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be disseminated throughout Europe. The first such a manner as to thoroughly dissipate that feverish anxiety created by the invention was silly and needless mystery which has hitherto then succeeded by moments of cooler reflection, been permitted to envelop the subject, and hidden and it became a serious question how the increas the use and benefit of the “Block Books” from ing wants of a large class of the community were our comprehension. In this necessarily hurried to be supplied. Numerous were the attempts and incomplete explanation, I claim to have fulmade to accomplish this most desirable object. filled my promise, and to have replaced those The cost of type was, however, necessarily great, systems I have dared to call “ existing fallacies," and wages at exceptional rates were required by with a theory which I submit possesses all the the comparatively few hands who had mastered advantages I hare already claimed for it. the difficulties of the newly discovered art. In In the course of my further communications, I like manner the scarcity of formschneiders or will endeavour to explain the circumstances under engravers on wood was also very great; added to which I believe the Block Books" were pubwhich, they were nearly all grossly ignorant of lished in Holland and Germany without artist's the first principles of their trade. Hence the illus- | or printer's name, place or date: the facts which trated books produced at the time, for the greater led to the purely ideal“ editions” of the “Block part, indicate a very low order both of execution Books”: the cause of the different coloured inks as well as of talent. No better instance of my used in the various copies of the Biblia, &c. : the meaning can be found than by referring my reasons for rejecting the dated editions of the readers to the History of the Holy Cross, pub- Biblia prior to 1485, and the dated engravings lished by Veldener in 1483, which will satisfy prior to 1440 : and lastly, the grounds upon which them as to the manner in which the formschneider I claim the production of the Biblia, the Speculum, then did his work.

and the Canticum, as the works of Albrecht Dürer. It was at this period, when every effort was

HENRY F. HOLT. being made to produce cheap printing and illustra 6, King's Road, Clapham Park. tion, that the "Block Book" was first thought of ; and circa 1485, the so-called Biblia Pauperum was produced. It is but proper I should here de

THE GRAVES AT SENAFÉ. clare that I make this statement with a perfect

I beg to send to “N. & Q.” a record of the knowledge of the attribution of the Biblia to Coster 1410-20, Melchior Wohlgemuth 1450-60,

graves at Senafé, which was the first standing

camp on the Abyssinian plateau occupied by the Albert Pfister, of Bamberg, 1461, Frederick

expeditionary force during the recent campaign. Walter 1470, and Hans Sporer 1475, and that I

| The ground chosen for the cemetery was at the will, on a future occasion, deal with each in its

foot.of a ridge of gigantic sandstone crags, which turn.

formed a singularly striking feature in the landIt was to accomplish the much desired object of obtaining a cheap and ready process whereby illus

scapé : the place, carefully selected and surtrated and other works could be produced to any ex

rounded by a strong wall, was kept with the

utmost neatness. tent that might be desired, that the “Block Book” was invented; and, as I will hereafter contend, and

It will be gratifying to the friends of those who died at Senaté to know, that no greater respect

died I hope satisfactorily prove, we owe its production to the youthful Albrecht Dürer, whilst his father's

could have been paid to the memory of the dead

than the selection of the picturesque and quiet apprentice, be being, as I will conclusively show, the

spot in which they have been laid. ; most accomplished formschneider then in existence.

The description of the graves is as follows:Impressed with the importance of attaining the great desideratum I have mentioned, he devoted his

1. A stone tomb, having on the surface a white

cross, formed of small stones cemented together. attention to the subject. To avoid the expense of using metal type was his first object, and he accom

A square headstone bears the following incised

inscription:plished it by engraving on wood both text and illustration, and thereby justly entitled himself to

“In memory of A. R. Dunn, V. C., colonel 33rd Regi

|.ment, who died at Senafe on the 25th January, 1868; the honour of being the first and true inventor, of

t, and true inventor of aged thirty-four years and seven months." stereotyping, the credit of which he has hitherto been unfairly deprived of, . By means of such a

2. A tomb similar to the former, having a cirstereotyped plate or block of wood, cheap print

cular headstone, with the incised inscription: ing and illustration were first, obtained, and all

::" Sacred to the memory of Lieut. H. N. Bayly, H. M.'s the advantages explained by Ottley and Noel age about twenty-three years." .

