designed “de la Foreste de Passeley,” “Huwe le above view, and contained in the“ Remarks on the Hunter de Stragrif,” and “Richard le Hunter," Ragman Rolls," by Geo. Crawford, is unquesalso “de Stragrif"; and all “ del Counte de La- tionably erroneous: nark,” the barony of Renfrew not being in 1296, " In an ancient bounding Charter of lands, it (refernor till about 1406, separated from Lanark and ring to Arnele) is bounded with Terris Normani Venaerected into a separate sheriffdom. Renfrew, of | toris, which is plainly the lands of Arneil Hunter-which which Stragrif is part, at that time belonged to

to is the lands of Hunterston.” (Nisbet's Her., vol. ii. the High Stewarts of Scotland ; and it is more than

A pp. 40.) probable that all these three Hunters were, at the

For this so-called bounding charter, one by time of their submission, under the employment

Robert I., confirming prior grants by his predeof James the sixth high stewart; while as to “Ayl

cessors, Kings of Scotland, refers to the territory mere le Huntere,” whose residence was in Ayr

of Maner, or Mannor, Peeblesshire, of which it shire, he was probably hunter to some of the

would appear this Norman hunter had received a successors of the De Morevilles, who possessed all

part from King Malcolm IV., which was exCuninghame, the northern division of Ayrshire,

cepted. (Nisbet, i. 325; Hadd. Collections Ad, as the De Baliols or De Rosses; the latter of

of Lib.; and Innes' Orig. Par., i. 239.)

ESPEDARE. whom, a very potent family before the end of the thirteenth century, held Arnele, of which Hunterstoun is part, as well as Dunlop, Stewartoun,

TRANSPOSITION OF WORDS. and various other large tracts in Cuninghame,

I regard transposition as the most legitimate and until, being adherents of the Baliol-Cumyn fac most certain form of emendation. I have, theretion, they were forfeited by “The Bruce," King fore, by means of it, restored the sense or the Robert I., after Bannockburn, and their estates metric melody of between forty and fifty places bestowed on others. Huntball, shortened possibly in the plays of Shakespeare; and though I had from Hunter's hall, and called now Dunlop, on the declared my task of emendator as being termiterritory of Dunlop, is said to have been the resi

nated, I cannot refrain from a few more “last dence of the hunter of the famous Sir Godofred words,” for the sake of removing a few more de Ros, Sheriff of Ayr (Ponts Cuninghame); and difficulties. it is not at all improbable that there this Aylmere “O poverty in wit! kingly poor flout!” le Hunter may have dwelt in the exercise of his

'Love's Labour's Lost, Act III. Sc. 2. office: for there is no evidence whatever, let us Here the corrector of Collier's folio read " kill'd say with some confidence, of a Hunter having had by pure flout," and Mr. Singer, “stung by poor

fout,” neither of them understanding the passage.

WIDSITH AND VIDFÖRULL. Mr. Dyce says, “I am not convinced that any alteration is required.” Now I think that an

The following notice is intended as a key to an alteration and that a very slight one is re

Anglo-Saxon poem, which certainly requires one. quired. I thereupon make a transposition and

As such, it must stand upon the amount of illusread

tration it supplies, rather than upon any elaborate “O poverty in wit! poor kingly flout ! ”

exposition of detail.

Appendix A. in the First Series of Mr. BaringThe Princess is alluding to the parting speech

Gould's Curious Myths of the Middle Ages gives a of the King, which contains a poor flout,"

quotation from the Bragda Mágus Saga, “ an Icethough a royal one. In my Edition I most heed

landic version of the Romance of Maugis,' with lessly and reprehensibly adopted the text of

considerable alterations in the story.” Singer, from whose edition I was printing.

