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LIFE OF BISHOP ANDREWS.
LANCELOT ANDREWS was born in the city of London in 1555, under the reign of queen Mary. His parents were honest and religious; his father born of an ancient family in Suffolk, after passing most of his life at sea, had attained the creditable and comfortable situation of master of the Trinity house. From his childhood Lancelot displayed an uncommon love of learning and a natural seriousness which rendered him indifferent to the usual diversions and exercises of his age. His proficiency in his Greek and Hebrew studies at Merchant-taylors' school recommended him to the notice of Dr. Watts, residentiary of St. Paul's, who bestowed on him one of the scholarships which he had recently founded at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. After taking his degree of bachelor of arts, a fellowship was speedily, and with much honour, conferred upon him; and commencing his studies in divinity, his great abilities and unwearied application ensured his proficiency in that branch of science. He was chosen catechist in his college, and after a time, his fame spreading, he be came known as a great adept in cases of conscience, and was much resorted to in that capacity. Henry earl of Huntingdon, a noted patron of the stricter class of divines, now engaged him to attend him into the north, where he was lord-president, and in this situation Andrews had the satisfaction of converting seve ral recusants, priests as well as laymen. Secretary Walsingham next took notice of his merit, presented him to the living of Cripplegate, and afterwards added other preferments.
His next step was that of chaplain in ordinary to queen Elizabeth, who, much approving his preaching, his grave deportment and his single life, made him first prebendary, and shortly before her death dean, of Westminster. In this situation, which imposed upon him the superintendence of Westminster school, his conduct was a model certainly unsurpassed, and probably unequalled, by any of his successors. Dr. Hacket informs us, that when Williams was preferred to the same office, having heard what pains Dr. Andrews had taken to train up the youth on that foundation, he sent for himself from Cambridge to give him fuller information; and he thus details the merits of the friend and instructor of his youth in language warm with gratitude :
I told him how strict that excellent man was, to charge our masters that they should give us lessons out of none but the most
classical authors; that he did often supply the place both of head schoolmaster and usher for the space of an whole week together, and gave us not an hour of loitering-time from morning to night. How he caused our exercises in prose and verse to be brought to him to examine our style and proficiency. That he never walked to Chiswick for his recreation without a brace of this young fry; and in that wayfaring leisure had a singular dexterity to fill those narrow vessels with a funnel. And, which was the greatest burden of his toil, sometimes thrice in a week, sometimes oftener, he sent for the uppermost scholars to his lodgings at night, and kept them with him from eight till eleven, unfolding to them the best rudiments of the Greek tongue and the elements of the Hebrew grammar; and all this he did to boys without any compulsion of correction; nay, I never heard him utter so much as a word of austerity among us.
'Alas! this is but an ivy leaf crept into the laurel of his immortal garland. This is that Andrews the ointment of whose name is sweeter than spices. This is that celebrated bishop of Winton, whose learning king James admired above all his chaplains; and that king, being of most excellent parts himself, could the better discover what was eminent in another. Judeed he was the most apostolical and primitive-like divine, in my opinion, that wore a rochet in his age; of a most venerable gravity, and yet most sweet in all commerce; the most devout that ever I saw when he appeared before God; of such a growth in all kind of learning, that very able clerks were of low stature to him: ..... full of alms and charity; of which none knew but his father in secret: a certain patron to scholars of fame and ability, and chiefly to those that never expected it. In the pulpit, a Homer among preachers......I am transported even as in a rapture to make this digression: For who could come near the shrine of such a saint, and not offer up a few grains of glory upon it? Or how durst I omit it? For he was the first that planted me in my tender studies, and watered them continually with his bounty." *
In reference to the walks of this good dean to Chiswick with the schoolboys for his companions, so affectionately commemorated by Hacket, it may be mentioned from another source, that from his youth upwards, his favourite, if not his only relaxation, had been walking, either by himself or with some chosen companions; with whom he might confer and argue and recount their studies: and he would often profess, that to observe the grass, herbs, corn, trees, cattle, earth, waters, heavens, any of
* Life of Williams.
the creatures, and to contemplate their natures, orders, qualities, virtues, uses, was ever to him the greatest mirth. content and recreation that could be: and this he held to his dying day."
Doubtless, with so constant a love of the appearances of external nature acting upon his pious and contemplative mind, this excellent instructor embraced these opportunities of teaching his young disciples to look up through the medium of a beautiful creation to its benignant author;-and happy those who are thus instructed to know and love their maker.