1 1.45th Regiment, who died at Senafé 16th March, 1868 ; Humphreys effectually secured ; and in this result the truth is once more discovered, and the meaning

3. A wooden cross : : and object of the “ Block Books” at length ascer

"“ Sacred to the memory of Quarter-master E. Vyse, tained and made clear to our understanding in

| 33rd Regiment, who died at Senafé on the 22nd May,

1868; aged fifty-two years."

4. A wooden cross:

unknown to him. In fine, as far as my know“ To the memory of Private J. Williams, 33rd Regi- | ledge goes, those who resemble the great queen ment, who died at Senafé 19th January, 1868.”

in this particular are, like her, arrant coquettes, 5. A wooden cross:

and often rather wanting in true delicacy. • 6'1. H. S. Sacred to the memory of Private J. O.

On the other hand, Bishop De Quadra wrote to Reirden, C. Company, H. M.'s 33rd Regiment, died at

Philip II. telling him that, one evening when he Senafé 11th January, 1868; aged twenty-three years." was alone with Elizabeth and Leicester in a barge 6. A wooden cross :

on the Thames, they proposed to him to marry

them there out of hand, but that he refused. Now “ To the memory of J. Upton, 33rd Regiment, died at / Senafé February 24, 1868 ; aged thirty-two years."

this story is not very probable, and Mr. Froude,

who informs us of it, owns that the bishop was 7. A wooden cross :

a liar of the first magnitude; but he says that he 6°R. I. P.' Felicien de Xavier, died 14th Mai, 1868.”

would not venture to lie to his master. But why 8. A wooden cross:—

not? In this case how could Philip ever find him " In memory of Private Alfred Rose, of G. Company, | out? The story, however, may be true enough, 1/4th K. O. Regiment, who died at Senafé on the 11th of and the queen and Leicester may have been only February, 1868.

in jest-taking a rise, as they say in Ireland, out “ Look, comrades all, as you pass by :

of the crafty prelate. A much stronger argument As you are now, so once was I ;

is this : Secretary Cecil, when weighing the pros As I am now, so you will be: Remember God, and think of me."

and cons of the match with Anjou, puts the case W.J. FFENNELL,

that she might probably have children, though Junior Chaplain, Bombay Establishment,

she was then in her forty-ninth year. But perattached to the Abyssinian Expeditionary

haps he did not know much of these matters. Force.

The ladies of her bedchamber, who fell on their knees and with sighs and tears implored her not

| to think of the match, were probably better inTHE VIRGIN QUEEN.

formed. It has often surprised me that historians, when Dr. Lingard, whose history of this reign, as I treating of the loves and flirtations of Queen have elsewhere expressed it, "might perhaps be Elizabeth, should not have given some attention assigned to the region of historical romance,” makes to the fact that her aversion to matrimony may of Elizabeth a Catharine II. or an Isabella II. have been the consequence of a physical mal- | He gives a long list of her paramours, beginning formation, by no means uncommon, which ren- with Leicester and ending with Simier and Anjou. dered her incapable of bearing children. Ben He adds that she was callous to every sense of Jonson, in his Conversations with Drummond, shame," and that “her licentious habits survived told him what it was, and he of course gave what even when the fires of wantonness had been was the popular and probably correct tradition ; quenched by the chill of age.” It will not surprise Mary Queen of Scots also speaks of it in the me if the Saturday Review, which seems to be runmalicious letter she wrote to Elizabeth. (ap. ning a-muck against the Reformation, should take Murdin, p. 558). In 1559 De Feria, the envoy the same side, for I find it now championing the of Philip II., wrote to him :

| veracious Sanders, the sworn foe of Elizabeth. On “ If my intelligencers (espias) do not deceive me, which the whole, my own opinion is that Ben Jonson I do not think is the case, I understand that she will stated the plain and simple truth. never bear children."-(Froude, vii. 84.)

