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5. The shipper shall be deemed to have guaranteed to the carrier the accuracy at the time of shipment of the marks, number, quantity, and weight as furnished by him, and the shipper shall indemnify the carrier against all loss, damages, and expense arising or resulting from inaccuracies in such particulars. The right of the carrier to such indemnity shall in no way limit his responsibility and liability under the contract of carriage to any person other than the shipper.

6. Unless notice of loss or damage and the general nature of such loss or damage be given in writing to the carrier or his agent at the port of discharge before or at the time of the removal of the goods, into the custody of the person entitled to delivery thereof under the contract of carriage, such removal shall be prima facie evidence of the delivery by the carrier of the goods as described in the bill of lading.

If the loss or damage is not apparent, the notice must be given within 3 days of the delivery.

The notice in writing need not be given if the state of the goods has at the time of their receipt been the subject of joint survey or inspection,

In any event, the carrier and the ship shall be discharged from all liability in respect of loss or damage unless suit is brought within 1 year after the date of delivery of the goods or the date when the goods should have been delivered.

In the case of any actual or apprehended loss or damage, the carrier and the receiver shall give all reasonable facilities to each other for inspecting and tallying the goods.

7. After the goods are loaded, the bill of lading to be issued by the carrier, master, or agent of the carrier to the shipper shall, if the shipper so demands, be a "shipped” bill of lading, providing that if the shipper shall have previously taken up any document of title to such goods, he shall surrender the same as against the issue of the “shipped” bill of lading. At the option of the carrier, such document of title may be noted at the port of shipment by the carrier, master, or agent with the name or names of the ship or ships upon which the goods have been shipped and the date or dates of shipment, and when so noted, if it shows the particulars mentioned in paragraph 3 of article 3, it shall, for the purpose of this article, be deemed to constitute a "shipped” bill of lading.

8. Any clause, covenant, or agreement in a contract of carriage relieving the carrier or the ship from liability for loss or damage to or in connection with goods arising from negligence, fault, or failure in the duties and obligations provided in this article, or lessening such liability otherwise than as provided in this convention, shall be null and void and of no effect. A benefit of insurance in favor of the carrier or similar clause shall be deemed to be a clause relieving the carrier from liability.

ART. 4.–1. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be liable for loss or damage arising or resulting from unseaworthiness unless caused by want of due diligence on the part of the carrier to make the ship seaworthy and to secure that the ship is properly manned, equipped, and supplied, and to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried fit and safe for their reception, carriage, and preservation in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1, of article 3. Whenever loss or damage has resulted from unseaworthiness the burden of proving the exercise of due diligence shall be on the carrier or other person claiming exemption under this article.

2. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible for loss or damage resulting or arising from:

(a) Act, neglect, or default of the master, mariner, pilot, or the servants of the carrier in the navigation or in the management of the ship.

(b) Fire, unless caused by the actual fault or privity of the carrier.
(c) Perils, dangers, and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters.
(d) Act of God.
(e) Act of war.
(f) Act of public enemies.

(9) Arrest or restraint of prices, rules, or people or seizure under legal process.

(h) Quarantine restrictions.

(i) Act or omission of the shipper or owner of the goods, his agent, or representative.

(j) Strikes or lockouts or stoppage or restraint of labor from whatever cause, whether partial or general.

(k) Riots and civil commotions.

(1) Saving or attempting to save life or property at sea. (m) Wastage in bulk or weight or any other loss or damage arising from inherent defect, quality, or vice of the goods.

(n) Insufficient packing.
(0) Insufficiency or inadequacy of marks.
(p) Latent defects not discoverable by due diligence.

(9) Any other cause arising without the actual fault or privity of the carrier, or without the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier, but the burden of proof shall be on the person claiming the benefit of this exception to show that neither the actual fault or privity of the carrier nor the fault or neglect of the agents or servants of the carrier contributed to the loss or damage.

3. The shipper shall not be responsible for loss or damage sustained by the carrier or the ship arising or resulting from any cause without the act, fault, or neglect of the shipper, his agents, or his servants.

4. Any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea or any reasonable deviation shall not be deemed to be an infringement or breach of this convention or of the contract of carriage, and the carriers shall not be liable for any loss or damage resulting therefrom.

5. Neither the carrier nor the ship shall in any event be or become liable for any loss or damage to or in connection with goods in an amount exceeding 100 pounds sterling per package or unit, or the equivalent of that sum in other currency, unless the nature and value of such goods have been declared by the shipper before shipment and inserted in the bill of lading.

This declaration, if embodied in the bill of lading, shall be prima facie evidence but shall not be binding or conclusive on the carrier.

By agreement, between the carrier, master, or agent of the carrier, and the shipper, another maximum amount than that mentioned in this paragraph may be fixed, provided that such maximum shall not be less than the figure above named.

Neither the carrier nor the ship shall be responsible in any event for loss or damage to, or in connection with, goods if the nature or value tbereof has been knowingly misstated by the shipper in the bill of lading.

