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amendment of the Constitution so far as relates to Article V, Section 17, in reference to salaries of Judges of the Supreme and District Courts. At present each one receives three thousand dollars annually. If the amendment carries, the Supreme Court Judges will receive five thousand dollars a year and the District Judges four thousand dollars. This resolution will be presented to the people for ratification or rejection November, 1904. As this is a question of general importance, it will receive more attention from all parts of the State than the former proposed amendment.

Election and contest cases not provided for in the Constitution are arranged for by the Legislature (Art. VI, Elections, Secs. 1, 2 and 6), as are the deputy officers (Art. XIV, Sec. 4), as are also laws for the protection of live stock from infectious diseases, the provision for public health and morals, the equipment of a State militia, and the establishment and maintenance of public schools and free education. (Art. XIX, Sec. I; Art. VII, Sec. 20; Art. XVII, Sec. 2; Art. VII, Sec. I, and Ord., Sec. 5.)

The Legislature in joint session elects the two United States Senators. The person receiving the majority of all of the votes cast is declared the Senator. His term is for six years and his salary is paid by the United States. (Salary, $5,000 a year.) The President of the State Senate and

$ Speaker of the House and the Governor and Secretary of State all sign his certificate of election. (Sced., Sec. 13.)

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QUESTIONS.

1. What are the two branches of the Legislature?

2. How many senators and representatives have you from your county? Name them.

3. Why has Wyoming only thirteen senatorial and representative districts?

4. What is the limitation of representation in our State legislature?

5. Can an alien be a member of our legislature?

6. What restrictions are put upon legislative enactments? What is an enactment? How does it differ from a law?

7. Enumerate the powers of the legislature.

8. What action can the legislature take about proposed constitutional amendments?

10. Who elects a United States Senator? Who are the United States Senators from this State?

11. Name some important laws enacted by the last legislature.

12. Compare the class of men elected to a Constitutional Convention and those elected to a legislature.

REFERENCES.

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Bryce, The American Commonwealth, I Ch. XL.
Ashley, The American Federal State, Secs. 417–429.
Hart, Actual Government, Ch. VII.
Roosevelt, Phases of State Legislature” (American Ideals).
Cooley, Constitutional Law, Ch. XVIII.
James and Sanford, Ch. II.
Hinsdale, American Government, Chap. LI.
Wilson, The State, Secs. 1126-1208.
Cooley, Constitutional Limitations, Chaps. V and VI.

THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

When State Constitutions were first adopted, there was a tendency to give the Legislatures a great amount of power and to restrict the authority of the Governors. This was the outgrowth of the general distrust from Colonial times that had risen against executives put in power over the people. The Legislature as directly representing the people was given almost unlimited power, and the Governor could not veto any measure. It soon became apparent, however, that the restrictions must be placed upon the lawmakers and more authority be given to the chief executives of the States. The veto power was given as a check to legislative action, and the legislative authority became more and more curtailed. Formerly the State officials, including the Governor, were appointed by the Legislatures, while at present these can only confirm the selection made by the Governors, and the Governors are now elected by the people.

The Governor's Powers. The chief executive powers are vested in a Governor, who is elected by the people at a general election. (Art. IV, Secs. I and 3.) His term of office is for four years, and he receives a salary of two thousand five hundred dollars a year. (Secs. I and 13.) To be eligible to the office of Governor one must be a citizen of the United States, a voter of the State and must have resided within the State at least five years preceding the time of the election to be sought. He must be at least forty years of age. (Sec. 2.) If for any reason the Governor's office becomes vacant, the Secretary of State becomes the acting Governor.* This vacancy may occur in several ways.

It

may be a temporary or a permanent one. be by death, resignation or removal for cause, and it may be

*

It may sickness or absence from the State. (Sec. 6.) If the Secretary of State could not act as Governor for any of the reasons enumerated in reference to the Governor, the President of the last Senate takes the office; if he is not able to serve, the next in order of succession as Acting Governor is the Speaker of the House of Representatives; if he cannot act, then the State Auditor, and if he is unqualified for the position, the State Treasurer takes the place until the disability of the Governor is removed or a Governor shall be elected. (R. S. 1899, Sec. 50.) If an election has to be held, the vacancy is filled for the unexpired term of the Governor and not for the full term of four years. Should a Governor die or resign after being in office but a few months, the Secretary of State would act as the Governor until the next legislative election, which would be in less than two years, and a Governor would then be elected by the people to serve only two years and thus complete the four years' term of office. As necessity may demand, the Governor has the power to call extra sessions of the Legislature. A legislative assembly might adjourn believing it had completed all its duties, when it would discover that some important measure necessary for the successful management of the State affairs had been overlooked, then the Governor has the power to call the members together and additional laws can be enacted. There might be an extraordinary occasion requiring additional legislation, when the Governor can convene the Legislature. Calamities sometimes happen to a State, such as fires, floods, or epidemics, and immediate aid is needed, so as to relieve the distressed, and then an extra session of the Legislature is called by the Governor, and appropriations are made to meet these needs. The Governor is Commander-in-Chief of all the forces of the State, and can call out the militia to suppress riots, preserve the peace or execute the laws of the State. (Art. IV, Sec. 4; Art. XVII, Sec. 5.) While the Governor canpass the bill “

*In this case the Secretary of State receives not only his salary, but the salary of a Governor.

not dictate to the Legislature what laws it shall enact, he is directed to recommend to that body in a message which is read in person, measures that he believes to be of vital importance for the welfare of the State, and the Legislature is to a large degree governed by these recommendations. All measures acted upon by the Legislature are left to the Governor for him to see that they are faithfully executed. (Art. IV, Sec. 4.) Every bill, order or resolution, excepting those affecting the business proceedings of the Legislature passed by both houses, must receive the Governor's signature before it can take effect. If the Governor does not approve of the bill, he states his objections in writing and returns the bill without his signature. This is called the veto power. The bill is then returned to the house in which it originated. If two-thirds of the members agree to

over the veto,” it is sent to the other house, and if two-thirds of the members of that house concur, the bill becomes a law without the Governor's approval.

A bill may also become a law without the Governor's signature if he does not return it to the Legislature within three days after it is given to him for his consideration, Sundays excepted.

If the Legislature should adjourn within three days after a bill is sent to the Governor, and thus not give him the lawful time to consider it, the bill would become a law, unless within fifteen days after the adjournment he should file his objections with the Secretary of State. This act would kill the bill. (Art. III, Sec. 41; Art. IV, Sec. 8.) The executive veto can be used in an appropriation bill when he can reject such items of the bills as he may not approve. This does not affect the entire bill, but only the part disapproved. (Art. IV, Sec. 9.) The Governor has the right to make appointments and fill vacancies in all offices where there is no law providing for the selection. Great influence and authority are vested in the Governor, and through his

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