All who have made mention of this exemplary prelate agree in revering him for the virtues peculiarly fitted to his station. He was humane, hospitable, charitable to the poor, of unfailing bounty and kindness to the deserving, especially to poor scholars and divines, and munificent m his donations to learned and charitable foundations. But he had still rarer and perhaps higher merits. He was disinterested, inflexible in principle, and courageously independent. The extensive patronage which he possessed appears to have been in his hand an instrument devoutly consecrated to the advancement of religion, learning and good morals. To all the promptings of self interest, to all solicitations of men in power, he resolutely turned a deaf ear when they interfered with higher motives. It is said by his biographer, that the sins which he abhorred most were simony and sacrilege. The first of these was so detestable to him as that for refusing to admit divers men to livings whom he suspected to be simonically preferred, he suffered much by suits of law: choosing rather to be compelled against his will to admit them by law, than voluntarily to do that which his conscience made scruple of.'t We are further told that his dread of committing sacrilege, caused him in the time of Elizabeth to refuse successively the bishoprics of Salisbury and Ely when offered to him under the usual conditions of that time,-the alienation of church-lands in favour of laymen and courtiers. He is also said, when bishop of Winchester, to have refused several large sums of money for renewals of leases which he conceived injurious to his successors.
It should appear however, that in these sacrifices of worldly interest, Andrews was rather influenced by a nice sense of professional integrity and worldly honour than by any superstitious opinions respecting the sacredness of church property; for Selden has mentioned him as the only bishop who thought proper to express an approbation of his History of tythes,' so much the object of alarm or horror to the clerical body at large.
The accession of James facilitated the advancement of An
Fuller's Abel redivivus, article Andrews,
Fuller, ut supra.
drews by putting an end to that system of spoliation to which he was resolved not to become instrumental. Struck with his style of preaching, and filled with admiration at the extent and solidity of his erudition, the king spontaneously nominated him to the see of Chichester, adding a good living in commendam, and ordered him to write in favour of the oath of allegiance. In process of time his majesty appointed him lord almoner, translated him first to Ely, and finally to Winchester, and made him dean of the chapel royal and a privy-councillor. But even this extraordinary accumulation of benefits, acting on a mind peculiarly susceptible of the sentiments of gratitude, was unable to abase the spirit of Andrews to that servile adulation which the monarch loved, and which other dignitaries of the church paid him without scruple, though at the expense of truth, of patriotism, and sometimes even of piety.
To this effect a striking anecdote has been preserved by Waller the poet. On the day when James had dissolved in anger the parliament which assembled in January 1621, on account of its refusal of further supplies, Waller went to court and saw the king dine in public. Bishop Andrews, and Neil then bishop of Ely, stood behind his chair: the monarch turned to them, and, with his usual indiscretion, asked them aloud, if he might not levy money upon his subjects when he wanted it, without applying to parlia ment. Neil, one of the most shameless of his flatterers, replied without hesitation, God forbid you might not! for you are the breath of our nostrils." Well, my lord,' said the king to Andrews, and what say you? Sir,' replied the bishop, I am not skilled in parliamentary cases.' 'No put-offs, my lord,' insisted the king, answer me presently." I think, then,' replied the bishop, that it is lawful for you to take my brother Neil's money, for he offers it.' Nothing but the wit of the answer could have atoned for its courage.
Bishop Andrews was one of the few clerical members of the society of antiquaries: Bacon appears to have held him in high esteem, and addressed to him his Dialogue on a holy war,' with an interesting epistle dedicatory, in which he enters at large into his own manner of life, and details the philosophical reflections and pursuits which consoled him under adversity and disgrace. The bishop ended his honourable and exemplary career in September 1626, in his 71st year. His death was bewailed, amongst the national calamities of the time, in an animated Latin elegy from the pen of a youth, whose noble mind, penetrated with that affectionate veneration for the wise and good which affords the best presage of future excellence, delighted thus to pay its pure and unbidden homage to the reverend sanc
tity of the aged prelate. This youth was Milton, then in his eighteenth year. The concluding lines, in which he represents himself as transported in a vision to the gardens of the blessed, have been thus beautifully rendered into English by the poet of the Task:"
...." While I that splendour, and the mingled shade
The trumpet shakes the sky, all æther sings,
I mourn'd my banish'd sleep with fond concern;
Miss Aikin's King James.
THE SENSE OF OUR RELATION TO GOD.
DR. PRICE in his book on morals, in remarking on the superior inportance of the duty we owe to God, and of the place it holds among our other duties, has the following admirable pas.
There can certainly be no proportion between what is due from us to creatures and to the Creator; between the regard and deference we owe to beings of precarious, derived, and limited goodness, and to him, who possesses original, necessary, everlasting, infinite fullness of all that is amiable. As much as this being surpasses other beings in perfection and excellence, so much is he, the worthier object of our veneration and love. The whole universe, compared with God, is nothing in itself, nothing to us. He ought then to be all to us; his will our unalterable guide; his goodness the object of our constant praise and trust the consideration of his all-directing Providence our highest joy; the securing his favour our utmost ambition; and the imitation of his righteousness, the great end and aim of all