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The Psychology of Public Speaking. By Walter Dill Scott. Professor Scott is engaged in teaching psychology and education, and is director of the Psychological Laboratory in the Northwestern University. He has written a thoughtful volume, which should be of use to the increasing number of people who are called upon regularly or occasionally to address audiences. One who has work of this kind can hardly help being benefited by a careful study of these thoughtful chapters. There is a full discussion of the emotions, both of the speaker and of the audience, and directions are given for controlling them. The chapters on rhythm in both written and oral discourse and the one on memory are especially rich and helpful. Parts of the book are perhaps somewhat scientific, but the argument on the whole is clear and forceful. Pearson Brothers, Philadelphia.

The Bible as Good Reading. By Albert J. Beveridge. Senator Beveridge has done a good service in preparing this little book of ninety-four pages of a size to slip into the coat pocket. His illuminating and enthusiastic words are all the more forceful because of their source. He looks at the subject, not at all from a theological standpoint, but from that of the practical man of affairs. He maintains that the best of even worldly kinds of reading are to be found in their germ in the Bible. He shows that it is a living book; that it has stood for centuries as a reliable guide; that it has made history and changed the map of the world. Mr. Beveridge was brought up in a logging camp, where there was little to read but the Bible. He read it through and through, and came to feel its force and value as a personal experience. It is refreshing to have such a testimony from this kind of a man. Many a minister will make it the theme of a forceful sermon. Henry Altemus Company, Philadelphia. Price in cloth, 50 cents.

Superstition and Education. By Fletcher Bascom Dresslar. This is a good sized volume of two hundred and thirty-nine pages, devoted exclusively to a consideration of the superstitions of humanity. Many of them relate to animals, such as cows, horses, sheep, swine, rabbits, rats, frogs and toads, spiders, snakes; and many of them to instruments, such as pins, knives and forks, brooms and the teakettle; some to articles of apparel; also to days and seasons, as, New Year's, April Fool's Day, Easter, May Day; others to numbers, stepping on cracks, sneezing, making a rhyme, crossing hands, boasting, etc. With infinite patience the author has pursued his researches, apparently exhausting all history of all nations, and bringing together in one volume the superstitions of humanity as a whole. About one third of the volume is used in the discussion of the educational bearings of the subject. It is an exhaustive monograph, and is one of University of California publications. Berkeley: The University Press.

Wellcome's Photographic Exposure Record and Diary for 1907 is a convenient pocket manual for photographers, containing instructions and blank pages for recording exposures, the pages being conveniently arranged by months. Published by Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., 45 Lafayette Street, New York, N. Y. Price, 50 cents.

Natural History of the Ten Commandments. By Ernest Thompson Seton. This is a most interesting little book, in which, the author, so well known for his careful observations of animals, takes over into the animal world

the commandments given to Moses on Mt. Sinai, and traces out the apparently conscious efforts of the brutes to apply something of the same kind in their relations to one another: for instance, he says, “ It is evident that in the animal world there has long been a groping after an ideal form of marriage: beginning with promiscuity, they have wandered through many stages into pure monogamy." He finds here an instinctive recognition of the seventh commandment. So, of all the others. Charles Scribner's Sons. Price, $1.50 net.

When Men Grew Tall, or the Story of Andrew Jackson. By Alfred Henry Lewis. This is a very interesting biography of a great man, one who was truly tall, in intellect as well as in body. In these days of unhealthful, sensuous fiction, the more books we have of suggestive, inspiring biography, the richer the world will be. While undoubtedly interesting to a boy, this is by no means a children's book. It is good, healthful, stimulating diet for grown men and women, and gives us many accurate views of historical matters. The dedication is to Theodore Roosevelt. There are several portraits of notable people, who were contemporaries with Jackson. D. Appleton & Co. Price, $2.00 net.

Patty of the Pines: A Story of Porto Rico. By Adam C. Haezelbarth. There is a fascination about the life of our new possessions. This book appeals to our natural curiosity in regard to the experiences both of natives and Americans in Cuba, the Philippines, Porto Rico and Hawaii. Countless books have been written, travelers reporting their observations and reflections, but only now and then have we had a really good novel describing these surroundings. Oftentimes, an imaginary story gives a truer picture than a plain, unvarnished recital of facts. Those who would like to know about social conditions, customs, habits, hopes and aspirations in Porto Rico, will find this story interesting and helpful. The Kenney Publishing Company, New York, N. Y. Price, $1.25.

From Gretna Green to Lands Eod. By Katharine Lee Bates. The sub-title of this book is “ A Literary Journey in England." The writer takes us to various historic places, and tells us many new things in an interesting, breezy way. It is a delightful and not unprofitable privilege to go with her into the Lake country and breathe there the atmosphere of poetry; and into the heart of England to the famous English Universities. This book is well worth the writing and the reading. Its catchy title and intrinsic literary merits will unquestionably secure for it a large circulation among book lovers. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. $2.00 net. Postage, 20 cents.

Linguistic Development of Education. By M. V. O'Shea. Dr. O'Shea has achieved an enviable reputation as a student and teacher of educational subjects. Some years ago, when he was in charge of the model department of a training school, he undertook a series of experiments relating to the teaching of language. He was finally led to inaugurate a movement to observe carefully the expressional activity of a child from the beginning of his efforts to talk until the time when he acquired the mastery of his mother tongue. The observers, for the experiments were made by different people on different children, sought to determine the psychological principles illustrated in this development. The material thus acquired is systematized in the first part of the present volume. He has also incorporated into the book some investigations

of the methods of language teaching in schools, at home and abroad. Students of pedagogy and parents of exceptional intelligence will find much food for thought in this philosophical volume. The Macmillan Company. Price, $1.25.

