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and the pre-eminence of Peter above the other apostles; and he improves the words of 1 Pet. ii. 9, to subserve his purpose of exalting the see of Rome.
1. His time, and works, and character. II. His testimony to the scriptures. III. Select passages.
I. SALVIAN, presbyter of Marseilles, of whom some notice was taken by us formerly, is placed,
by Cave, as flourishing about the year 440, and afterwards. He is spoken of as flourishing about 440, because, in that year, he finished his treatise of Providence, one of his principal works; he is in Gennadius, a part of whose chapter I transcribe below: he mentions some works of Salvian beside those now extant; which are, the forementioned treatise, Of Providence, or the Divine Government, in eight books; Against Covetousness, in four books; Epistles, nine in number. Gennadius says, he might, without offence, call Salvian a master of bishops; and, among his works, reckons many homilies, which were preached by bishops, not so well qualified to compose for themselves. Salvian is a very agreeable writer: he was living when Gennadius. wrote his book of Illustrious Men, that is in 485, as Tillemont computes. Other learned men are for a later date of that work of Gennadius; thinking it not written till 494, or thereabout.
II. Salvian seems to have received all the books of the New Testament which we do.
1. The book of the Acts is often and largely quoted by him: he' quotes the epistle to the Hebrews, as the apostle Paul's; he also quotes the epistle of St. James, the second epistle of St. Peter, and the book of the Revelation.
2. His general divisions of the sacred scriptures are such as these: First," the law; then, the prophets; thirdly, the gospel; fourthly, the apostles. Again: the Old and New Testament; the law, the prophets, the apostles, the gospels; prophets, apostles, and gospels; gospels and apostles, and the like.
ut, quamvis in populo Dei multi sacerdotes sint, omnes tamen proprie regat Petrus, quos principaliter et regit Christus. Serm. 3. cap. 2. vid. et cap. 3, et 4.
Isti sunt [Petrus et Paulus] qui te ad hanc gloriam provexerunt, ut gens sancta, populus electus, civitas sacerdota'lis et regia,' per sacram beati Petri sedem caput orbis effecta, latius præsideres religione, quam dominatione terrenâ, &c. Serm. 80. cap. 1.
b See vol. i. p. 476.
H. L. T. i. p. 433.
d Vid. Pagi Ann. 440. n. 6. et Ann. 490. n. 25.
⚫ Salvianus, Massiliensis ecclesiæ presbyter, humanâ et divinâ literaturâ instructus, et, ut absque invidiâ loquar, episcoporum magister, scripsit scholastico et aperto sermone multa. Ex quibus legi.... Adversus Avaritiam libros quatuor.... Et in morem Græcorum, de principio Genesis usque ad conditionem hominis, compositum versu exaëmeron librum unum, Homilias episcopis [vel ad episcopos] factas multas.... Vivit usque hodie senectute bonâ. Genn. de V. I. cap. 67.
' Mem. Ec. T. xvi. sur Salvien, note 4.
8 Vid. Basnag. Ann. 494. 6. Pagi Ann. 490. n. 20.
Et ideo in apostolorum Actibus beatissimus Paulus, In ipso,' inquit, et vivimus, et movemur, et sumus.' De Gubern. Dei. 1. 2. p. 34. Vid. et 1. 8. p. 191. Adv. Avarit. 1. iii. p. 276, 277. et alibi. Edit. S. Baluz. Paris. 1669.
Si enim inquit apostolus, omnis inobedientia justam accipit mercedis retributionem, quomodo nos effugiemus, si tantam neglexerimus salutem? [Hebr. ii. 3.] Adv. Avar. 1. 4. p. 229. Vid. ib. p. 310.
* De Gubernat. Dei. 1. 3. p. 60. 1. 4. p. 65. Adv. Avar. 1. 1. p. 228.
" Quæritur forsitan, quæ sint bona, quæ Deus Christianis. hominibus adsignet? Quæ, nisi omnia, per quæ Christiani sumus? Primum scilicet legem, deinde prophetas, tertio, evangelium, quarto apostolicas lectiones. De Gubern. Dei,. 1. 3. p. 45.