Tuos. KEIGHTLEY. Now De Feria was married to an English lady, and one who I believe was about the Court. In 1561 Bishop De Quadra wrote to Philip :-

VALUE OF A GENERAL IN BATTLE. – Napoleon, “ It is thought, too, that she can never have a child. who knew something about such matters, was Some say that she is a mother already, but this I do not quite of the French grenadier's opinion when he believe. (Id. 309.)

said: “J'aime mieux une armée de cerfs comIn 1566 Leicester said to the French ambas- mandée par un lion, qu'une armée de lions comsador —

mandée par up cerf.

· P. A. L. “I really believe that the Queen will never marry. I have known her since she was eight years of age, better than

TYPHOON.-In Webster, Barclay, and all the any man in the world. From that time she has always dictionaries into which I have looked, this word invariably declared that she would remain unmarried.” is given as derived from the Greek Tuoâv. It is, (Raumer, Eliz. and Mary, p. 40.)

as Webster says, the name by which a tornado We are also to recollect that Leicester's sister or hurricane is known in the Chinese seas, and was the intimate friend, companion, and bedfellow has nothing to do with the Greek, being composed of Elizabeth, so that the truth could hardly be of two Chinese words, tai, great, and foong, wind. By foreigners in China it is commonly written acquainted with Baker's handwriting in his books taifoong. I am not aware that this error has ever in the library of St. John's College. yet been pointed out.

W. T. M.

R. WILBRAHAM FALCONER, M.D.

Bath. ORIGINAL POEM, LATIN AND ENGLISH, FROM A CONFUSION OF NAMES. - Why does Burke, in MS. WRITTEN ABOUT 1630:

his Extinct Peerage, and, if I mistake not, also “ A Morninge Meditation upon the Clocke. Dugdale in his Baronage, almost invariably con1. Prima sonat ? primo fratres habitemus in vnü

fuse Rohesia, Roesia, or Roisia with Rose, and 2, Hora secunda sonans, duo suggerit, Ite, venite. Annis or Anneyse with Anne ? I never find this 3. Tertia ? continuo celebretur tripa potestas.

confusion in the Rolls, where Rohesia is always 4. Quarta est ? bis duo sunt Lux evangelia nobis. distinct from either Rosa or Rosia, the latter 5. Quinta est: quing. deữ venerem sensibus vnü.

being a Jewish name; and Annis is plainly de6. Sexta ; dies sex vrget opus totidēqu: Labora. 7. Septima : sola deo sit septima sacra dierum.

rived, not from .Anne, but Agnes, for I find a 8. Octo: pios octava canit, quos arca reclusit.

woman described as Anneyse in the French 9. Fert nona (Christe) novem quos pmittendo beāsti. portion of an entry, afterwards called Agnes in the 10. Decima verba docet decem moderamina vitæ.

Latin confirmation. (“Nostre treschère damoy11. Impare caudentē resonas vndecima Judam.

selle Anneyse .... dictæ Agnetis ...") 12. Sortege completos bis sex duodecima fratres."

Why does Dugdale (and Burke after him) in[ Translation.]

variably misspell Alina as Aliva ? It is derived “ When watch strikes one then thinke ye in one band | from Avelina or Evelyn, the same person being Of Love as bretheren we are bound to live :

constantly styled on the Rolls in one place AveAnd when two sounds, it maks me tremblinge stand,

lina, and in another Alina Come blest, goe curst, ye doom wch god shall give : At three I meditate on holy mistrey,

Lastly, why do all modern writers systematiOf three in one secret sacred Trinity :

cally confuse the names Alicia and Alesia ? I At fourth wach I foure gospellers record,

have found but one instance in which the same Whose gladsome tideinges mankind did revive :

person is called by both names in the Rolls, and And I at five will to my God afford

in this case it appears a mere slip of the scribe's My hart, my soule, and all my senses five. The sixt houre [me] comands my six days well to

pen, like that by which he twice styles the Queen spend,

of Navarre Eleanor instead of Blanche. I have And on the seventh to God my service lend.

met with one modern instance in which Alesia is Eight calls to mynde eight psons p[r]eserved in tharke : translated by another name than Alice : this is Nine, those nine blessings pmised by God.

| Bohn's Matthew Paris, in which the translator Ten, Gods ten Lawes, my lifes guide, light & marke :

| renders it Eliza. It is evidently French in origin, Eleven tells how faulse Judas made all odd. And twelve, how whilst theleven did od remayne,

and may be the Latinised form of Elise. But By lott Mathias made them twelue againe."

why translate these old names at all? The corW. CAREW HAZLITT.

rect rendering is often doubtful, and the name in

most cases is not only more correct but prettier THOMAS BAKER OF St. John's COLLEGE, CAM- as it stands.

