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tion with religion: nor did the martyrs of the primitive times desire such honours to be given to them; or to be placed in the room of heathen deities. They had protested against all idolatry: and laid down their lives, rather than give religious worship to any but God, and his Christ.

CHAP. CXXXII.

JOHN CASSIAN.

I. His works and time. II. His country. III. His history. IV. In what language he wrote. V. Books of the New Testament received by him. VI. General titles and divisions of the scriptures, and marks of respect for them. VII. Select observations; and this writer's principles and uncharitableness taken notice of: And concerning Nestorius, against whom he wrote.

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I. JOHN CASSIAN, author of Monastic Institutions, in twelve books; Conferences, in number 24; Of the Incarnation of Christ against Nestorius, in seven books, addressed to Leo, then deacon, afterwards bishop of Rome, at whose desire they were composed, reckoned his last work, and written about the year 430; is placed, by Cave, at the year 424, because he computes him to have then begun to write. S. Basnage speaks of him at the year 429, the time of the rise of Semipelagianism in Gaul, of which Cassian is said to be the parent.

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II. By Cave he is said to have been of Scythian original, born at Athens. Tillemont says, There are difficulties about his country; but the most probable opinion is, that he was of the Lesser Scythia, a province of Thrace, where he might be born about 350, or 360.' Even so ancient a writer as Gennadus, who has placed Cassian in his Catalogue, and given an account of his works, calls him a Scythian; as does Trithemius likewise, very expressly. But Pagi,' and other learned men, have cleared up this difficulty; they argue, from some expressions in his works, that he was a native of what is now called Provence in France. The opinion of his being a Scythian, seems to have arisen from his having been some while in the desert of Scete, or Schetis, or Scitis, in Egypt; and having also written an account of conferences in that country and learned men, I suppose, do now generally assent to this account. But Du Pin still hesitates. And since him another agreeable writer" very lately speaks of him as a native of Thrace;' because, perhaps, he had not observed, what has been said by Pagi, or the authors referred to by him. Indeed, the other opinion has prevailed very much; and the common title of these Conferences, in the printed editions, is Collationes Patrum in Scythica eremo commorantium :* though it is plain, from the work itself, that all those monks or fathers dwelt in Egypt. Moreover, the title of this work in Gennadius, is,° Conferences held with Egyptian Monks.

It might have been added, as I apprehend, to other observations relating to this point, that' the Greeks were wont to write the name of that desert, Scitis; at least it is so written in Valesius's edition of Socrates: which word might be easily turned into Scythia by some, who were not well acquainted with the geography of Egypt; and they would be carelessly followed by many others.

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a Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 410. Du Pin. Bib. T. iii. p. 2. Tillem. Mem. T. xiv.

b De Cœnobiorum Institutis: Collationes Patrum in eremo Scheti, seu Sceti, seu Sciti: De Christi Incarnatione adversus Nestorium. Ap Bib. PP. T. vii.

Et ad extremum, rogatus a Leone, urbis Romæ episcopo, scripsit adversus Nestorium de Incarnatione Domini libros septem. Gennad. De V. I. cap. 61. Vid. et Cassian. in Pr. libr de Incarn. Christi. A. D. 429. n. 4. Joannes Cassianus, genere Scytha, ex Tauricâ Chersonneso oriundus, Athenis natus est. Übi sup.

f Cassien. art. 1. T. xiv.

Cassianus, natione Scytha, Constantinopli a Joanne magno episcopo Diaconus ordinatus, apud Massiliam Presbyter condit

duo monasteria, id est, virorum et mulierum. Gennad. De V. I. cap. 61.

h Joannes Cassianus, natione Scytha, &c. De Scr. Ec. cap. 1. Ann. 404. n. 22... 24.

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k S. Basnag. Ann. 429. n. 4.

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In eremo Scythia, seu in eremo Scythicâ :' sine ullâ controversiâ scribendum esse in eremo Scheti, seu in eremo Scheticâ,' hoc est, ut in versione Græcâ recte legitur,

εν της Σκηεως. Pagi Ann. 404. n. 22.

m Vid. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 551, 552.

n Mr. Bower in his Hist. of the Popes, Vol. i. p. 389.