• Et quidem non quæro, ut cuncta faciat, quæ Testamenta duorum temporum jubent. Remitto censuram legis antiquæ. Remitto omnes prophetarum minas. Remitto etiam quæ remitti omnino non possunt, vel apostolorum librorum severissimam institutionem, vel evangelicorum voluminum plenam omni perfectionis genere doctrinam. Ibid.
Talis profecto secta est, quales sectatores sunt. Hoc sunt absque dubio quod docentur. Apparet itaque, et prophetas quos habent impuritatem docere, et apostolos quos legunt nefaria fanxisse, et evangelia, quibus immbuuntur, hæc, quæ ipsi faciunt, prædicare. De Gubern. 1. 4. p. 92.
Evangelia legunt, et impudici sunt. Apostolos audiunt, et inebriantur. Ib. p. 91.
3. For which he expresseth the greatest regard: for he considers the scriptures as dictated by the Spirit of God, as containing the revelation of the mind of God to us; from whence, as well as by reason, he proves the doctrine of a Providence, which he is treating of.
III. I shall now observe a few select passages.
1. He supposeth the number of " five thousand," mentioned Acts iv. 4, to be additional to the "three thousand," in ch. ii. 41, making in all eight thousand. Nevertheless, I do not think that to be the true sense; nor yet, that the number was now "five thousand," including the “three thousand" converted by Peter's first sermon: for many of them had come from divers and remote parts to Jerusalem, to be present at the feast of Pentecost; and probably, soon after the feast was over, returned to their several countries and dwellings: nor does St. Luke say, that now five thousand were added' to the apostles, or to the church; but he says, that at this season, "many of them which heard the word believed," or were converted; " and the number of the men was" made,' syvby, "five thousand;" with the addition of converts now made, the whole number of believers at Jerusalem amounted to five thousand. Many of the first three thousand were dead or removed; but from time to time new converts had been made, and at this season 6 many believed;' whereby the number of believers at Jerusalem became five • thousand.'
2. He calls Timothy apostle, meaning, undoubtedly, apostle in a lower sense only, as equivalent to apostolical, or a companion and disciple of apostles.
3. He celebrates the fortitude and patience of the primitive Christians.
4. He insists very much upon the general corruption of manners among Christians in his time; and largely shews, that it is unbecoming the Christian profession, and dishonourable to Christ himself.
5. Salvian assures us, that they who were called heretics received the same scriptures that other Christians did; the same prophets, the same apostles, and evangelists.
6. He says, moreover, that heretics err innocently, at least sincerely: they believe what they profess to be true; and they think themselves to be orthodox. As they are heretics in our esteem, so are we in theirs: and how they will be treated in the day of judgment upon account of this their erroneous opinion, the Judge alone knows.
• Loquens in voluminibus suis sermo divinus sic ait... De Gub. 1. 2. p. 31. Quod ut plenius capias, audi quid in alio scripturarum loco idem testatur Spiritus Sanctus. Ibid. Sicut etiam per divinas literas sacer sermo testatus est. L. 4. in.
Sed tamen cum per scripturas sacras scire nos quasi de arcano animi ac mentis suæ quædam voluerit Deus noster, quia ipsum quodammodo scripturæ sacræ oraculum Dei mens est, quidquid vel agnosci per suos, vel prædicari Deus voluit, non tacebo. De Gub. 1. 3. p. 43.
Ecce evidenter dicit volumen sacrum, cuncta quotidie nutu divinitatis regi, et incessabiliter a Deo omnia gubernari. De Gub. 1. 2. p. 33.-Superest, ut quia testimoniis sacris et respici ac regi a Deo omnia jam probavimus, &c. Ib. p. 35. Quæ fuerit quippe tunc multitudo ecclesiæ principalis, ex hoc solo cognosci potest, quod in principiis statim ipsis octo hominum millia biduo ecclesiæ accessisse referuntur. Adv. Avar. 1. 3. p. 277.
Legimus Timotheum apostolum carne infirmissimum fuisse. De Gub. I. i. c. 10.
Omittamus ergo illa, quæ beatissimus Paulus pertulit, immo quæ in libris postea de religione conscriptis omnes admodum Christianos legimus pertulisse; qui ad cælestis regiæ januam gradibus pœnarum suarum adscendentes, scalas sibi quodammodo de equuleis catastisque fecerunt. De Gub. 1. iii. p. 50.
