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II.

DISCOVERY OF A NORTHERN CONTINENT. EXPLORATION OF THE IN

TERIOR.

Ferdinand I.
1513. Ponce de Leon discovers Florida by sailing

around the southern edge and traveling along the
western coast as far as Tampa Bay.

Charles I.
1517. Slavers reach the coast of Yucatan.
1519. Pineda discovers the mouth of the Mississippi.
1519-1521. Cortez conquers Mexico.

III.

EXPEDITIONS INTO THE INTERIOR OF MEXICO.

1528. Narvaez leads an expedition to the southern coast

of the United States. Cabeza de Vaca tells the

story of the “Seven Cities of Cibola."
1539. Friar Marcos penetrates beyond the desert of the

Pueblo region.
1540–1542. Coronado's expedition reaches the boundary

of Nebraska, through Colorado and the present
New Mexico.

SPANISH DISCOVERY OF THE NORTHWEST.

(a) By the Coast Line.
1533. The exploration of Southern California is started

by Jimenez, who discovers the southern part of
the California peninsula. These explorations are
intermittently repeated with more or less success,

especially after 1750. Finally
1775. The expedition under Heceta reaches 49°, ex-

plores the shore and claims to have discovered
Columbia River. Another craft of the same ex-
pedition reaches 58°. The coast from 42° . - 55°
is formally taken possession of for Spain.

(b) Inland Route.
1540–42. Expedition of Coronado, as already referred

to, was not surpassed for more than 200 years.

The coast region, however, and parts of the in-
terior of California, Colorado, New Mexico and
the Northern portion of Texas were explored and

to some extent settled.
1776. The expedition of Escalante reaches Utah Lake

above 40°. The whole coast region up to 37° is
now occupied. Towns are founded, overland
routes established. In 1773 the region of Upper
California is parcelled out into government dis-
tricts. No further advance by land until 1800.

FRENCH DISCOVERY OF MISSISSIPPI REGION.

1519. Beginning with the Spanish, Pineda discovers

the mouth of the Mississippi. 1539-43. De Soto's inland wanderings, contemporary

with those of Cartier.
1541-42. From not far from the mouth of the Arkansas,

the Spaniards make a long tour to the West, re-
turn to Mississippi and reach the Gulf. De Soto's
wanderings through the territory of Florida,
Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Texas and Louisi-

ana well established.
1670. Hudson Bay Company is formed and posts are

established in region adjoining the Bay. Also
French Company formed and in ensuing con-

tentions the forts change hands many times.
1673. Joliet and Père Marquette cross over from Lake

Michigan to Wisconsin River down to the Mis-
sissippi and to the mouth of the Arkansas and the
northern limits of De Soto's wanderings. It is
decided that the Mississippi flows into the Gulf

and not into the Pacific.
1680. Hennepin is sent by La Salle down the Illinois

and from there up the Mississippi to 45° half way

across the Continent from East to West. 1682. La Salle descends Mississippi to the Gulf and

erects a fort at the Mouth of the Ohio. Thus Mississippi valley is added to the domain of New France.

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1685. La Salle comes with a colony from France and

missing the mouth of the Mississippi is cast away on Texan shore, where a fort is built and formal

possession is taken for France. 1699. Iberville and Bienville come and found permanent

settlement in Louisiana. In the north French trappers range the country as far as and beyond

the Upper Mississippi visited by Hennepin. 1712. Crozat is given exclusive commercial privileges

in Louisiana. 1716. John Law's financial experiment. 1717. Crozat's monopoly fails. 1720. Bursting of the “Mississippi Bubble.” 1727. The French explore to a point above the Kansas. 1731–43. Verendrye attempts to form a line of trading

posts across the Continent. 1742. Upper Missouri River ascended to region above

Yellowstone. 1743. The Verendryes reach base of the Rocky Moun

tains in what is now Montana. 1755. England and France at over boundary.

Seven Years' War results. 1762. Family compact between France and Spain. 1763. Transfer of territory after Seven Years' War gives

Spain (from France) city of New Orleans and all territory between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. France does not own an

inland acre of land in North America. 1800. Treaty of San Ildefonso transfers entire province

of Louisiana back to France. 1803. Louisiana Purchase for $15,000,000 includes all of

Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, North and

ith Dakota, Nebraska and parts of Montana, of Minnesota, Colorado, Kansas, Wyoming, Oklahoma and Indian Territory.

war

THE OREGON COUNTRY.

AMERICAN DOMAIN. 1792. Columbia River discovered by United States ex

plorer Robert Gray from Boston.

1805. Explorers Lewis and Clark travel up the Mis

souri to its source. Go down Columbia River

to the Pacific Ocean. 1811. John Jacob Astor settlements on southern bank of

Columbia River. 1819. By the Florida Treaty Spain cedes to the United

States all claims she might have by earlier explorers to land embraced in Oregon, Idaho and parts of Montana and Wyoming and lays no claim north of 42° because of no definite historic evi

dence of actual explorations or settlements. 1818. Contract between England and the United States

to reorganize this territory as neutral ground. United States and Britain both claim the land between California on the south to 42°, which was owned by Mexico, and Alaska on the north, which

was owned by Russia, to 54° 40'. 1819. By terms of treaty United States claims land to

54° 40'. 1842. Boundary War agitation. “Fifty-four forty or

Fight” cry. 1846. Compromise under President Tyler's adminis

tration agrees on 49° parallel as the north boundary of England. Had we forced our claim for 54° 40' we would have had complete mastery of the Pacific Ocean and the settlement in 1903 of the Canadian line would have been avoided.

MEXICO.

1824. United States of Mexico organized into a repub

lic, separating itself from Spain; President Victoria; contains besides Mexico all of California, Nevada, Utah and Texas, Arizona, and parts of

New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. 1833. Trouble between the United States and Mexico

over Texas, which Mexico refuses to sell. 1836. Texas severs its connection with Mexico. 1848. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gives all of the

territory north of Mexico to the United States. President Herrera in command. (Contains all the original Republic of 1824 now in the United

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