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guarded against with the utmost care. And our Saviour therefore says: “ Beware of false prophets, who come to you in sheeps-clothing: but inwardly they are ravening wolves.” What • is the sheeps-clothing, but the sayings of the prophets and apostles ? Who are ravenous wolves, • but heretics ? Retaining their wolfish fierceness, they cover themselves with sayings of the 'scriptures, as with fleeces; that they may appear to have the softness of wool, and men may forget their sharp teeth.'

Vincent afterwards alleges, 2 Cor. xi. 13, 14. • Whence,' he says, we may conclude that, • according to the apostle, as oftenas false apostles, false prophets, and false teachers, quote passages

of scripture, by which, not rightly understood, they endeavour to support their errors, they follow * the cunning wiles of their master; which he would never have made use of, if he did not know • that there is not a more effectual way to promote error, than a pretence of authority from scrip. • ture. But some one may say: How does it appear that the devil is wont to argue from scrip• ture? Let him read the gospels, in which it is written : “ Then the devil taketh him, and * setteth him upon a pinnacle of the temple. And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God,

cast thyself down : for it is written, He shall give his angels charge concerning thee.” (Matt. iv. 5, 6.) What will not he do to poor mortals, who attacked the Lord of all with passages of

scripture ? “ If,” says he, “thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down.” Why ? - For it is written,” says he. The doctrine of this place ought to be carefully attended to, and well remembered by us : that by this instance, recorded in the gospel itself, we may be fully satis

fied, when we see any men alleging passages of the apostles or prophets against the catholic -* faith, that it is the devil who speaks by them. For as the head then spake to the head, so now * the members speak to the members; that is, the members of Satan to the members of Christ : * perfidious men to faithful; sacrilegious to religious; in a word, heretics to catholics. But what • do they say? “ If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down.” Which is to say: If thou • wilt be the Son of God, and obtain the inheritance of the heavenly kingdom, cast thyself down • from the doctrine and tradition of that high church, which is also reckoned the temple of God. • And if you should ask any of these heretics, Who talks to you at this rate? How do you prove, " that I ought to let go the universal and ancient faith of the catholic church ? he will presently .answer : "

“ For it is written.” And without delay he is ready to allege a thousand passages, a * thousand instances, a thousand authorities, from the law, the Psalms, the apostles, the prophets,

by which, with his new and false interpretations, the unhappy soul, if not upon the guard, is • thrown down from the catholic fortress into the dungeon of heresy.

• But some one may say: If the devil and his disciples, of which some are false apostles, others false prophets, others false teachers, even all heretics, make use of passages and promises of the divine oracles, what shall catholic men do, who are sons of our mother, the church? How shall they understand the scripture, so as to distinguish truth from falsehood? My answer is, that they should carefully observe what was mentioned at the beginning of this Memoir, as • delivered to us by learned and holy men : that they are to interpret the divine canon according to the traditions of the universal church, and the determinations of catholic doctrine ; in which catholic and apostolic church they must, by all means, have universality, antiquity, • consent.'

X. I shall transcribe no more: I only hope that my readers will now join with me in the following remarks:

1. We may hence conclude it to be very probable, that there were then some Christians, of different sentiments from Vincentius upon some points, who made great use of scripture, and had an advantage from it: it was their strong hold; and Vincentius endeavours to bring their intrenchments into suspicion. If he can once draw them from thence, he hopes to have them for his converts and captives.

2. We may also reckon it to be probable, that there were about this time some Christians, whose great regard for the determination of some councils, and for the writings of learned men much esteemed by them, had diminished their respect for the sacred scriptures.

3. Nevertheless, in the method here proposed, of joining the traditions of the church with scripture, or interpreting the divine canon by the determinations of bishops, and other eminent men, Vincentius is far from having universality, antiquity, consent; many excellent Christians, of his own time, had a greater regard for scripture. The early Christian writers declare the inspired scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be the rule of faith; and in that doctrine

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they concur, and consent. And I would hope that the large collections which have been made by us, containing so numerous testimonies to the scriptures, may be of use to fortify serious men against all confident assertions to the contrary : for whenever they are advanced, they must be accompanied with confidence, as the only way of making head against reason, scripture, and the general sense of the most early Christians.