When America Was New. By Tudor Jenks. This book, of 320 pages, in clear type and artistic binding, takes us into the homes of our ancestors in the early days of our country. It shows us their daily life: what they ate and drank, how they amused themselves, what they did for a living, their social relations in the town, and many other interesting facts that we especially like to know and that throw interesting side lights on the history of the times. We see them in the planting of Virginia; in the establishment of the Plymouth Colony; in Maryland; and in their relations with the Indians and with the French. The life of the women and children is fully dealt with. The young reader will behold a new people growing up into an independent nation in a new world. The story is a fascinating one, and we can think of no better or more useful supplementary reading than these pages. There are many fullpage illustrations and a bibliography and complete index. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. $1.25.

A recent volume in the Riverside Literature Series is Essays, by Ralph Waldo Emerson, selected and edited by Mary A. Jordan, M.A., Professor of English Language and Literature at Smith College. The books of this series are too well known to need comment. There is an excellent portrait of Emerson as a frontispiece. In paper covers, two parts. Price of each part 15 cents. In cloth, i vol., 40 cents net.

English Classics. Recent additions to the well-known series of English Classics are Lamb's Tales from Shakespeare and Sheridan's Plays; also Selections from the Poets; in the Macmillan Pocket Series. Price, 25 cents, each. Lamb's Essays of Elia, with biographical sketch, bibliography and notes; and The Flag Raising; and Finding a Home. By Kate Douglas Wiggin. Houghton, Miffin & Co.'s Riverside Literature Series. L'allegro, Lycidas, Il Penseroso, Comus (all one volume). Selected Poems. By Robert Browning. Farewell Address, Washington; Bunker Hill Orations, Webster (one volume); On Conciliation with America, Burke; all of the University Publishing Company's Standard Literature Series. Cloth, 20 cents, each; manila, 127 cents, each. The Ancient Mariner, Coleridge; Merrill's English Texts.

Periodical Notes

The most important writings yet given to the world by the gifted blind and deaf girl, Helen Keller, will be printed in The Century during the coming year. The question, "What is a Good Man?” is answered significantly by Everybody's for December in a symposium by Archbishop Ireland, Thomas W. Lawson, General Count Katsura, Prime Minister of Japan, H. G. Wells and Prof, Edward Alsworth Ross.- In this season when young folk's fancies—as well as the fancies of older people-lightly turn to thoughts of Christmas, the December Lippincotl's should make a very strong appeal to everybody, with the possible exception of the modern "Scrooge."-The real Santa Claus must have come straight from his toy shop to pose for the cover which J. C, Leyen. decker has painted for the Christmas number of The Circle. Printed in four colors, it is one of the most attractive covers of the holiday season.-The leading feature of the December number of Suburban Life is an article by Booker T. Washington on “Christmas in Old Virginia."-Henry S. Pritchett ("Science") is an American scientist of great distinction, who was president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1900 to 1906, and is now the head of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. His recent articles in the Atlantic have attracted wide attention.

Devoted to the Science, Art, Philosophy and Literature

of Education



No. 5

The Nature and Scope of Control over School Children by School Authorities



ONSIDERATION of this subject has been suggested to me by the current discussions of what has, perhaps rightly, been called “the knottiest problem which has arisen in school circles for years”; namely, the problem of what to do concerning the secret societies in our high schools. Upon reading more or less of these discussions,

it has seemed to me evident that the principles according to which this so-called knotty problem must be solved, if a real solution is finally to be had, are not generally well understood. And so, in attempting to say something which shall materially aid in this desired solution, it appears to be necessary first to go behind the problem itself and examine and set forth as clearly as possible the true relations existing between school children and school authorities. Moreover, I think it is generally admitted that the most prolific cause of difficulty and friction between such authorities and pupils and parents is a misunderstanding, often to some extent mutual, as to the nature and scope of control which the former rightfully have over the latter.

First, then, let us consider the nature of this control. Primarily, of course, it arises from the necessary relations of parent and child. But in every well-organized state of society the rights of control, necessary to the education of children, no longer remain in the parents exclusively, but have been delegated, in greater or less degree, by the parents themselves to some person or persons who are said to be, for purposes of education, in loco parentis. Doubtless this fact is the one great stumbling block in the way of a clear understanding. On account of it, many parents and pupils appear to regard teachers and school officials as mere servants, hired and paid to do for them a service not otherwise conveniently provided for ; and, therefore, many parents and even some pupils are not accustomed to regard themselves as in any real sense subordinate to school officers and teachers ; hence, they naturally rebel whenever the latter attempt to assert any real authority over them. Especially is this true of that very large, and, as I believe, rapidly increasing class of pupils who have never known by experience in their own homes what the exercise of a wise and firm authority really is, and are even surprised and angered if perchance they find that such a thing anywhere really exists.

But the manner in which these rights of control have been delegated by parents to others must be understood in order to remove the stumbling block. That it has not been done in that simple and direct manner in which an ordinary agent is clothed with the authority of his principal, needs to be emphasized. While it is true that in our country the people are sovereign, and that whatever rights of authority or control public officials have are granted them by the people, it is also true that school officers and teachers are much more than the mere agents of the citizens of the particular town or district for which they are appointed. That the citizens of every school district should have a greater interest and pride in the schools of their own district than in others is natural and right, but when speaking, as they so often do, of the excellence of “our” schools, “our” teachers, “our” school board, etc., in contrast with those of some other district, they are prone to forget that, though they have taxed themselves to build their own schoolhouses and support their own schools, yet the schools and teachers, etc., are not exclusively their own. They are prone to forget that schools are institutions of the state, and not of the town or district; and that

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