HERMEN TRUDE. BRIDGE. — May I be allowed to add to MR. HAZ

POPE AND MOLIÈRE. - In his “ Imitation of LITT's list of "scattered books," formerly part of Baker's library, the following in my posses

Dean Swift,The Happy Life of a Country Par

son, Pope reckoned among its preferabilities to an sion ? —

episcopal benediction the possession of “a Chry“ The Bathes of Bathes Ayde: Wonderful and most

sõstom to smooth his band in”-a folio, no doubt, excellent against very many Sicknesses, &c. Compendiously compiled by John Jones, Phisition. Anno Salvtis

of the golden-mouthed saint's lucubrations. (Were I a parson, town or country, I should prefer a

golden-handed bishop's briefest announcement of At the foot of the title-page is the autograph “ Tho: Baker Coll: Jo: Socius ejectus.” In the

a benefice to his benediction.)

But, had Pope ever stumbled on Molière's same handwriting on the side margin is the follow

honest Mooßibros, Monsieur Chrysale? ing:

“ Vos livres éternels ne me contentent pas; “ Aug : 10 : 1564 : Conceditur Jo: Jones, ut Studium Et, hors un Plutarque à mettre mes rabals, octo annorum in Medicina sufficiat ei ad practicandum Vous devriez brûler tout ce meuble inutile." in eadem Facultate. Rego : Acad : Cant: 1"

Les Femmes Sarantes, Acte II. Sc. 2. The book has been bound since it was in Baker's

E. L. S. possession, as on the fly-leaf there is gummed a WOODEN CHURCHES.—There are not many of list of Dr. Jones's works in Baker's handwriting, the old wooden churches remaining, once so the paper being of the same kind as that on numerous throughout England. The oak framewhich the title-page of the book is printed. The work at Ribbesford, Worcestershire, is still perwriting was recognised as Baker's by the present fect, with an arcade of pointed arches on each Professor of Botany at Cambridge, who was well side of the nave, now rendered more prominent by

1572."

the scraping of the paint and removal of the flat extraordinary series of delusions and poisonings at plaster ceiling. There is in the Journal of the Leeds and the neighbourhood in 1807 and 1808, Archæological Association for 1850 a drawing of and was executed at York in the spring of 1809, the original wooden church that preceded the Mr. Baines published a full account of that myscathedral at Manchester, greatly resembling what tery of iniquity, in a pamphlet of which at least now is extant at Ribbesford. This singular build- ten thousand copies were sold " (Life of Ed. ing was lately re-opened by Dr. Atlay, Bishop of Baines, 1851, p. 69). Can anybody give me an Hereford.

account of one only ?

RALPH THOMAS. There was a church of wood at Newland, now

Thomas CareW. - I wish to present myself removed to make room for the Beauchamp Almghouses, and another still remains at Besford, co.

purely as a person seeking information in this Worcester. One is, I believe, at Greenstead in

case, and as not attempting to afford it. I have Essex, and probably others yet may be found in

before me an edition of the Poems of Thomas districts where timber was plentiful and freestone

Carew, printed at Edinburgh in 1824, without

any editor's name; it is supposed to have been scarce. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.

superintended by Mr. Thomas Maitland, otherFIRST BOOK PRINTED IN GREEN. — I have a

wise known as Lord Dundrennan. A Notice is copy of The Honour and Advantage of Agriculture prefixed, and of this one of the early sentences (pp. 72, 8vo.) It is a translation from the Spanish reads as follows: “The year 1589 has been of Feijos by a farmer in Cheshire; and it was assigned as the period of his birth, but upon no “ printed for William Williamson, Bookseller and very satisfactory authority." I wish to know, if Wholesale Stationer, at Mecenas's Head in Bride- possible, whether there is any other ground for street (Dublin). MDCCLXIV.” In the last page such an hypothesis respecting Carew's death than there are the following words :