Vincentius does little less than say, that arguments from scripture are heretical and satanical: which, I presume, every reader of this work is able to say, upon good grounds, is a novel way

of speaking, unknown in the early ages of Christianity, next succeeding those of the apostles; in which the scriptures were not slighted and disparaged, but highly respected, and earnestly recommended to the attention of all. Moreover, Vincentius seems to have forgotten, that our Saviour himself repelled all the temptations of Satan with texts of scripture, and with reasons from thence saying: “It is written.” And, ' again,' " It is written: for it is written.” See Matthew, iv. and Luke iv. 8....12.



1. EUCHERIUS," bishop of Lyons in Gaul, Aourished about the year 434. Some things have been ascribed to him, which are not allowed to be his. The generally received are these : Forms and Phrases of Scripture, or a book of Spiritual Forms; Difficult Questions out of the Old and New Testament, with an interpretation of Hebrew names; an epistle concerning the Contempt of the World and Secular Philosophy, another epistle, in Praise of Solitude, or of the Desert. I shall quote no other beside these.

2. As Eucherius is in Gennadius, I place a part of his chapter d below.

3. The difficult questions of the New Testament, are taken out of the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; the epistle to the Romans; the first and second to the Corinthians; the epistle to the Ephesians; to the Colossians; the first and second to Timothy; the epistle to the Hebrews; the Acts of the apostles; the epistle of James; the first epistle of John ; and the Revelation : out of each book, in the order here named.

4. Though no questions are there taken out of other books of the New Testament, no doubt can be made but Eucherius received all the fourteen epistles of St. Paul, and St. Peter's two epistles, and the two latter epistles of St. John, and the epistle of St. Jude: the second epistle of Peter is quoted by him more than once.

5. Misl says, without hesitation, that & Eucherius had, in his copies of St. John's first epistle, the heavenly witnesses. But, in my opinion, that is far from being certain : indeed the text is

• Rufinus, who was well acquainted with the ancient • laris Philosophiæ epistolam unam,' scholastico sermone et Christian writers, both Greeks and Latins, having put down rationabili. Disseruit etiam ad personam filiorum Salonii et a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament, the Veranii, postea episcoporum, Obscura quæque Sanctaruin same which are now received by us, adds: These are the capitula Scripturarum.'. .. aliaque tam ecclesiasticis quam volumes which the fathers have included in the canon, and monasticis studiis necessaria. Moritur sub Valentiniano et out of which they would have us prove the doctrines of our Martiano Principibus. Gennad. De V. I. cap. 63. • faith. See before, Vol. ii. p. 573.

e Ap. Bib. PP. T. vi. p. 847... 653. • Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p423, 424. Fabric. ad Gennad. f Sic Petrus in epistolâ :

• Unam vero hoc non lateat vos cap. 63. Du Pin. T. iii. P. ii. p. 173. Tillem. T. xv.

carissimi, quia unus dies apud Deum sicut mille anni.' [2 Formulæ seu Phrases Scripturæ, seu Formularum Spiri- Pet. iii. 8.) Form. Spirital. cap. 11. p. 839. D. Vid: et cap. tualium Liber. Instructiones ad Salonium de Quæstionibus

5. p. 832. H. Veteris et Novi Testamenti. Epistola parænetica ad Valeria- 8 Jam enim, sub annum Christi 434, ab Eucherio Lugdunum cognatum de Contemtu Mundi et Secularis Philosophiæ. nensi citatam eam reperimus, lib. Formularum Spiritalis InDe Laude Eremi, seu de Vità Solitaria. Ap. Bib. PP. Lugd. telligentiæ.' cap. xi. 3, 4. Ét sane mirum, haud exstitisse T. vi. p. 822....866.

