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8. However, he presently afterwards mentions · many teachers and fathers, as Ignatius, Irenæus, Justin, and others, before and after Constantine: but their writings were not of authority; they had not been transmitted down from the beginning with that character.
9. It is observable, that Leontius divides the scriptures of the New Testament into six books: this is a particularity; nevertheless, we saw a like division formerly in the Synopsis ascribed to Athanasius: the only difference is, that there the four gospels are each reckoned one book; and the catalogue of Gelasius, bishop of Rome, about 496, very much resembles, in this respect, that in the Synopsis.
10. It should not be entirely overlooked by us, that this writer says, “ After the return to • Jerusalem, Ezra, perceiving that the sacred books had been burnt in the time of the captivity, • it was reported, that he wrote them again out of his own memory, even all the two and twenty • books of the ancient scripture before mentioned.' Theodoret speaks to the like purpose : some other learned Christian writers in former times have been of the same opinion; which may be seen, examined, and confuted, by Dr. Prideaux,' in his Connection of the History of the old and New Testament.
11. I shall put down but one select passage only, in which Leontius says, that our Lord * was baptized when he was thirty years of age, and having wrought many miracles, and taught • the Jews, he was crucified in the thirty-third year of his age.' Whence it may be argued, that he computed not more than three passovers in our Lord's ministry, according to St. John's gospel.
1. Venerable Bede" is placed by Cave as flourishing about the year 701. He was born in England, in the county of Durham, in 672, as , some say; in 673, or 674, as others : he died in '735.
2. Bede, beside many other works, wrote Commentaries upon all the books of the New Testament, now generally received.
3. He seems not to have had in his copies the doxology, which we now have at the conclusion of the Lord's Prayer in St. Matthew's gospel; for he has twice " explained every other part of the prayer, without taking any notice of it.
4. Cave, in his article of Bede, has published, from an ancient manuscript, a prologue to the seven catholic epistles, wanting in all the editions of Bede's works. 5. Bede there enumerates the seven epistles in the order now used by us: he says,
Εγενοντο δε εν τοις χρονους τους απο της γενέσεως τ8 Χρις8 * Vid. Pagi Ann. 693, n. viii. et 731.-n. v. μεχρι της βασιλειας Κωνςανλινε διδασκαλοι και πατερες οίδε. Pagi ann. 731. p. iv. v. vi. Ib. Act. iii. p. 503. C.
m Exposit. in Matth. Evang. cap. vi. p. 18. Et Conf. p. 91. u See vol. ii. p. 404.
T. y. Colon. 1688. * See in this volume, ch. 145. p. 42.
* Jacobus, Petrus, Joannes, Judas, septem epistolas edide• Ο δε Εσδρας συνεγραψαλο την επανόδον αυλων. Και ελθων runt, quas ecclesiastica consuetudo catholicas, h. e. universales, εις τα Ιεροσόλυμα, και εύρων, ότι σανlα τα βιβλια ησαν καυ- cognominat. In quibus ideo prima epistola Jacobi ponitur, θενία, ηνικα ηχμαλωτισθησαν, απο μνημης λεγεται συγγρα- quia ipse Jerosolymorum regendam suscepit ecclesiam.... rel ψασθαι τα κι' Έιβλια, άπερ εν τοις ανω απαριθμήσαμεθα. Αct. certe quia ipse duodecim tribubus Israëlis, quæ primæ credi2. fin. p. 502. D.
derunt, suam epistolam misit, merito prima poni debuit. e See ch. 131. p. 10. in this volume.
Merito Petri secunda, quia ipse · electis advenis' scripsit, qui * See part i. book v. at the year before Christ, 446. de Gentilitate ad Judaismum, de Judaismo ad electionis evan. & ETE%øn yap... .... και ηυξησε, και γενομενος είων λ' εαπ: gelica gratiam, conversi sunt.
gelicæ gratiam, conversi sunt. Merito Johannis epistola ισθη, και μετα το βαπτισμα ηρξατο σημεια ποιείν, και διδασκειν tertio loco sunt positæ, quia his scripsit ipse, qui de Gentibus τες Ιεδαιας, και των λγ ελει εσαυρωθη, κ. λ. Ιb. Act. 1. p. crediderunt, cum nec professione exstitissent. Denique multi 495. C.
scriptorum ecclesiasticorum, in quibus est S. Athanasius, I Vid. Cay. H. L. L. E. Du Pin Bib. T. vi. et Bedæ Alexandrinæ præsul ecclesiæ, primam ejus epistolam scriptam Hist. Ec. a Jo. Smith. Cantabr. 1722.
ad Partlios esse testantur. Merito Judæ posita est ultima, quia, quamvis et ipse magnus esttribus tamen præcedenti
Cav. ubi supra.