Lord Clarendon's statement, that “after fifty “As long looking against the sun hurts the eye by dila years of his life spent with less severity or exacttation, so curious printing in small volumes, and reading

ness than it ought to have been, he died with the of small letters, do hurt the eye by contraction.'-- Bacon. “Green is one of the original colours of the rays of

| greatest remorse, &c.” “He died in the year light. Grass and herbs, and even all vegetables, in places

laces | 1639,” Mr. Maitland says, and fifty years reckoned

105, exposed to the open air, are green, and those in subter- | back from 1639 bring us to 1589; but surely raneous places, or places inaccessible to the air, white Carew's irregularity of life did not date from the and yellow.

very hour of his birth? Again, I would inquire, “Cr This is the first Work ever printed in Green, 1 which is not only a Preservative, but also a Restorative

what evidence is there in support of the date to Sight.”

1639? Why is the edition of Carew's Poems, I have thought it well to make mention of this

| 1640, always described as posthumous? There is typographical curiosity in the pages of “N. & Q.

nothing in the book itself to make it appear that ABIBA.

the poet was then deceased. Nor do even the editions of 1642 and 1651 (as far as that testi

mony goes) warrant the inference. My questions Queries.

briefly are: Did Carew die in 1639? If so, where ALLEGORIES AND PARABLES. - I should feel is the proof, absolute or approximate ? When obliged if some of the readers of “ N. & Q.” would was he born? The date 1589 is clearly conhelp me to form a list of the principal allegories, 1 jectural. parables, and similitudes in the English language. I am desirous of seeing as many early, MSS. I do not imagine we are rich in this kind of liter- containing poems by this writer as possible, beature, but I cannot help thinking that the little sides those in our public libraries. I have had we possess deserves more attention than is gene the use of two which furnished me with better rally bestowed upon it. I know the following:

texts of pine poems, and with two which I do Adams, “ Allegories ; " Addison, « Vision of not meet with in print. One of these MSS. was Mirza;” “Black Ship,” Nelson and Son ; Bun- | lately in the possession of Mr. F. S. Ellis of King yan, “Holy War," " Pilgrim's Progress," &c. : Street, Covent Garden, who, with his usual libeC.E. H., “Follow Me: a Morality from the Ger- rality, allowed me to transcribe from it what man;" Gatty, “Parables from Nature ;” Krum- suited my purpose. W. CAREW HAZLITT. macher, “ Parables, translated from the German ;” | AN EMINENT CARTHUSIAN.-In the Carthusian Monro, “Allegories;” Wilberforce, “ Agathos." | 01838), p. 259. is a translation of Shirley's ode, To these may be added a few similitudes from the

rom the The Glories of our Birth and State," into Latin

other's for later Jewish books in the introduction to Arch- |

verse, “by one to whom Charterhouse looks for bishop Trench’s Notes on the Parables.

great things.” Can your readers tell me who H. BOWER.

this child of promise is or was? Mary BATEMAN.—“When Mary Bateman, cele- I should also be glad to know, for a literary brated as the "Yorkshire witch, committed an purpose, whether any Latin verses by the late

Dr. Raine, who was Dr. Russell's predecessor in Bengeo in Hertfordshire, at the end of the seventhe Head Mastership of Charterhouse School, are teenth century, would have been proved. known to be in existence. E. WALFORD.

G. W. M. Hampstead, N.W.

“ HOLID-STONE" AND WAYSIDE CROSS NEAR CEREMONIAL AT INDUCTION (4th S. i. 484, 514, | BOLLEIT, CORNWALL. — The “holed-stone” to 565; ii. 20.) - When was this interesting cere which I refer is placed just within a gap in the monial introduced ?

J. MANUEL. I hedge on the right hand

hedge on the right-hand side of the road from Newcastle-on-Tyne.

