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THE

CIVIL GOVERNMENT

OF

MICHIGAN

Fifth Edition (Twentieth Thousand to Twenty-eighth Thousand)

COMPILED BY

HENRY R. PATTENGILL

EDITOR OF MICHIGAN SOHOOL MODERATOR, AUTHOR OF MANUAL OF
ORTHOGRAPHY, SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, TIP-TOP PIECES FOR
LITTLE FOLKS, THOUGHTS FOR THOSE WHO THINK,

MICHIGAN GEOGRAPHICAL AND

HISTORICAL CARDS,

ETC., ETC.

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WHAT constitutes a State ?
Not high-raised battlement or labored mound,

Thick wall or moated gate;
Not cities proud with spires and turrets crowned;

Not bays and broad-armed ports,
Where, laughing at the storm, rich navies ride:

Not starred and spangled courts,
Where low-browed baseness wafts perfume to pride.

No: men-high-minded men,
With powers as far above dull brutes endued,

In forest, brake, or den,
As beasts excel cold rocks and brambles rude;

Men who their duties know,
But know their rights, and knowing dare maintain.

-Sir William Jones.

COPYRIGHT BY HENRY R. PATTENGILL,

1891.

The study of government as a preparation for citizenship has become, very properly, a prominent branch in our public school courses.

There are several different text-books on this subject now in use among the schools of this State. It is not the purpose of this volume to encroach upon the territory which they so ably occupy. Civics and the fundamental principles of State and National government should be first taught, and then should follow the details of the workings, as shown in our local affairs.

Leaving the field of general government to the able works already in the hands of pupils and teachers, this little volume contemplates only the supplementary part of giving the Constitution of Michigan in compact form, with such explanatory notes and additions as may be necessary to a fair understand. ing of our State government.

The constitution has been placed first, and should be made the basis of the study. The classification in the constitution is not such as the teacher would follow, hence the necessity of the suggestive synopses which we have added. Let each' section of the constitution be studied carefully, references to the notes and additional chapters being used to complete the work.

The author desires in this connection to acknowledge the many hints and helps obtained from various authorities, among which may be mentioned Ostrander's and Cocker's Civil Goyernments, and the Legislative Manual compiled by the Secretary of State.

HENRY R. PATTENGILL,
Lansing, Mich., June 3, 1887.

July 4, 1889.
Nov. 4, 1890.
Aug. 14, 1891.
Feb. 22, 1893.

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INTRODUCTION.

AN OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF MICHIGAN,

Michigan derives its name from the two Chippewa words Mitchaw, great, and Lagiegan lake, and signifies the country of the great lakes.

The first Europeans to explore and occupy Michigan territory were the missionaries and fur traders of Canada early in the sixteenth century; but the first permanent settlement in Michigan, of which there exists any authentic account, was at Sault de Ste. Marie, in the year 1668, under the direction of Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit priest of France.

This, like all the early settlements of the territory now constituting the State of Michigan, was a missionary station, established with the sole purpose of converting the Indians.

The actual settlement of Michigan, for the purpose of colonization and civil government, dates from the founding of Detroit by La Motte Cadillac, on the 24th of July, 1701.

September 8, 1760, the French surrendered Michigan, to. gether with Canada, to Great Britain, which surrender was ratified by the treaty-Paris, February 10, 1763—and Michigan continued under English rule until after the American Revolution. July 1, 1796, Michigan formally passed into

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