ipsam jam in aliis scriptis Patrum Occidentalium, &c. Prolegom. Eucherius, Lugdunensis ecclesiæ presbyter, scripsit ad n. 938. Valerianum propinquum suum. de Contemtu Mundi ei Secu


found in the book of Spiritual Forms, or Scripture Phrases. But let us observe the questions taken out of St. John's epistle, one of which is : Again, John, in his epistle, says: “ There are • three that bear witness; water, blood, and spirit." What does that mean? Answer. Here • seems a reference to what the same John writes in his gospel ; “ But one of the soldiers with a • spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out water and blood. And he that saw it, • bare record.” [ch. xix. 34, 35.] And he had before said ; “ He bowed his head, and gave up • the ghost.” [ver. 30.] Some therefore argue, that “ the water,” denotes baptism; the

blood,” martyrdom; and “the spirit,” the soul ; which at death goes to God: but the most, • by a mystical interpretation, understand the Trinity itself. The “ water,” they say, denotes • the Father; the “ blood,” Jesus Christ, who died; and the “ spirit,” the Holy Ghost.'

Eucherius, who wrote this, had not the heavenly witnesses in his copy of St. John's epistle. The text, therefore, as cited in the forementioned place and book, did not come from him; but has been made out, by some late transcriber, from modern copies of the New Testament, Eucherius had written: • And in John's epistle: “ There are three that bear witness; the

water, the blood, and the spirit :" but some transcriber filled up the quotation out of his late copies. The reading, without the heavenly witnesses, does as well suit the design of the author or better, than with them: for he is there explaining, or shewing the mystery of numbers. • Number I,' he says, “refers to the unity of God: Number II, refers to the two testaments of • the divine law: Number III, to the Trinity. So, in John's epistle: “ There are three that • bear witness ; the water, the blood and the spirit.” So I think, Eucherius wrote : and in this manner the two places, in those two works, perfectly agree and harmonize.

I hope the account which I have here given of this matter, may be satisfactory to the reader.

Nevertheless, since writing what is above, I have observed, that J. A. Bengelius, referring to the book of Spiritual Forms,' says, that the disputed text in St. John is plainly quoted by « Eucherius.' And before that, referring to the books of the Questions out of the Old

and New Testament, he says : · Eucherius, but different from him to be afterwards mentioned, does not

quote it :' what reasons Mr. Bengelius has for thinking those two works to have been composed by two different authors, I cannot tell. Eucherius, bishop of Lyons, had two sons, Veranius, and Salonius, or Saloninus ; to the former, he inscribed his book of • Spiritual Forms;' to the other, the work of Difficult Questions.' About this there is no dispute among learned men, that I know of; however, I shall now' refer to some other, beside those referred to at the beginning of this chapter.

The preceding argument, therefore, remains in full force, so far as I can perceive.

This whole chapter, as it now is, was finished by me before the publication of the second volume of Mr. Wetstein's New Testament : what he says of Eucherius Lugdunensis may be seen at p. 725 of the said volume.

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· Ad Trinitatem in Johannis epistolâ : "Tres sunt qui tes- 18.] Et item : Cum autem.'... [xv. 26.] Perhibet ergo testimonium dant in cælo, Pater, Verbum, et Spiritus Sanctus. timonium Pater, cum dicit: 'Hic est Filius meus dilectus.' • Et tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terrâ, Spiritus, Aqua, [Matt. iii. 17.) Filius cum dicit: 'Ego et Pater unum sumus.' et Sanguis.' Form. Spirit. cap. 11. n. 3. p. 838. E.