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Digessit etiam Collationes cum Patribus Ægyptiis. Genn. ubi supra.

» Και καία μέρος επληρώθη το της Νίζιας ορος, και το της Σκιτέος των μοναχών. ocr. l. iv. c. 23. p. 232. F.

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Besides, in the first chapter of the first Conference, and in the title of that chapter the desart is called Schyti, or Schytis, which cannot denote Scythia. This, if duly attended to, might have induced learned men to think of Scete, or Sciti, or Scitis, in Egypt, where the fathers spoken of certainly dwelt; and then they needed not to have gone to Scythia, in quest of Cassian's native country. I have stayed thus long upon this, because mistakes and inaccuracies are too common; and I think it may be of some use to correct them, when there is a fair opportunity.

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III. Cassian entered early into a monastic course of life. He was, when young, for some while in a monastery at Bethlehem; afterwards, he, and his friend German, made a visit to the monks in Egypt. In the year 403, they were at Constantinople, where Cassian was ordained deacon by St. Chrysostom. In 404, or 405, he came to Rome, and was ordained presbyter by Pope Innocent, as it seems. In the year 410, or soon after, as some think, or as others, several years before, he came into Gaul, and settled at Marseilles, where he erected two monasteries, one for men, another for women. The year of his death is uncertain. However, Cave says, he died in 448, in the 97th year of his age: Basnage, about 450.

IV. It has been questioned, whether Cassian wrote in Greek or Latin. Tillemont says, that the Institutions and Conferences, which were composed for the sake of the monks in Gaul, of which perhaps there was not ten who understood Greek, were certainly written in Latin. If, therefore, a doubt be admitted concerning any of his works, it can only relate to ⚫ his books of the Incarnation; in which, near the end, he addresseth himself to the people of • Constantinople.' Nevertheless, I think it very plain, that they also were written in Latin.

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V. Cassian quotes not only the four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, and other books of the New Testament, which had been all along universally received by catholic Christians; but likewise the epistle to the Hebrews, as Paul's; the epistle of James; the second epistle of Peter; the epistle of Jude; and the Revelation: whence we may conclude, that he received all the same books of the New Testament, which we now receive; which is worthy of observation. Cassian, who had been in Palestine, and Egypt, and at Constantinople, as well as in the western part of the empire, did not follow the peculiar opinions of any of those places; but he received all those books of the New Testament, which appeared to have been received upon good grounds by any Christians.

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VI. General titles of books of scripture, and marks of respect for them, are such as these. In his books against Nestorius he proves what he asserts by " divine testimonies; from ° the prophets and apostles; from the words of prophets, apostles, and evangelists. And he thinks that those testimonies are sufficient to satisfy any man: nevertheless, having endeavoured to prove his doctrine by the authority of scripture, he refers Nestorius to the Creed of the church of Antioch, where he had been educated; and quotes also divers ecclesiastical writers; particularly, Hilary, Ambrose, Jerom, Rufinus, Augustine, Athanasius, and ' John, bishop of Constantinople, or St. Chrysostom.

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Caput primum. De habitatione Schyti, et proposito Abbatis Möysis.' Cum in eremo Schyti, ubi monachorum probatissimi Patres, et omnium sanctorum morabatur perfectio, &c. Collat. 1.

b.... Studium tamen discipuli affectumque præsumo. Adoptatus enim a beatissimæ memoriæ Joanne episcopo in ministerium sacrum, atque oblatus Deo.... De Incarn. I. vii. c. 31. sub in.

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Pagi Ann. 433. n. 18. See also Tillem. Cassien art. 14. d Scribere orsus est ab anno 424. Obiit A. 448, ætatis suæ 97. Ubi supra.

• Ann. 429. n. 4.

8 Vid. De Incarn. 1. vi. c. 3.

h Vid. Institu. 1. vi. c. 16. De Incarn. Chr. 1. v. c. 6. et passim. i....efficiamur secundum apostolum non factores, sed 'judices legis.' [Jac. iv. 11.] Collat. 16. c. 16. Vid. Coll. 5. c. 4. et alibi.

* Secundum apostoli namque sententiam. A quo quisque superatur, ejus servus efficitur.' [2 Pet. ii. 19.] Collat. 7. c. 25. Conf. Inst. 1. v. c. 13.