6. Goods of an inflammable, explosive, or dangerous nature, to the shipment whereof the carrier, master, or agent of the carrier has not consented with knowledge of their nature and character, may at any time before discharge be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the carrier without compensation, and the shipper of such goods shall be liable for all damages and expenses directly or indirectly arising out of or resulting from such shipment. If any such goods shipped with such knowledge and consent shall become a danger to the ship or cargo they may in like manner be landed at any place, or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the carrier without liability on the part of the carrier, except to general average, if any.

ART. 5.-A carrier shall be at liberty to surrender in whole or in part all or any of his rights and immunities, or to increase any of his responsibilities and liabilities under this convention provided such surrender or increase shall be embodied in the bill of lading issued to the shipper.

The provisions of this convention shall not be applicable to charter parties, but, if bills of lading are issued in the case of a ship under a charter party, they shall comply with the terms of this convention. Nothing in these rules shall be held to prevent the insertion in a bill of lading of any lawful provision regarding general average.

ART. 6.—Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding articles, a carrier, master, or agent of the carrier and a shipper shall in regard to any particular goods be at liberty to enter into any agreement, in any terms, as to the responsibility and liability of the carrier for such goods, and as to the rights and immunities of the carrier in respect of such goods or concerning his obligations as to seaworthiness so far as this stipulation is not contrary to public policy, or concerning the care or diligence of his servants or agents in regard to the loading, handling, stowage, carriage, custody, care, and discharge of the goods carried by sea, provided that in this case no bill of lading has been or shall be issued, and that the terms agreed shall be embodied in a receipt which shall be a nonnegotiable document and shall be marked as such.

Any agreement so entered into shall have full legal effect :

Provided that this article shall not apply to ordinary commercial shipments, made in the ordinary course of trade, but only to other shipments where the character or conditions of the property to be carried or the circumstances,

terms, and conditions under which the carriage is to be performed are such as reasonably to justify a special agreement.

ART. 7.-Nothing herein contained shall prevent a carrier or a shipper from entering into any agreement, stipulation, condition, reservation, or exemption as to the responsibility and liability of the carrier or the ship for the loss or damage to, or in connection with, the custody and care and handling of goods, prior to the loading on, and subsequent to the discharge from, the ship on which the goods are carried by sea.

ART. 8.—The provisions of this convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of the carrier under any statute for the time being in force relating to the limitation of the liability of owners of seagoing vessels.

ART. 9.—The monetary units mentioned in this convention are to be taken to be gold value.

Those contracting states in which the pound sterling is not a monetary unit reserve to themselves the right of translating the sums indicated in this convention in terms of pounds sterling into terms of their own monetary system in round figures.

The national laws may reserve to the debtor the right of discharging his debt in national currency according to the rate of exchange prevailing on the day of the arrival of the ship at the port of discharge of the goods concerned.

ART. 10.—The provisions of this convention shall apply to all bills of lading issued in any of the contracting States.

ART. 11.–After an interval of not more than 2 years from the day on which the convention is signed, the Belgian Government shall place itself in communication with the governments of the high contracting parties, which have declared themselves prepared to ratify the convention, with a view to deciding whether it shall be put into force. The ratifications shall be deposited at Brussels at a date to be fixed by agreement among the said governments. The first deposit of ratifications shall be recorded in procès-verbal signed by the representatives of the powers which take part therein, and by the Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs.

The subsequent deposits of ratifications shall be made by means of a written notification, addressed to the Belgian Government and accompanied by the instrument of ratification.

A duly certified copy of the procès-verbal relating to the first deposit of ratifications, of the notifications referred to in the previous paragraph, and also of the instruments of ratification accompanying them, shall be immediately sent by the Belgian Government through the diplomatic channel to the powers who have signed this convention or who have acceded to it. In the cases contemplated in the preceding paragraph, the said Government shall inform them at the same time of the date on which it received the notifications.

ART. 12.—Nonsignatory States may accede to the present convention whether or not they have been represented at the International Conference at Brussels.

A State which desires to accede shall notify its intention in writing to the Belgian Government, forwarding to it the document of accession, which shall be deposited in the archives of the said Government.

The Belgian Government shall immediately forward to all the States which have signed or acceded to the convention a duly certified copy of the notification and of the act of accession, mentioning the date on which it received the notification.

ART. 13.—The high contracting parties may at the time of signature, ratifica. tion, or accession declare that their acceptance of the present convention does not include any or all of the self-governing dominions, or of the colonies, oversea possessions, protectorates, or territories under their sovereignty or authority and they may subsequently accede separately on behalf of any self-governing dominion, colony, oversea possession, protectorate, or territory excluded in their declaration. They may also denounce the convention separately in accordance with its provisions in respect of any self-governing dominion, or any colony, oversea possession, protectorate, or territory under their sovereignty or authority.

ART. 14.—The present convention shall take effect, in the case of the States which have taken part in the first deposit of ratifications, 1 year after the date of procès-verbal recording such deposit. As respects the States which ratify subsequently or which accede, and also in cases in which the convention is subsequently put into effect in accordance with article 13, it shall take effect 6 months after the notifications specified in paragraph 2 of article 11, and paragraph 2 of article 12, have been received by the Belgian Government.