[Joh. x. 30.) Spiritus Sanctus, cum de eo dicitur : 'Et vidit • Interr. Item in epistolâ suâ Johannes ponit : “ Tria sunt, Spiritum Dei descendentem, sicut columbam venientem quæ testimonium perhibent, aqua, sanguis et spiritas.' Quid super se.' (Matt. iii. 16.) De Qu. N. T. ib. p. 853. B. C. D. in hoc indicatur? Resp. Simile huic loco etiam illud mihi © I. Hic numerus ad unitatem Deitatis refertur... II. Ad videtur, quod ipse in evaugelio suo de passione Christi loqui- duo testamenta divinæ legis referuntur. .. III. Ad Trinitatem, tur, dicens: “Unus militum lanceâ latus ejus aperuit, et con- in Johannis epistola.. .. 'Tres sunt qui testimonium dant,

tinuo exivit sanguis et aqua. Et qui vidit, testimonium per- * Aqua, Sanguis, et Spiritus.' Formul. Spiritual. cap. 11. • hibet.' In eodem ipse de Jesu supra dixerat: Inclinato 'capite reddidit spiritum.' Quidam ergo ex hoc ita disputant. . Sect. xv. Et apertissime Eucherius Lugdunensis. Versum Aqua baptismum : Sanguis videtur indicare martyrium: 7, et 8, distincte citat in libro Formularum Spiritualis intelliSpiritus vero est, qui per martyrium transit ad Dominum.... gentiæ: de numeris agens. Bengel. N. T. Gr. p. 753. Plures tamen bic ipsam interpretatione mysticâ intelligunt e Non citat Eucherius, sed diversus ab illo, de quo, sect. Trinitatem, eo quod perfecta ipsa perhibeat testimonium xv. in Quest. N. T. Id. ibid. p. 750. Christo. Aqua Patrem indicans, quia ipse de se dicit: 'Me De uxore duos filios suscepit, Veranium et Saloninum, • dereliquerunt, fontem aquæ vivæ.' (Jerem. f. 13.) Sanguine quibus et libros nuncupavit; Veranio librum Formularum Christum demonstrans, utique per passionis cruorem : Spiritu spiritualis intelligentiæ ; Salonino vero duos, priorem de vero Sanctum Spiritum manifestans. Hæc autem tria de Quæstionibus difficilioribus Veteris et N. T. posteriorem de Christo testimonium ita perhibent, ipso in evangelio loquente: Hebr. nominum interpretatione. S. Basn. ann. 441. n. v. Vid.

Ego sum qui testimonium perhibeo de meipso... (Joh. viii. et Hod. de Text. Orig. p. 397. et Pagi an. 441. n. iv..., X.

P. 838.

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1. FOR

or a particular account of Cælius, or CÆCILIUS SEDULIUS, and the works ascribed to him, I refer to - several: he is in • Trithemius ; and I would have transcribed his article, but that it is full of faults, and therefore not to be relied upon in any thing. Fabricius says, that. Trithemius seems to have confounded three of that name: Sedulius the poet, who lived in the fifth century; and two others, of later ages. Therein he follows « Labbé, whom he quotes ; whose account of Sedulius is also particularly commended by Bayle. It is commonly said, that Sedulius, was a Scot; that is, a native of Ireland: but there is no proof of it in ancient authors.

2. Tillemont,' after having weighed what has been said by others, concludes, that Sedulius wrote between 425 and 450 : I shall therefore place him, with Cave, at 424.

3. It is probable, that Sedulius was a presbyter, as he is called by Isidore, of Seville ; and not a bishop, as some have supposed.

1. The only two pieces rightly ascribed to him, and still extant, are intitled," A Paschal Poem, and A Paschal Work: or, A Paschal Work, in verse; and A Paschal work, in prose. The former is sometimes divided into four, at other times intok five books. The first book exhibits the most remarkable things in the Old Testament; the three, or four following, contain the history of our Lord, taken from the four gospels : and, it is generally allowed, that the poem

has in it a good deal of elegance. The Paschal Work, in' five books, represents, in prose, the same things which had been before celebrated in metre, by the same author.

5. The two works of this ingenious presbyter bear testimony to the four evangelists, and their gospels; whose names, with their symbols, he particularly mentions," at the conclusion of his first book.