Mágus, having presented himself before Charle“Unhousell'd, disappointed, unapeal'd.”

magne, stated that he was called Vidförull; that Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 5.

he was very old ; that he had been older, and Here, again, I should be disposed to transpose | might be younger; that he had twice cast his and read —

skin; and that he was about to do it for the third “Unhousell’d, unanealed, disappointed ;” time within a few days : which he did, in a for words beginning with un are, I believe, al manner very strange, but not of much importance ways consecutive ; and “ disappointed," same as

nointed" same as in the present notice. “ unappointed” — not furnished, not fitted out The first time he did so was anno ætatis 130; evidently refers to the want of confession and ab- | the second time anno ætatis 215, at Rome, when solution indicated in the following lines,-things | Hermanric was reigning. “The king then asks of such vital importance in the religion of Rome, him about the heroes of olden time, and Vidförull that in that horrid play of Calderon's, La De | describes to him their personal appearance, the vocion de la Cruz, the hero is actually restored, colour of their hair, eyes, and their stature." for a short space, to life, that they may be per

So much for Vidförull. Now Widsith, as is formed.

well known to the readers of Anglo-Saxon poetry, “Ay, that incestuous, that adulterate beast.”

is the first word of a very remarkable poem, which, Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 5.

sometimes called “ The Traveller's," sometimes Here, by transposition, we should get a climax,

“ The Gleeman's" Song, has nothing about it so and thus make a great improvement, perhaps a

definite as the fact of its beginning with the word restoration ; but I should hesitate, for the poet at

under notice. Sometimes it has been translated times puts the cart before the horse, as in .

(in which case it means something equivalent to

the wide-wayfarer); and sometimes it is treated “ Leap to these arms, untalk'd of, and unseen!”

as a proper name, or as a name given to the bearer Romeo and Juliet, Act III. Sc. 2.

for the extent of his travels. It begins thus in In the second line of Ben Jonson's Every Man | Thorpe's translation: in his Humour, we have —

“ Widsith spake, “Call up your young master; bid him rise, sir,"

his word-hoard unlocked, where we should surely read, “ Call your" &c.

he with a vast many tribes I quote from the only edition I have access to

had met on earth,

trarel'd through many nations : (Moxon's), and it may be that it was in this that

oft he had in Court received the printer made the transposition. I have, how

a memorable present. ever, also observed the two following lines in The

From him to the Myrgings Fox, to which transposition alone will give metric

Nobles sprang; melody

He with Ealhbild,

Faithful peace-weavers,
“ An opiate here, from my own doctor.”

At the first time,
The Fox, Act I. Sc. 1.

The Hreth-Kings
“ Corbaccio and Voltore brought of it.”

Home had sought,
Ibid. Act II. Sc. 3.

East of Angeln,
It is, by the way, very remarkable that the


. . . . . . . . chief defects in the plays printed by Jonson bim

Hostile faith-breaker. self are omissions. Gifford supplied some very

Began then much to say: well, but others escaped him. I finally would

• Of many men I have heard,'" &c. beg of those ingenions persons who undertake the

Then comes a list of royal names, Hwala, Alextask of emendation of Shakespeare and other ander. and. with a short notice of each, the folpoets to remember that emendation also has its

its lowing list :-laws, and that mere alteration is not correction.

“ Atla ruled the Huns, Thomas KEIGHTLEY.

Eormanric the Goths,

Becca the Brondings,

the tent of her father Laban. The etymology of The Burgundians Gifica;

it is (I must get over it rapidly) from the Tau= Cæsar ruled the Greeks,

the crux ansata (tuyau in Fr.=vagina in Lat.), And Cælic the Finns,

and Tauth (Heb.)="obscene image." Tor and post Hagena the Holmrycs,

Tar=“generation” in Irish and all old languages. And Henden the Gloms,” &c.