• the epistle of James is placed first, either because he was bishop of the church of Jerusalem, • where the gospel was first preached, and from whence it was spread over the whole world; or • else, because the epistle was written to the twelve tribes of Israel, who were the first believers. • Peter's epistles,' he says, are placed next, because he wrote to the 'elect strangers,' that is, to • such as had been proselyted from Gentilism to Judaism, and after that were converted to the • Christian religion; and," he says, “ that John's epistles are fitly placed after the foregoing, • because he wrote to believers from among the Gentiles, who before were not the people of God, • neither by nature, nor by profession: moreover,' as he adds, many ecclesiastical writers had • said, that his first epistle was written to Parthians. The epistle of Jude is placed last; for
though he was great, he was inferior to the three forementioned apostles; and besides, their • epistles having been first placed, his comes last of course. Bede proceeds, and says, “It is ·certain, that James completed his testimony in the thirtieth year after our Lord's passion: Peter • suffered in the thirty-eighth year, that is, the last year of Nero; and in his second epistle he • speaks of his death as then approaching ; whence it appears, that epistle was written a good • while after the death of James; his two epistles could not be separated from each other, since they were written to the same churches : and long after this John wrote his epistles, and his gospel
, all about the same time; for after the death of Domitian, being returned from his exile, • he found the church disturbed by heretics, which had arisen in his absence, whom, in his • epistles, he often calls antichrists.'
6. I would add, that’ the late Dr. Humphry Hody has distinctly considered Bede's testimony to the books of the Old Testament.
I. His time. II. A catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. III. Remarks
it. IV. Select passages and observations, shewing his respect for the scriptures.
1. John DAMASCENUS, » descended of a good family at Damascus, and, in the latter part of his life monk and presbyter, flourished about the year 730.
II. In a work, entitled of the Orthodox Faith, he has a chapter concerning scripture; where he has inserted a catalogue of the books of the Old and New Testament. It is to this purpose: • There' is one God declared by the Old and New Testament...... It is to be observed,
then, that there are two and twenty books of the Old Testament, according to the letters of • the Hebrew language; for they have two and twenty letters, five of which are written two
ways, so as to make seven and twenty...... According to this method of computing, the books • are reckoned 22 in number, but are really 27, for five of them are double: Ruth, joined with • the Judges, is reckoned one book by the Hebrews; in like manner the first and second of the • Kingdoms are one book; the third and fourth of the Kingdoms also are one book; the first and
bus apostolis minor est ; vel quia..... Constat enim quia reperit ecclesiam, quos in suis epistolis percutiens sæpe cogbeatus Jacobus tricesimo post passionem Domini anno suum nominat Antichristos. Ap. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 614. consummavit martyrium. Petrus tricesimo octavo, hoc est, • De Bibl. Text. Orig. p. 654. col. 73. ultimo anno Neronis, passus est, et ipse in secundâ suâ scripsit b Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 624. Oudin. de Scrip. Ecc. T. i. epistola : “Certus sum'. .. [Cap. i. 14.) Unde patet, quia p. 1714, &c. Du Pin, T. vi. p. 101. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. viii imminente passione hanc scripsit epistolam, cum multo ante
p. 772, &c.
• Περι γραφης. Jacobus migravit ad Christum. Neque vero conveniebat ejus Eis εσιν θεος, υπο τε παλαιας διαθηκης και καινης κηρυτοepistolas ab invicem separari, quas iisdem scripsit ecclesiis. ueros. &c. . De Fide Orthodoxa, 1. iv. c. 17. in. T. i. p. Porro Joannes multo post tempore suas epistolas simul et 282. B. evangelium scripsit, qui post occisionem Dominican [Domi- • Ισεον δε, ως εικοσι και δυο βιβλοι εισι της παλαιας διαθηκης, tiani] reversus de exilio turbatam se absente per hereticoς καλα τα στοιχεία της Εβραϊδος φωνης. Ιb. p. 253. C.
• second of the Remains, one book; the first and second of Ezra, one book: so that there are • four pentateuchs, and two over, which are in the canon, [or, in the Testament']; and they are • these: Five of the Law; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; that is the « first pentateuch, called the Law: then five more, sometimes called Hagiographa (or “sacred
writings']; Joshua the son of Nun; Judges, with Ruth; the first and second of the Kingdoms • reckoned one book; the third and fourth of the Kingdoms one book; and the two books of • the Remains, also reckoned one book : that is the second pentateuch. The third pentateuch * contains the books written in verse; the book of Job; the Psalter; the Proverbs of Solomon ; • the Ecclesiastes, of the same; the Song of Songs, of the same. The fourth pentateuch takes • in the prophets; the twelve Prophets, one book; Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel; then the • book of Ezra, two joined in one book; and Esther : the book of the Wisdom of Solomon, and • the Wisdom of Jesus, which the father of Sirach published in Hebrew, and his grandson, Jesus, • the son of Sirach, afterwards translated into Greek, are excellent and useful; but they are not • numbered with the former, nor were they placed in the ark.'