* Quotusquisque est, qui non se luto fornicationis involvat? Et quid plura? Grave et luctuosum est, quod dicturus sum. Ipsa ecclesia, quæ in omnibus esse debet placatrix Dei, quid est aliud, quam exacerbatrix Dei? Aut præter paucissimos quosdam, qui mala fugiunt, quid est aliud pene omnis cœtus Christianorum, quam sentina vitiorum? De Gub. 1. iii. p. 57.
-In hanc enim morum probrositatem prope omnis ecclesiastica plebs redacta est, ut in cuncto populo Christiano genus quoddam sanctitatis sit, minus esse vitiosum. Ib. p. 58.
Quo fit, ut etiam nos, qui Christiani esse dicimur, perdamus vim tanti nominis, vitio pravitatis. Nihil enim prodest nomen habere sanctum sine moribus; quia vita a professione discordans abrogat illustris tituli honorem. Ib. p. 62.
De nobis enim dicitur illud, quod supra diximus: Ecce quales sunt, qui Christum colunt.... Si enim bona discerent, boni essent... Postremo sancta a Christianis fierent, si Christus sancta docuisset. Estimari itaque de cultoribus suis potest ille qui colitur. Quomodo enim bonus magister est, cujus tam malos videmus esse discipulos?... Vide Christiani quid agant, et evidenter potest de ipso Christo sciri, quid doceat. De Gub. 1. iv. p. 91, 92.
* Eadem enim etiam illos legere quæ nos legimus, eosdem apud illos prophetas Dei, eosdem apostolos, eosdem evangelistas esse. L. v. p. 99.
I Hæretici ergo sunt, sed non scientes. Denique apud nos sunt hæretici, apud se non sunt. Nam in tantum se catholicos esse judicant, ut nos ipsos titulo hæretica appellationis infament. Quod ergo illi nobis sunt, hoc nos illis. Nos eos injuriam divinæ generationi facere, certi sumus, quod minorem patre filium dicant. Illi nos injuriosos Patri existimant, quia æquales esse credimus. Veritas apud nos est. Sed illi apud se esse præsumunt. . . . Errant ergo; sed bono animo errant, non odio, sed affectu Dei, honorare se Dominum atque amare credentes....Qualiter pro hoc ipso false opinionis errore in die judicii puniendi sint, nullus potest scire, nisi judex. Ib. p. 100.
EUTHALIUS, BISHOP OF SULCA, IN EGYPT.
EUTHALIUS has been already mentioned in this work. I must now give a more distinct account of him, and his performances in the service of the gospel: still referring to others, those who are desirous of farther information, or who may be willing to compare several accounts together.
2. Euthalius, as is supposed, was at first deacon in the church of Alexandria, or some other city in Egypt: and afterwards bishop of Sulca; probably, in Egypt, though its situation is not certainly known.
3. In the year 458, he published an edition of St. Paul's epistles; and afterwards, about the year 490, an edition of the Acts of the apostles, and the seven catholic epistles, having first compared them with the exact copies in the library of Cæsarea in Palestine.
4. It is generally supposed, that all the books of the New Testament were at first written by the apostles and evangelists in one continued tenor, without any sections or chapters: the most ancient distinction, which we know of, is that of Eusebius's canons for the four gospels. In the year 396, some learned Christian, whose name is not known, divided St. Paul's epistles into chapters or lessons. This is collected from what Euthalius says in his prologue to St. Paul's epistles: those chapters Euthalius made use of in his own edition of the same epistles. He added some other lesser sections, or subdivisions: he likewise collected all the testimonies or passages, cited by St. Paul, from the Old Testament; or from other writings, marking the sections in which they were to be found. This Euthalius did when a deacon: afterwards, when bishop of Sulca, at the desire of Athanasius, who was made bishop of Alexandria in 490, he published an edition of the Acts of the apostles, and the seven catholic epistles; now dividing these also into lessons, chapters, and verses, which had never been done before; collecting also all the passages of the Old Testament, and other writings, quoted by Paul or Luke in the Acts, or by other apostles in the catholic epistles. And to the several parts of this work he prefixed a prologue or preface: I mean to St. Paul's Epistles, the Acts, and the catholic epistles.