Unus quoque apostolorum evidentius dicit: Angelos, qui non servaverunt suum principatum, sed dereliquerunt domicilium suum, &c. [Jud. ver. 6.] Coll. 8. c. 8.

VOL. III.

f Ubi supra.

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Et in Apocalypsi: Ego, quos amo, arguo et castigo.' [Cap. iii. 19.] Coll. 6. c. 11. Vid. et Inst. 1. 4. c. 17. l. v. c. 17. Coll. 22. c. 7. et alibi.

n Nunc interim et Christum Deum, et Mariam matrem Dei, divinis testibus approbemus. De Inc. Chr. 1. ii. c. 2.

• Quid ais tu nunc, hæretice? Sufficiuntne hæc testimonia fidei?.... An aliquid adhuc addendum est? Et quid vel post prophetas, vel post apostolos, addi potest? Ib. 1. iii. c. 16. in. PErgo quia superioribus Hbris Dominum Jesum Christum non propheticis tantum, atque apostolicis, sed etiam evangelicis atque angelicis testimoniis, cum in carne atque in terrâ esset, Deum probavimus.... Ib. 1. iv. c. 1. et passim.

4 Igitur, quia neganti Deum hæretico abunde jam, ut reor, cunctis superioribus scriptis divinorum testimoniorum auctoritate respondimus; nunc ad fidem Antiocheni symboli virtutemque veniamus. L. vi. c. 3.

Sed tempus tandem est, finem libro, imo universo operi, imponere, si paucorum tamen sanctorum virorum atque illustrium sacerdotum dicta subdidero; ut id, quod auctoritate testimoniorum sacrorum jam approbavimus, etiam fide præsentis temporis roboremus. Ib. I. vii. c. 24.

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Joannes, Constantinopolitanorum antistitum decus... Ib: c. 30.

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VII. I shall now select a few other things.

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1. He styles John the Baptist, the sacred boundary of the Old and New Testament.

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2. He speaks of the evangelist Mark, as the first bishop of the city of Alexandria.

3. The apostle Paul, he calls the master of the whole world.

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4. He sometimes compares the Greek and the Latin copies of the New Testament.. 5. In citing the Old Testament, he follows the ancient Latin translation that had been made from the Seventy, and was then in general use. However, once at least, he has quoted Jerom's version as the more exact, or more agreeable to the Hebrew.

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6. He quotes the epistle to the Ephesians with that title.

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7. Cassian is always reckoned an opposer of the Augustinian doctrine; nevertheless, he was also very averse to Pelagianism, which he describes in this manner: He says they do not so *much consider Christ to be the Redeemer of mankind, as their teacher, and example, delivering to them precepts of virtue, and setting them an excellent pattern; that obeying him, and following him in the same path of virtue, they may obtain rewards, like those which have been bestowed upon him: thus, he says, setting aside, as far as in them lies, the great design of Christ's coming.'

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8. In the year 428, Nestorius was made bishop of Constantinople, who scrupled to call the virgin Mary, mother of God;' thinking it more proper to call her, mother of our Lord,' or mother of Jesus Christ.' In 430, as before shewn, Cassian wrote against him in seven books; and he treats him with great severity. He calls him an apostate, perfidious; a blasphemer, impious, and impudent: and earnestly exhorts the people of Constantinople to separate themselves from him, and have no communion with him, but to shun him as a wolf, or pest, lest they should be devoured or infected by him.

9. And he sets out, at the beginning of that work, with an invective against all who had been called heretics in former and latter times; as low as Apollinarius and Pelagius. Such is the temper of some men; indeed, of very many! They behave, as if they were infallible: they are, it seems, exactly right; and if any man differs from them never so little, he is presently a heretic and a blasphemer; impious, impudent, perfidious; and the like.

10. I never intended to insert in this work a history of Nestorius: I now therefore take this opportunity to refer my readers to Socrates, and some other ancient writers; and

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* De Joanne quoque, qui Veteris Novique Testamenti velut quidam sacratissimus limes, finis initiumque processit.... Inst. 1. i. c. 2. b Inst. l. ii. c. 5.