6. I do not observe in him the doxology at the end of the Lord's Prayer, which we now have in St. Matthew: it is probable that it was wanting in this author's copy. He has the address, or appellation, at the beginning, and the following petitions : and" he distinctly paraphraseth all in each of his works, that in metre, and that in prose ; but there is no notice taken in either, of a doxology at the end.

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a Vid. Ph. Labb. Diss. de Scr. Ec. T. ii. p. 328, 329, 330, &c. Cav. H. L. T. i. Du Pin Bib. Ec. T. ii. P. ii. p. 75. Tillem. Mem. T. xii. Fabric. Bib: Lat. 1. iv. c. ii. p. 306, 307, et Bib. Ec. ad Isid. Hisp. c. 7. et ad Trithem. cap. 142. See likewise Sedulius, in Bayle's Dictionary.

b De Ser. Ec. cap. 142.

c Videtur Trithemius in unum confundere tres Sedulios, poëtam seculo quinto clarum, et episcopum, qui A. C. 721, et Auctoren Hibernum Collectaneorum in epistolas Pauli, qui centum post annis vixit. Fabr. ad Trith. cap. 142. Ap.. Bib. Ec.

• See before, Labbé, ini neted; and Sedulius, in Bayle's Dictionary, note

See Sedulius, in his Mem. Ec. T. xii. p. 612. and note i
8 De Scr. Ec, cap. 7.
h Carmen Paschale: Opus Paschale.

Ap. Bib. PP. Max. T. 6. p. 460, &c.
k In edit. Cellarian. Hal. Magdeb. 1704:
Ap. Bib. PP. ib. p. 472, &c. in Christe fave votis....
Hoc Matthæus agens hominem generaliter implet.
Marcus ut alta fremit vox per deserta leonis:
Jura sacerdotis Lucas tenet ore juvenci.
More volans aquilæ, verbo petit astra Joannes,
Quatuor hi proceres, unâ te voce canentes,
Tempora seu totidem latum sparguntur in orbem.
Sic et apostolici semper duodenus honoris
Fulget apex, numero menses imitatus et horas.

d An Sedulius poëta fuit Scotus ?. Nullus id veterum dixit. Recentiores ou wrudesce. delusi tres in unum Sedulios confuderunt, ac poëtam seculo quinto florentem cum episcopo, qui anno 721, et cum sacræ scripturæ interprete, seu Collectaneorum Auctore, qui centum post annis vivebat, Scotis temere accensuerunt. Nec ad rem faciunt quæ Usserius partim ex Trithemio, &c. Labb, de Scr. Ec. T. ii. p. 330,

Ib. p. 462. D. D. Conf. p. 476. G. n Vid. ib. p. 464. et p. 481, 482.



1. I shall here add some extracts out of a work of another SEDULIUS; certainly different from Sedulius the poet, of the fifth century. He seems to have been a Scot, of Ireland, and to have flourished in the ninth century, about the year 818. He wrote a Commentary upon St. Paul's fourteen epistles, which is called Collectaneum ;' it being a collection out of Origen, Hilary, Jerom, Augustine, and other ancient writers. It appears, from this Commentary, that . Sedulius understood Greek; and probably Hebrew,“ likewise.

2. In Acts xx. 28. he read the church of the Lord,' where we have, in our copies, “ the church of God.” And in the same place he observes, that they who, at ver. 17th of that chapter are called “elders of the church” at Ephesus, at the 28th ver. are called “bishops :" so that elders and bishops were then all one. But afterwards, he says, for preventing contention, it was appointed, that there should be but one bishop in a church ; which last observation is again men. tioned' in another place, as from Jerom.

3. At Rom. i. 32. this author seems to have read : · And not only they that do them, but they also that have pleasure in them ;' which Mill supposes to be the right reading: but I do not perceive him to take any notice of Sedulius. This reading we saw also in Isidore, of Pelusium, not " long ago.