ART. 15.—In the event of one of the contracting States wishing to denounce the present convention, the denunciation shall be notified in writing to the Belgian Government, which shall immediately communicate a duly certified copy of the notification to all the other States informing them of the date on which it was received.

The denunciation shall only operate in respect of the State which made the notification and on the expiry of 1 year after the notification has reached the Belgian Government.

ART. 16.—Any one of the contracting States shall have the right to call for a fresh conference with a view to considering possible amendments.

A State which would exercise this right should notify its intention to the other States through the Belgian Government, which would make arrangements for convening the conference.

The high contracting parties may give effect to this convention either by giving it the force of law, or by including in their national legislation, in a form appropriate to that legislation, the rules adopted under this convention.

They may reserve the right

1. To prescribe that, in the cases referred to in paragraph 2 (c) to (p) of article 4, the holder of a bill of lading shall be entitled to establish responsibility for loss or damages arising from the personal fault of the carrier or the fault of his servants which are not covered by paragraph (a).

2. To apply article 6, insofar as the national coasting trade is concerned, to all classes of goods without taking account of the restriction set out in the last paragraph of that article.

Done at Brussels, in a single copy, August 25, 1924.

This convention was signed by representatives of Germany, Argentina, Belgium, Chile, Cuba, Denmark, Spain, Estonia, the United States, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Mexico, Norway, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland and Danzig, Portugal, Rumania, Yugoslavia, Sweden, and Uruguay.

In signing the convention, the representative of Great Britain made the following declaration:

I, the undersigned, His Britannic Majesty's Ambassador at Brussels, on affixing my signature to the Protocol of Signature of the International Convention for the unification of certain rules relating to bills of lading on this 15th day of November, 1924, hereby make the following declarations by direction of my Government.

I declare that His Britannic Majesty's Government adopt the last reservation in the additional Protocol of the Bills of Lading Convention.

I further declare that my signature applies only to Great Britain and Northern Ireland ; I reserve the right of each of the British Dominions, colonies, overseas possessions, and protectorates, and of each of the territories over which His Britannic Majesty exercises a mandate to accede to this convention under article 13. The plenipotentiary of Japan made the following reservations:

(a) To article 4: Japan reserves to itself until further notice the acceptance of the provisions in (a) of paragraph 2, of article 4.

(0) Japan is of the opinion that the convention does not in any part apply to national coasting trade; consequently, there should be no occasion to make it the object of provisions in the protocol. However, if it be not so, Japan reserves to itself the right freely to regulate the national coasting trade by its own law.

33514°-38-19

F. COMMERCIAL ABBREVIATIONS

There are given below three lists of commercial abbreviations commonly employed by businessmen in the principal trading nations of the world:

FREIGHT AND INSURANCE

a/c or acct. : Account; English.
a. a. r.: Against all risks (marine) ; English.
A/D: Alternate days; English.
ad. val. : Ad valorem; English.
A/V: Ad valorem; English.
A/R: All risks or against all risks (marine); English.
a/c (a cargo) : Charged to, or drawn on; Spanish.
Assce. : Insurance; French.
A. 0.: Account of; English.
A. T.: American terms; English.
B/L: Bill of lading; English.
B. 0.: Buyer's option; English.
B. M.: Board measure; English.
B. t. u.: British thermal unit; English.
B. E.: Bill of exchange; English.
Btto. (Brutto): Gross; German.
c. a. f.: Cost, assurance, freight; French.
c. i. f.: Cost, insurance, freight; English.
C. A. F.: Cost, assurance, freight; English,
C. & F.: Cost and freight; English.
C. f. i.: Cost, freight, and insurance; English,
C. i. f. & c.: Cost, insurance, freight, and commission; English.
C. i. f. & e. : 'Cost, insurance, freight, and exchange; English.
C. i. f. c. & i.: Cost, insurance, freight, commission, and interest; English.
C. i. f. c. i.: Cost, insurance, freight, commission, and interest; English.
C. i. f. i. & e.: Cost, insurance, freight, interest, and exchange; English.
Cge. pd.: Carriage paid; English.
Carr. pd.: Carriage paid ; English.
C. T. L.: Constructive total loss; English.
C/P: Charter party; English.
C/P: Custom of the port; English.
C/R: Company's risk ; English.
C/r (cuenta y riesgo): For account and risk of; Spanish.
Conocimto (conocimiento): Bill of lading; Spanish.
corrte: Current; Spanish.
C. c.: Continuance clause; English.
C (contra) : Against; English.
Cld.: Cleared ; English.
c/s: Case(s) ; English.
D/W: Dock warrant; English.
D/W: Dead weight; English.
D/D: Delivered docks; English.
D/d: Delivered ; English.
D/d: From date; German.
D/0: Delivery order; English.
D. O. F.: Delivery on field ; English.
D/y: Delivery; English.
D/C: Deviation clause; English.
D/f: Dead freight; English.
Ex. Ship: Delivered out of ship; English.
e/c (encuenta): On account; Spanish.

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