Disce ergo primum ab apostolo totius mundi magistro. De Inc. Chr. 1. iv. c. 1.

Habentes autem alimenta et operimenta, his contenti simus. [1 Tim. vi. 8.] Operimenta' inquiens, non ' vesti'menta,' ut in quibusdam Latinis exemplaribus non proprie continetur; id est, quæ corpus operiant tantum, non quæ amictus gloriâ blandiantur. Inst. 1. i. c. 3.

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e Dicente Scripturâ:.... Si in sanctis suis nou confidit, 'et in angelis suis reperit pravitatem;' sive, ut emendatior translatio habet:Ecce inter sanctos ejus nemo immutabilis, et cœli non sunt mundi in conspectu ejus.' [Job xv. 15.] Coll. 23. c. 8.

In epistolâ quoque ad Ephesios de hoc ipso opere ita præcipit, dicens:.... Inst. 1. x. c. 17. Vid. et Coll. 13. cap. 14. et alibi.

Illud sane unum prætereundum non arbitramur, quod peculiare ac proprium supradictæ illius hæreseos, quæ ex Pelagiano errore descenderat, fuit.... Quo factum est, ut in majorem quoque ac monstrosiorem insaniam prorumpentes, dicerent, Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum hunc in mundum non ad præstandam humano generi redemtionem, sed ad præbenda bonorum actuum exempla venisse: videlicet, ut disciplinam ejus sequentes homines, dum per eamdem viam virtutis incederent, ad eadem virtutum præmia pervenirent; evacuantes, quantum in ipsis fuit, omne sacri adventus donum, et omnem divinæ redemtionis gratiam, &c. De Inc. Ch. l. i. c. 3.-quæ.. eruditorem eum fecit humani generis, magis quam redemtorem fuisse; quia non redemtionem vitæ hominibus, sed vivendi dederit exemplum. Ib. 1. vi. c. 14,

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h Dicis itaque, quisquis es ille hæretice, qui Deum ex virgine natum negas, Mariam autem matrem Domini nostri Jesu Christi Seoloxov, id est, matrem Dei appellari non posse, sed Xgioloxov, id est, Christi tantum matrem, non Dei. Cass. de Incarn. Ch. 1. ii. c. 2.

i.... Dic mihi, quæso, si Judæorum quispiam aut Paganorum catholicæ fidei symbolum neget, num audiendum eum existimes esse? Non utique. Quid si id ipsum hæreticus aut apostata? Multo certe minus; quia intolerabilius est veritatem cognitam relinquere, quam incognitam negare. Duos igitur in te videmus, catholicum et apostatam. Quid facis in ecclesiâ catholicâ; catholicorum prævaricator? Cur cœtum populi polluis, qui fidem populi denegâsti? Insuper et consistere in altari, et conscendere tribunal, et offerre impudentissimum et perfidissimum os tuum populo Dei ausus! De Inc. 1. v. c. 10. vid. et l. iii. c. 10.-Exi itaque, effuge hinc, si potes, tu quisquis es, qui rabido ore, ac blasphemo spiritu furens, nihil interesse inter Adam et Christum putas. Ib. 1. v. c. 9.—Et tu, O impiissime, atque impudentissime, præclaræ urbis contaminator, catholicæ ac sanctæ plebis gravis et exitiosa contagio, stare in ecclesiâ Dei ac loqui audes?. . . . L. vii. c. 30.

* Unde obsecro ac deprecor omnes vos, qui intra Constantinopolitanæ urbis ambitum siti.... ut separetis vos ab illo, ut scriptum est, lupo rapaci, qui devoret Dei populum, sicut cibum panis. Ne tetigeritis, neque gustaveritis quidquam illius, quia sunt omnia ad interitum. Exite de medio ejus, ac separamini, et immundum ne tetigeritis. L. vii. c. 31. Socr. H. E. 1. vii. c. 29. 81, 32.

m Theodoret. H. F. 1. iv. c. 12. Evagr. Schol. H. E. l. i. c. 2.... 7. M. Mercat. P. ii. ex. edit. J. Garnier. Par. 1673. Phot. Ep. 1. p. 7, 8. Ep. 35. p. 95. Vincent. Lir. Com cap. 16.