Bolleit to Boskenna, and exactly opposite to the “ COMMATICE” (2ad S. iii. 188.) -- What is the circle of stones known as the Dawns Mên, or the meaning of this word, for the place of which in Merry Maidens, on the estate of Rosemoddress. Jerome's writings ABHBA has inquired in vain? A few paces nearer Bolleit, but on the other side

W. T. M. of the road, stands an ancient cross of the usual CROSS-LEGGED EFFIGIES AND THE CRUSADES Cornish round-headed type, and judging from the (3rd S. viii. 312.) – It was incidentally remarked rudeness of the carving, it is probably one of the in these columns some time ago that cross-legged oldest in the county. effigies, which have hitherto been supposed to The following measurements of the “holedindicate that the person who sleeps below had stone,” taken recently (Sept. 1868), may interest been in the Holy Land, are now known to sig- / readers of “N. & Q." :-Diameter of hole, 5} in.; nify merely that he had held the office of sheriff distance of hole from top of stone, 1 ft. 11 in.; or something analogous. It surprised me that no distance of hole from the sides of stone, 1 ft. 34 in. one took exception to this novel dictum, for con- and 9 in.; breadth of stone measured across firmation of which I have sought in vain. As centre of hole, 2 ft. 6 in. ; thickness of stone such authorities as Gough, Riddell, and others of measured through hole, 7 in.; thickness of stone later date are explicit on the point, that such an at base, about 10 in., tapering to about 5 in. at effigy did always mark the tomb of one who had top; length of stone above surface of ground, 6 ft. made a vow to take the cross, and had actually 4 in.; vertical height of stone as it now stands, gone to Palestine, or provided a substitute, it | 5 ft. 6 in. would be agreeable to learn when and by whom The “holed-stone" inclines somewhat towards the unromantic discovery was made that these St. Buryan Church, i.e. in a W.N.W. direction. supposed holy warriors have been so long slum I also subjoin a few measurements of the waybering under false colours ! ANGLO-SCOTUS. side cross :-Diameter of round head, 2 ft. in.; LADY ANNE HAMILTON AND MR.FITZSTRATHERN

height (total), 4 ft. 44 in.; dimensions of shaft at (OR FITZCLARENCE.)—I have before me thirty-two

base, 1 ft. 3 in. by 10 in. pages of what has formed, or been intended to

On the side facing the road a Maltese cross has form, a part of a larger work. These two sheets

been cut, but so rudely as not to be in the centre are headed Letters to and from the Right Honor

of the round head ; on the opposite side is a repre

sentation of the crucifixion similar to that in many able Lady Anne Hamilton and W. H. Fitzstrathern

other Cornish wayside crosses. (or Fitzclarence); and this heading is followed by

I shall be glad if any of your correspondents an introductory paragraph, which I copy literatim et verbatim :

will inform me if other “holed-stones” exist in "Necessity obliges the insertion of these documents, as

the neighbourhood of Bolleit, together with some they form one link in the chain of events referred to in

| particulars concerning their dimensions and size of other statements herein submitted.” “ The letter of her orifice. Notices of other “holed-stones” in the Ladyship to her brother the Duke of Hamilton (which county of Cornwall would also be very acceptwill be found at the conclusion of this correspondence) | able to

E. H. W.D. will be ample testimony that dissatisfaction had ensued, and approbrious language was used unceremoniously.” INDIAN CIVIL SERVICE EXAMINATION, 1857.

The letter to the duke does not appear in the I placed the above, upwards of four years ago (see printed fragment to which I have referred, which 3rd S. v. 450), upon the list of books wanted to indeed does not contain any letter of Lady Anne's. purchase, but have never had any copy offered. Was this correspondence ever published ? If

Can any correspondent inform me if the papers so, when and where, and under what title ?

were printed ? " The results of the examination Who was Mr. Fitzstrathern or Fitzclarence ? are referred to in the Fourth Report, pp. 322-3, The letters tell a little, but I should like to know by which it appears that there were sixty candimore.

H. F. dates and twelve vacancies. I should esteem the

loan of the papers a very great favour, and pledge HERTFORDSHIRE WILLS. - I should be much my honour, as a contributor to “N. & Q.” almost obliged to any correspondent who would tell me ab initio, for their return. I particularly wish to in what court, other than the Prerogative Court see the questions on “ Greek and Roman Literaof the Archbishop of Canterbury, a will made at ture," and append my address in case any gentle

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