4. Rom. xii. 13. • Distributing to the necessities of saints.' So this text appears in the edition of Sedulius's Commentary: but it seems to be implied, in his explanation, that he did not read. necessities,' but ‘memories,' or 'memorials:' however, he mentions two interpretations, one suiting our common reading. Of this matter we spoke formerly, in the chapter of Optatus.

5. Upon Rom. xv. 24. he says, it was uncertain whether Paul ever went into Spain.

6. Upon Rom. xvi. 21. he observes : Some " said that Lucius was the evangelist, generally called Luke.

7. Upon 1 Cor. v. 9. • I have written to you in an epistle; that is," says he, • I write :' and meaning therefore, certainly, in this epistle. • Pelagiuso understood this place in the same

8. Upon 1 Cor. xi. 25. “ Not discerning the Lord's body:” that is, says he, not distinguishing it from common food.


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• Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. in Sedulio, p. 425. Du Pin. T. 7. | Hac causà prohibitum est, duos episcopos esse in una p. 177. Tillem. T. xii. Labbé de Scr. Ec. T. ii. p. 338. Pagi civitate. In 1 Cor. i. ver. 12. p. 537. E. ann. 818. n. iii.

8 Non solum qui faciunt, sed etiam qui consentiunt facienb Sedulii Scoti Hiberniensis in omnes S. Pauli epistolas tibus. In Rom. i. p. 498. H: Collectaneum. Ap. Bib. PP. Lugdun. T. vi. p. 494.. ..588. h See in this volume, p. 8.

¢ Qui Sedulius, non ille quidem Cælius Sedulius, qui seculo Necessitatibus sanctorum communicantes.' Manifestum quinto carmina quædam et alia opuscula edidit, sed alter Sedu- est, quia qui preces suas exaudiri vult, æmulus debet esse vitæ lius Scotus Hiberniensis, qui nono seculo floruit, Hunc ipsum sanctorum : ut hoc sit memorem esse, et communicatorem, esse, tum nomen cognomenque suadent... tum etiam peritia imitari actus illorum. Aliter: •Memores (an memoriis ?] Græcæ linguæ, quam in Commentariis suis in epistolas Pauli, sanctorum communicantes :' hoc est, ministrantes eis, qui jamdiu editis, præfert Sedulius ille Scotus. Nam frequenter propter Christum omnia contemnentes, alienis ad tempus inibi de lectione Græca, nec prorsus indocte, disserit. Unde digent ministeriis. In Rom. xii. p. 531. F. Commentarii pro illâ ætate ivier præstantiores computandi

* See Vol. ij. p. 492. suot. Montfauc. Palaiogr. Gr. l. iii. c. 7. p. 236.

| Utrum vero in Hispaniam venerit, incertum. p. 535. A. Vid. in Rom. cap. i. p. 494. G. et alibi.

m Lucium quidam perhibent esse Lucam, qui evangelium ''Attendite vobis, et omni gregi, in quo vos Spiritus scripsit ; pro eo quod soleant nomina interdum secundum • Sanctus posuit episcopos, pascere ecclesiam Domini, quam patriam declinationen, interdum etiam secundum Græcam,

acquisivit per sanguinem suum.' Et bic diligentius obser- Romanamque proferri. ib. p. 536. D. vato, quomodo unius civitatis Ephesi presbyteros vocans, * Scripsi vobis.' Pro Scribo. Vel ideo præteritum dicit, postea episcopos dixerit. Hæc propterea, ut ostenderemus, quia cum legeretur, tempus scribendi præteritum esset. P. apud veteres eosdem fuisse presbyteros quos episcopos. Pau- 540. C. latim vero, ut dissensionum plantaria evellerentur, ad unum • Sce vol. ii. p. 631. omnium solicitudinem esse dilatam. Id. Ep. ad Tit. cap. i. pNon dijudic

corpus Domini.' Id est, non discernens P. 579. A.

ipsum a cibo communi. p. 545. F.



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