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to Mr. Bower, and other learned moderns; where they who are desirous, may receive information.

EUTHERIUS, BISHOP OF TYANA.

I. His time, and works. II. Books of the New Testament received by him. III. An argument against following the most. IV. An argument for studying the scriptures.

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1. EUTHERIUS, bishop of Tyana, in Cappadocia, flourished, according to Cave, about the year He was a friend of Nestorius, and pleaded his cause against those who condemned him; especially against Cyril of Alexandria, and his followers.

431.

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He wrote in Greek; and his works were translated into Syriac; for they are in Ebedjesu's Catalogue: who, beside others, mentions a Commentary upon the gospel; for which reason Eutherius is placed among commentators by Le Long: but Asseman says, that this Commentary is mentioned no where, except in Ebedjesu. For a farther account of Eutherius and his works, I refer to others.

CHAP. CXXXIII.

II. In the little that remains of him, the books of the New Testament are often quoted; particularly, the beginning of St. John's gospel; the Acts of the apostles; and the epistle to the Hebrews, as Paul's.

III. Having observed this, I shall transcribe a part of two remarkable arguments.

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The first is against those, who judged of principles by the multitude of those who embraced them. Christ, says he, is the truth, as he himself said. Him we ought to follow, who said, "Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world." [John xvi. 33.] Are not they then to be pitied, who judge of the truth of a doctrine by the numbers of those who embrace it? Such do not consider, that the Lord Christ had twelve disciples, illiterate, poor, unexpe

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rienced, whom he encouraged to withstand the whole world: not directing those twelve to follow myriads; but requiring, that myriads should learn of them. And in like manner will truth always prevail, though it be at first maintained by a few only......Let them be ever so many, they shall not persuade me to think, that day is night; nor induce me to take brass money for gold, or manifest poison for wholesome food. In things of this world we do not follow the judgment of the mistaken multitude. Why then should we follow it in heavenly things, which are of much greater moment, without any good reasons assigned; and at the same ⚫ time abandon doctrines, that have been handed down to us with great consent from ancient times, agreeably to the testimony of the scriptures? Have we not heard the Lord saying? Many are called, but few chosen." And again: "Strait is the gate, and narrow the way, that leadeth to life: And few there be that find it." [Matth. vii. 13, 14.] Who that is in his senses would not wish to be of the few that enter through the strait gate to salvation, rather than of the many that go in the broad way to destruction? What wise man, if he had ⚫ lived in the time of the blessed Stephen, who was stoned alone, would not have taken his part,

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History of the Popes, Vol. i. p. 386.... 406.

Asseman. Bib. Or. T. i. p. 203. 346. 354. 547. T. iii.
P. i. p. 35. 611. et alibi. et T. iii. P. ii. Pagi Ann. 428. n. 11.
et alibi. S. Basnag. Ann. 428. n. 8. &c. et in Præfat. ad
Annal. p. antepenult. T. i. J. Basnag. H. de l'Eglise. 1. x. c.
4. l. xx. c. 2. n. 7, &c. et c. 4. n. 22. et alibi. Cav. H. L.T. i.
Du Pin, Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. iii. P. ii. Tillemont S. Celestin.
Pape et St. Cyrille d' Alex. art. 8, 13. 17, &c. Mem. Ec.
T. xiv.
H. L. T. i. p. 419.

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Eutherius edidit disputationem adversus Theopaschitas, necnon homilias, variasque interpretationes, et expositionem evangelii. Ebed. Catal. cap. 32. ap. Assen. Bib. Or. Τ. iii. P. 42. • Bib. Sacr. p. 718. ! Ubi supr. p. 42.

8 Vid. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 446, &c. Du Pin. Bib. T. iii. P. ii. p. 67. Tillem. Mem. T. 14. S. Cyril. d'Àlex. art. 97. Phot. Cod. 46. Mr. Bower's History of the Popes, Vol. ii. p. 3. 4.

h Vid. Eutherii, Tyanor. Episc. Sermones: seu confutationes quarumdam propositionum. ap. Theodoret. T. V. p. 688....726. et ap. Athan. T. ii. p. 560.... 584. edit. Bened. i Προς τις πληθει μονῳ κρινονίας την αλήθειαν.

k Ap. Theodoret. T. V. p. 690, 691. et Athan. T. ii. p. 561, 562.

