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made education compulsory for all children between the ages of seven and sixteen for three months each year, (R. S., Sec 555)
The University of the State of Wyoming is co-educational, and is open to all students of any race or color. The instruction is free. The support for the institution comes from a tax of one-fourth of a mill given by the State and grants of land from which money is received for rents and appropriations of money from the Government, (Sec. 16, R. S., Sec. 1833.) The university is the only institution at present in the State offering higher education. The Constitution authorized the Legislature to provide for the teaching of mining and metallurgy and the university has been designated as the place where these subjects are to be taught, (Sec. 17, R. S. 487.)
In addition to the School of Mines, the university has a College of Liberal Arts, an Agricultural, Mechanical, Normal and Commercial College. The management of the university is vested in a board of trustees consisting of nine members, who hold their office for a term of six years without salary. The appointments are made by the Governor at the session of the Legislature. The President of the University and the Superintendent of Public Instruction are exofficio members of the board. (Sec. 17, R. S., Sec. 488.)
Elections—Wyoming has a particularly superior set of laws in regard to her elections. The secret ballot is used and called the Australian Ballot System.t Only the general Constitutional requirements are stated in this chapter. The detailed methods and regulations are to be found in the division of administration of affairs. The right of suffrage was granted women in Wyoming at the first Territorial Legislature in 1869. During the second session of the Legislature an unsuccessful attempt was made to repeal the law. Since that time no effort has been made to deprive the women of this privilege of franchise. The subject was discussed at the time of the Constitutional Convention in 1889, after it had received a test of twenty years of actual operation, but no opposition was made against continuing the right granted. Even Congress, when our Constitution with this equality clause was presented for approval, made no serious argument against retaining this provision for “woman suffrage.” Wyoming is the first political organization of all time to grant women the right to vote upon all questions where suffrage is exercised. Colorado, Idaho and Utah now have equal suffrage. Equal political rights are granted by the Declaration of Rights (Sec. 3), where the privilege and rights of suffrage are not denied on account of sex, race or color. The right to hold office is not denied on account of
*As the University is the only institution for higher education in Wyoming, the President and the faculty constitute the examining board for the Cecil Rhodes' scholarship. This gives two students of the University who are able to pass a competitive examination a three years' course at Oxford College, England, with $1,500 annually for each student.
tintroduced in the Legislature of 1889 by Hon. Frederic S. Hebard and in force from that date.
All citizens, men and women, equally enjoy all civil, political and religious rights, (Art. VI., Sec. 1.) That there may be no question on the subject and in order to emphasize the fact that the Constitutional law is operative, the revised statutes (1899, Sec. 378), state “the rights of women to the elective franchise and to hold office shall be the same as those of men.” Every citizen of the United States of the age of twenty-one years and over, who has been a resident of the State of Wyoming for one year, and of the county wherein his residence is located, sixty days just preceding the election, who is able to read the Constitution, is entitled to vote, (Art. VI., Secs. 2, 5 and 9.) Persons of unsound mind and convicts whose citizenship has not been restored are deprived of the elective franchise, (Sec. 6.) No civil or military authority can interfere to prevent one from exercising this right. All elections are open, free and equal. (Dec. R., Sec. 27.) In order to vote each citizen must register as a voter, according to law. (Art. VI, Sec. 12.) All general elections are held the Tuesday following the first Monday in November of the even numbered years. All State and county officers are elected at this time and assume the duties of their offices the first Monday in January following their elections. At these general elections all the State and county officers, members of the Legislature, the Representative to the United States Congress and the electors to elect the President of the United States are chosen by ballot. All voters are given the absolute privacy in the preparation of their ballots, and it is absolutely necessary that the ballots so prepared shall be shown to no one before being placed in the ballot box. This makes voting according to one's own judgment and inclination possible rather than following the dictates and wishes of some other person. (Sec. 11, Elect. Sec. 5.) Wyoming, in addition to the two United States Senators which each State elects by its Legislature, is entitled at present to one Representative in Congress. Each State is entitled to one Representative for every 194,182 people within its borders. States having less than this number of inhabitants are entitled to one Representative. At present we have a population of about 100,000 and until we almost double our population we cannot have an additional Representative in Congress. So long as we are entitled to but one Representative the election is made by the entire State. When we have another Representative in Congress the State will be divided into two Congressional districts, each one of which will have a Representative who will be elected only by the people of the district. (Art. III, Apport. Sec. 1, Act of Admis. Sec. 3.) Wyoming is entitled to three presidential electors, who are elected every fourth year after 1900. (R. S., Sec. 196.) 2. What is the meaning of the “free exercise of religious worship”?
1. What was the object of the Constitution-makers in prohibiting donations and support to religious institutions? Was it because they did not believe in them?
3. Are there any religious tests made in connection with any school position? Why?
4. What is religion?
5. Who has the general supervision of the school system in the State?
6. What is the compulsory school age in the State?
7. Where is the institution for higher learning located? What is it called? How many students attend it?
8. What is meant by a co-educational institution?
12. What is the meaning of the term “equal rights"? Why is Wyoming called the “ Equality State "?
13. After State officers are elected when do they assume their duties?
14. How many representatives to the United States Congress are sent by Wyoming? Who so represents us? When will one be elected? How are representatives elected?
15. Who are the United States Senators from this State? How are they elected? When is one to be elected?
16. State some acts of importance that our Senators and Representatives have done for this State.
17. Why are we limited to three presidential electors? What are their duties?
18. When are presidential electors elected and how?
Ashley, The American Federal State, pp. 38, 85, 459, 462, Ch.
XXIX. Hart, Actual Government, Ch. XXIX, cs. 32-41. Bryce, The American Commonwealth, II, pages 570-586, Ch.
XCII. Schouler, Constitutional Studies, pp. 230-248. Fiske, Civil Government, pp. 133-136. James and Sanford, Government in State and Nation, Chs.
TREASON, IMPEACHMENT, BRIBERY AND Rights. Treason is a crime. It is an act committed against the State and not against individuals. It is an act committed by a subject against the State to which he has sworn allegiance. The old Roman law called it crimen lese majestatis, the crime of violated sovereignty. It is a breach of faith in that it attempts to overthrow the political organization which on oath the citizen has promised to protect. Treason against the State and the United States is identical, as set forth in each Constitution.
UNITED STATES Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. (Art. III, Sec. 3.)
WYOMING. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies or in giving them aid and comfort. (D.R., Sec. 26.)
The Legislature is prohibited from condemning one for treason. A person can be convicted of the crime only on confession in open court or on the testimony of two witnesses to the same actual act of treason.
Impeachment—To impeach is to call one to account. The term is used in connection with officers holding positions of trust who have failed to perform duties in accordance with the laws or whose actions do not justify their continuance in office. · Their offences may not violate the criminal code, but are a betrayal of trust or a neglect of public duty. The Governor, State officers and judges of the courts are liable to impeachment. The action may be brought against them for crime, for omitting to do their duties according to the law, for misbehavior not amounting to crime in discharge of the duties entrusted to them. The Senate cannot inflict a direct punishment for impeachment. Judgment against