Doodhol and Tardhal have the same sacrosanct On Offa, the King of the Angles, he pauses ;

and execrated old meaning. indeed with the notice of him he passes from the I must here say something which I believe has kings to the peoples, from politics to geography: never yet been stated by any writer on the old “I was with the Huns

worships and mythologies of men : Every known And with the Hreth-Goths,” &c.

name for temple is taken from the human body. When the king of any nation, however, made

Doodhal, in Irish, is “temple”: so is cearog him a present, he stops to say so; and here (as in (hearge, Anglo-Saxon, “kirk”); so is “beetle” Vidförull's tale) Gunther of the Burgundians is (Bethel, Beitulla, a name for the Caaba); so is mentioned :

tordhal (Tor=high place, tower; Dairi in Japan). “ With the Thyrings I was,

Cearog is Irish for “ beetle"_it is literally our And with the Throwends,

words "earwig” and “cockroach.” Every one of And with the Burgundians,

these quoted words means “woman" also. There I a ring received ;

But what has that poor creeper to do with There one Guthere gave

those dreadful myths?" I shall indicate briefly. A welcome present, In reward of song:

All insects, as well as men, beasts, fishes, fowls, That was no sluggish king."

and reptiles, were named 'from the words for In the praise of Queen Ealhhild he had a

“ birth” or “issue”; which words belong, in all partner, Skilling; and this is the nearest approach

their forms, to the human body. This fact I can to a piece of personal history in the poem.

only glance at. Whatever else this may be, it is no piece of

The unhappy cearogs, doodhals, tordhals, bethols, real biography. Hermanric, Gunther, Attila, Theo

&c. &c., were murdered by paranomasia — the doric (whether the Frank or the Ostrogoth),

Magi, Druids, and other reformed teachers of Audoin and Albion (? the Eadwine and Ælfwine

religion, cursing and covering up in them the of Italy in the poem), Offa and others being all

gross nomenclature of men's original worship, seen by one person. Hence (though it is not de- |

which their posterity were slow to forget, and nied that able men have treated the composition

sition which, even yet, exists in some parts of India. as so much actual experience of a wandering glee

The serpent, whose various names are also those man), it is here submitted —

of “woman,” has had a treatment still worse than 1. That the likeness in form and import be

that of the doodhalas everybody is aware. tween the words Vidförull and Widsith is not

These hasty observations are rather offered to accidental.

the epopts and aporretes of “N. & Q.” than to the 2. That the hypothesis that Widsith's narrative general readers; who would laugh, I am afraid, is essentially the same as Vidförull's gives a better

at a notion of mine that there was once a Kange view of the nature of the poem than any one at

doodhal (temple-chorus or altar-dance) coeval with present before the world.

the Hyporchema, the Cordax, the Phallika, the This is what the present writer suggests. Mr.

| Pyrrhic, the Sikennis, the Fescennine (fesch, Baring-Gould's doctrine, however, that in the

| Heb.=to dance), the Farandoul, and the Cambal, story of Vidförull we have that of the Wandering

and that it is represented in our own age by the Jew, is one which he wholly assents to.

| light anapæstic "anthem” of the great republic, R. G. LATHAM.

“ Yankee Doodle." No doubt it sounds laughable Disraeli Road, Putney.

enough, and incredible enough ; but I believe the
“guess" is a true one for all that. W.D.

New York.

FOLK LORE.—In this part of the country (NotIRISH FOLK-LORE AND “YANKEE DOODLE.” —

i tinghamshire) young children are given three In “N. & Q.” (4th S. i. 262) MR. O'CAVANAGH |

roasted mice as a cure for the hooping-cough. has an interesting note on the Dubh-dael and

There is an old woman who “strokes” for the Dara-daela creeper which I have seen boys and

same complaint. women kill in Ireland, with the imprecation :

When à donkey brays, the country people say “ Ma shocht paca agus ma paca morriv urth !" i.e.

it is the sign that an Irishman is just dead. “ My seven sins and my deadly sin upon you!”

E. L. The Dubh-dael is one of the most significant words in the glossary of the ancient world. It | DEVONSHIRE FOLK-LORE.—Some friends of mine represents, or represented, what Rachel stole from sent a quantity of bacon to be dried to a farmer

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