'Και 8 συνιενίες, ὅλιπερ ὁ δεσποίης Χριςος δώδεκα μαθηταις άπλοις, αγραμμαίοις, πένησιν, ευαλωτοίς, το καλα παντος το κοσμο θαρσος δεδωρηται. κ. λ.

' rather than that of the multitude, which judged of truth by numbers? The judgment of one 'sedate and discreet person, is more valuable than that of ten thousand unthinking people.

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Many examples, in support of this assertion, might be alleged from the Old Testament, as well as from the New......You, if you think fit, may honour the multitude that was drowned in the flood: give me leave to retire into the ark, and be saved. You, if you think fit, may stay with the people of Sodom: I will travel with Lot, although he goes alone: not but that I too have a respect for the multitude; nevertheless, not when they shun inquiry, but when they produce evidence; not when they are influenced by flattery and bribes, or are misled by ignorance, or are swayed by fear of threatened evils, and prefer the momentary pleasures of sin 'before eternal life.'

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IV. The other argument is against some who discouraged the reading of the scriptures. 'I' must, in the next place, confute those who have the assurance to say, that studying the scrip⚫tures is needless. If a man believe, it is sufficient; inquiry only makes things more obscure and ' uncertain. But, says he, this is the reasoning of men who distrust the merits of their cause. On the other hand, relying upon the truth of our doctrine, and the assistance of him who 'cannot lie, and has said, "He that seeketh, findeth," [Matth. vii. 8.] we inquire, hoping to know what we are desirous to be acquainted with: we prove what we assert; and hear, with ⚫ attention and candour. In which method we convince our friends, confute our opposers, and ⚫ satisfy ourselves, that we do not propose false doctrine? Shall I neglect the scriptures? How ⚫ then shall I attain to knowledge? If I want knowledge, how shall I have faith? Accordingly Paul says: "How shall they believe, if they have not heard?" And again: "Faith cometh by

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hearing, and hearing by the word of God." [Rom. x. 14, 17.]......To be ignorant of the • Roman laws is safe for no man. How great then is the sin of those who forbid men to learn ⚫ and meditate upon the important oracles of the King of heaven! The scripture is the food of 'the soul. Do not then cause the inner man to perish with "a famine, not of bread and water, but of hearing of the word of the Lord." [Amos viii. 11.] There are enough to wound the soul: and do you hinder a man from seeking proper medicines? Consider the chamberlain, a 'true lover of the word, who had the charge of all his queen's treasure. [Acts viii.] Who even, 'when travelling, ceased not to read. Whose conduct was so approved by the Lord, that he ⚫ sent one to explain to him what he did not understand; and by the scriptures to lead him to the knowledge of the Saviour. And himself said: "Search the scriptures," [John v. 39:] which implies a diligent and attentive examination of things obscure and difficult......In a word, some endeavour to hinder men from reading the scriptures, with a pretence, that it is prying into things that are inaccessible; but indeed, that they may the better hinder men from shewing, by them, the absurdity of their false opinions.'

Du Pin says that, in these passages, the author advances principles that agree very much with those of the pretended reformed: nevertheless he has been so good as to translate them. I presume, therefore, that my doing the like can give offence to none: moreover, these passages have been highly commended by Mr. Bower.

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CHAP. CXXXIV.

PROSPER OF AQUITAIN.

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1. PROSPER, of Aquitain, by some said to have been a bishop; by others, more probably, reckoned a mere layman, is placed, by Cave, as flourishing about the year 444: Basnage' speaks of him at the year 434, which seems to be more proper; for Prosper had some correspondence with Augustine, who died in 430; and, in the year 434, had written several things in favour of

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Ap. Theodoret. T. v. p. 692, 693. et Athan. T. ii. p. 562, 563. As before, p. 67. e History of the Popes, vol. ii. p. 3, 4.

Vid. Pagi Ann. 455. n. 17. 466. n. 4. Basnag. Ann. 434.

13. Fabr. Bib. Lat. T. iii. p. 521, 522. et alios historiæ literariæ scriptores.

e Hist. Lit. T. i. p. 435.

Ann. 434. n. 13.

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