5. There are several things in the manuscript copies of Euthalius, now extant, which are not certainly known to be his. At the end of his prologue to St. Paul's epistles, is a martyrdom of Paul, or a note concerning the time of St. Paul's last suffering: which is also in Ecumenius, prefixed to his Commentary upon the Acts of the apostles. That note, as it seems, was written by the learned author beforementioned, who first divided St. Paul's epistle into chapters. There are also Arguments prefixed to all St. Paul's epistles, which are not known to be Euthalius's; nor the writer's who first divided those epistles into chapters. Zacagni thinks, they belong to neither: forasmuch as Euthalius does not particularly mention them in his account of what that more ancient author had done; nor in the account of his own performance. Zacagni therefore concludes those Arguments were composed by some learned man afterwards: and the transcribers of Euthalius's work in after times, inserted those Arguments, as an useful improvement of his edition. All those Arguments are likewise in Ecumenius: and in Mill's edition of the New Testament, they are prefixed to St. Paul's epistles severally, with the name of Ecumenius, as author.
See vol. ii. p. 123, and p. 405.
b Vid. Zacagn. Collectan. in Præf. n. 45. &c. Cav. Hist. Lit. Tom. i. Oxon. 1740. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. viii. p. 367, &c. Mill. Proleg. n. 941, &c. Wetsten. Proleg. ad Ñ. T. edit. accurat. p. 73, 74. Oudin. de Scr. Ec. T. i. P. 1266.
c Vid. Zacagn. Collectan. p. 513. et Conf. hujus Operis T. iii. p. 347. not. "
d Vid. Zacagn. in Præf. n. 48. p. 57.
e Καθ' έκασην δε συντομως επιςόλην εν τοις ἑξης προϊαξόμεν την των κεφαλάιων εκθεσίν, ένι των σοφωλαίων τινι και φίλος
6. The Argument likewise of the Acts of the apostles, and the Peregrination of St. Paul subjoined to it, and the Arguments of the catholic epistles, Zacagni does not ascribe to Euthalius: he thinks there is no good reason to say they are his, since Euthalius himself is silent about them. The forementioned Argument is in Ecumenius also, prefixed to the Acts of the apostles and the Peregrination is in Ecumenius, after the Acts, or before the epistle to the Romans. The arguments of the catholic epistles are also in Ecumenius: and in Mill's New Testament they are prefixed to the said catholic epistles, with the name of Ecumenius.
7. I shall now mention a few observations, and make some extracts.
8. It hence appears that, in the fifth century, all the seven catholic epistles were received at Alexandria, and in other parts of Egypt.
9. Possibly, we may also hence conclude, that the Revelation was not received there; or at least that it was not publicly read, nor so generally recommended to the use of all Christians, as the other books of the New Testament: for if it had, it might be reasonable to expect, that it should have been now divided into lessons, chapters, and verses.
10. Euthalius ascribes the Acts of the apostles to Luke. In his prologue to the Acts, he says, That Luke the evangelist, disciple of Paul, was a physician of Antioch, and that he ' wrote two books: one of which, and the first, is that of the gospel; the other is this book of the Acts of the apostles; in which he relates the ascension of Christ to heaven; the descent ⚫ of the Holy Ghost upon the holy apostles; and how the disciples preached the doctrine of Christ; and what miracles they wrought by prayer and faith in him; and the divine call of Paul from heaven, and his apostleship, and successful preaching; and, in a word, the labours of the apostles for Christ, in the midst of many dangers and difficulties.' In the prologue to St. Paul's epistles, he again calls the Acts, Luke's second book.
11. The prologue to St. Paul's epistles contains the history of Paul, collected from the Acts of the apostles, and from his epistles, chiefly from the former; and then an enumeration of his epistles; and after that, in the third section, a farther account of St. Paul's actions in the order of time, partly taken from Eusebius's Chronicle, and Ecclesiastical History. He says, That beside many other labours in the course of his life to bring men to the practice of virtue, Paul wrote fourteen epistles, containing instructions for every part of a holy conversation.' He enumerates the epistles in this order: to the Romans; two to the Corinthians; to the Galatians; to the Ephesians; to the Philippians; to the Colossians; to the Thessalonians; to the Hebrews; the epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.
12. Euthalius placeth Paul's epistles, according to the proficiency which they had made, to whom they were sent; beginning with the least perfect, and proceeding to the more perfect. This is evident, from several things: for he says, the epistle to the Romans is placed first, as containing instructions for those who had yet learned only the first principles of the gospel; this notion appears also in what he says upon the epistle to the Ephesians, the fifth in order: and then he says, that the epistle to the Philippians, the sixth in order, is written to the faithful, who had made progress, and had brought forth good fruit. And at the end of his enumeration of the fourteen epistles, he expressly says, they are placed according to the order of men's proficiency.
Ap. Zac. Coll. p. 421.... b Ibid. p. 425....427.
• Dubitari tamen potest, an argumentum Actuum apostolorum, et Peregrinationes Pauli apostoli eidem subjunctæ, Euthalii opus existant, quippe quod ipse in fine prologi in apostolorum Actus nonnulla de Lucâ evangelistâ eorumdem scriptore posuerit, quæ cum argumenti vices supplere possint, parum verisimile est, Euthalium de novo ejusdem libri argumento conscribendo cogitâsse. Accedit, quod nunquam asserat Euthalius, se in Novi Testamenti libris, quos illustrandos suscepit, argumenta ulla scripsisse, et quæ Pauli epistolis in ejusdem editione præfiguntur, ea alterius auctoris esse, superius ostensum est. Quamobrem idem prorsus de Actuum apostolorum et catholicarum epistolarum argumentis censendum esse videtur, ea nempe, uti et alia epistolarum Paulinarum argumenta, post vulgatam Euthalii editionem, ab aliquo pio viro edita, et ab antiquis librariis eidem inserta fuisse, quo suis codicibus majorem existimationem conciliarent. Zacag. Præf. n. liv. p. 66. Conf. Eund. p. 421. not. 4.
d Ecum. T. i. p. 192.
Αντιοχευς γαρ δῖος ύπαρχων το γενος, ιατρος δε επισήμην, προς Παύλο μαθητευθεις, δύο βιβλός συνεγράψατο, μιαν μεν, και προτεραν, την τε ευαγγελια, δευτεραν δε ταύτην την περί των αποςολικων πραξεων. Ibid. p. 410.
Και Λυκάς ίςορει εν τη δευτερα βιβλῳ ἑαυτ8. Prol. in Paul. Ep. ib. p. 517.
8 Ανάγκαιον δε ήγησαμην εν βραχει και τον χρόνον επίσης μειωσασθαι τε κηρυγματος Παυλο. κ.λ. Ib. p. 529....535. Et Conf. Ecumen. T. i. p. 193.... 195.
n Ετι δε και όλως δια της ύφης των δεκαίεσσαρων επιστολων τέλων την όλην ανθρώποις διέγραψε πολιτειαν. Ib. p. 523.
· Περιεχει ἂν ἡ προς Ρωμαίους επισολη κατηχησιν εις Χρι 5ον...διο πρωτη τείακίαι. Οία προς αρχην εχονίας εις θεύσεις δειαν γραφείσα. Ib. p. 523. Vid. p. 524.
1 Ἑκλη τετακται ἡ προς Φιλιππησίες, καλα προσαυξησιν τοις τις iu mai naprodo pois. x. λ. p. 525. in.
Οθως ἡ πασα βιβλος της μιέχει παντοιου είδος πολιτειών καλα προσαύξησιν. p. 528.
13. I do not think this to be an observation of any importance; but as it is uncommon, I have taken notice of it. And it is very true, that the apostle Paul's epistles are suited to promote the benefit of Christians of all ranks, and of every degree of attainment in religious knowledge and virtue, whether greater or smaller.
14. I choose now to conclude this chapter with St. Paul's martyrdom, before mentioned, drawn up in the year 396, and ascribed to the learned and pious writer who first divided St. Paul's epistles into chapters, or sections. It is to this purpose: In the time of Nero emperor of the Romans, Paul the apostle, having exercised a good exercise, completed his testimony [or suffered martyrdom] at Rome, being beheaded with a sword, in the thirty and sixth year of ' our Saviour's passion, on the fifth day of the month Panemus, according to the Syro-Macedonians; which, with the Egyptians, is the fifth day of Epiphi; and with the Romans, the third 'before the Calends of July [that is, the 25th of June;] upon which day the holy apostle com'pleted his testimony, in the sixty-ninth year of the advent of our Saviour Jesus Christ. " space of time, therefore, since his martyrdom, is three hundred and thirty years to this present consulship, the fourth of Arcadius, and the third of Honorius, august emperors and brothers;' that is, the year 396 of our Lord's nativity, according to the common account.
CHA P. CXLIII.
f H. L. T. i. p. 225.
* Ann. 51. a. 60, &c.
DIONYSIUS, FALSELY CALLED THE AREOPAGITE.
1. THAT the books of Celestial, and Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and other works, with the name of DIONYSIUS the Areopagite, are spurious, and were not composed by Dionysius, member of the Athenian senate, and disciple of Paul, mentioned in the Acts, is now the general opinion of learned men; but all are not agreed about the time when they were written.
2. Daillé, who examined those writings with great diligence, was of opinion, that they were not published before the beginning of the sixth century; possibly about the year 520: Pearson' has since argued, that they were written about the year 330: Cave' placeth this author at the year 362, supposing he might be the elder Apollinarius, who flourished about the middle of the fourth century; but the opinion of Daillé, or what is not very different, has generally prevailed. Samuel Basnage agrees exactly with him, and confutes Pearson's arguments; nor does Tillemont scruple to shew the weakness of Pearson's reasonings: Pagi' freely owns, that they were not quoted before the year 532, and were not written till after the council of Chalcedon : Nourri supposeth that they were written between the years 431 and 451, but not made public till some time after. James Basnage, whom' I transcribe below, says, they were written in the latter part of the fifth, or the beginning of the sixth century. So general a concurrence of opinions is
b P. 38.
• Μαρτυριον Παυλο το αποτολα.
• Επί Νέρωνος το Καίσαρος Ῥωμαίων εμαρτύρησεν αυτόθι Παυλος ὁ απόσολος, ξιφει την κεφαλήν αποιμηθείς, εν τῷ τριακοςῳ και έκτω ελει το σωτηρία παθες τον καλόν αγώνα αγωνίσαμενός, εν Ρώμῃ. κ. λ. Ap. Zacag. Monum. p. 535, 536.
d omninoque videri istum, vel quinto præcipiti seculo, vel etiam ineunte sexto vixisse, neque ante annum Christi circiter 520, fetus suos Dionysio immani fraude suppositos edidisse. De Libris suppositis Dionys. Areop. et Ignat. 1. i. c. 32. p 184. Genev. 1666.
e Vind. Ignat. P. i. cap. 10.
h S. Dionys. l'Areopagite, note 4. Mem. Ec. T. ii.
i cum nec Eusebius, nec Hieronymus, nec Gennadius, nec ullus eorum, qui quinque primis ecclesiæ seculis vixere, mentionem illorum fecerint... et anno tantum 532 in Colla
tione Constantinopoli Catholicos inter et Severianos habitâ, hæretici aliquid ex Dionysio Areopagitâ Catholicis objecerint, bique illorum auctoritatem flocci fecerint... Quare libri illi post pacem ecclesiæ a Constantino Magno redditam, et post Concilium Chalcedonense, elucubrati ab aliquo Dionysio juniore. Ann. 834. n. 18. Conf. ib. Ann. 875. n. 18. et Ann.
107. n. 8.
Nourri App. ad Bib. PP. Diss. 10. n. 9. p. 386. Paris. 1694.
En effet ce fut à la fin du cinquième, ou au commencement du sixième siècle, que parurent les œuvres de Denys l' Aréopagite, qui furent citées la première fois l'an 533, dans la dispute des Acephales. L'auteur, qui a emprunté ce nom, a fait assez obscurement, et à sa maniere mystique, le catalogue des livres sacrés. Mais il en dit assez pour faire comprendre, qu'il excluoit du Canon tous les livres que les Juifs en ont chasses. Hist. de l'Eglise, l. viii. ch. 10. p. 443.