• The books of the New Testament are these: the four gospels, according to Matthew, • according to Mark, according to Luke, according to John; the Acts of the apostles by the evangelist Luke; seven catholic epistles, one of James, two of Peter, three of John, one of Jude; fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul; the Revelation by the evangelist John; the canons s of the holy apostles by Clement.'
III. Upon this we may make a few remarks:
1. This author, though a native of Damascus, wrote in Greek, and is supposed to represent the sentiment or doctrine of the Greek church of his time.
2. His catalogue of the books of the Old Testament, as has been already observed by learned men, is the same with that of Epiphanius in his book of Weights and Measures, of which we took notice formerly; and it is very agreeable to that which Melito brought with him from Palestine, of which we also took some notice ' formerly; not now to mention any other.
3. J. Damascenus speaks only of two books of a secondary order, in the Old Testament; the book of Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus: he does not mention any other, no not so much as the books of Maccabees. The book of Wisdom he calls Solomon's, though he did not think it to be his, in compliance, it is likely, with frequent custom at that time.
4. His canon of the New Testament is the same with that now generally received by Christians in this part of the world; except that here is added the Apostolical Canons by Clement, which seems to be a singularity. What Mill says relating to this in his Prolegomena I place k below: I shall also transcribe below the' note of Lequien, editor of Damascenus, upon This place; which, I believe, will be acceptable to my readers, on account of some observations relating to the Apostolical Canons.
And I beg leave to observe farther myself: Damascenus's catalogue of the books of scripture is very different from that in the 85th Apostolical Canon; in that are inserted Judith, and the books of Maccabees, which are quite omitted by Damascenus: moreover he receives the book
* Ούτως αν συγκεινlαι αι βιβλοι εν σενταθευχoις τειρασι, και (seu arbitrio suopte, seu etiam jussu superiorum) canonicis μενεσιν αλλαι δυο ως ειναι τας ενδιαθελες βιζλες ουλώς. Ιbid. libris isti adnecterentur, tanquam ejusdem, si placet, cum re283. D. E.
liquis juris et auctoritatis. Et talem quidem nactus jama • A7η πρωτη σεναλευχος, ή και νομοθεσια. p. 284. Α. videtur Damascenus. Proleg. n. 1027.
• Εισα αλλη πενταευχος, τα καλεμενα γραφεια, παρα τισι | Horum canonum auctoritas adstructa fuerat can. 2 Trul: δε αγιογραφία. Ιbid.
lano. At viris criticæ artis incuriosis satis erat præfixum a Ai 5 WOCESS 6167.01. Ibid.
canonibus, qui magnæ dudum in Oriente ponderis erant, aposTelapir , davlalevy, 95, rj acodrlıxn.
tolorum nomen; cum tamen nihil aliud essent, nisi priscæ Η δε παναρείος, τελεσιν ή Σοφια το Σολομωνίος, και η Σοφια Orientalium disciplinæ præcipua capita, quorum auctores 73 17,08, tv o walop per T8 Eiçay epe Selo espaisi, eramuisi de genuini ignorabantur. Jam dixi, eorum quosdam conditos esse γρμηνευσεν ο τε7α εκγονος Ιησες, τα δε Σιραχ υιος: εναρείοι μεν post exortam hæresim Anomæorum. Beveregius collectionem και καλαι· αλλ' εκ αριθμείαι, εδε εκειντο εν τη κιβωθω. Ιbid. primaın istorum Canonum a Clemente, non Romano, sed
Alexandrino factam, quem Eusebius 1. vi. Hist. c. 23. και Κανονες των αγιων απο ολων δια Κλημεντος.
Hieronymus de Ser. Ec. et Photius cod. cxi. Wapk xayowy " See vol. ii. p. 416, 417, and p. 545, 546.
EXXAGT1Asixwv volumeni edidisse testantur. Sed ex borum auci See vol. i. p. 359, and vol. ii. p. 545.
torum inspectione manifestum fit, eos non de hac collectione k Joannes Damascenus. ... inter canonicos reponit Canones canonum loqui, sed de libro, in quo, adductis canonibus, seu Apostolorum ôz Kanuerlos. Nempe cum universum Cano- regulis ecclesiasticis, illos impugnabat, qui Judaicis legibus et num 85 apostolicorum corpus superiore seculo synodice con- institutis adhærescerent. Lequien ad J. Damasc. p. 284. firmâssent Patres Trullani, facile deinceps factam, ut a librariis
p. 294. B.
of the Revelation, omitted in the same canon; and farther, he takes no particular notice of the two epistles of Clement, or of the Constitutions, which make a part of the catalogue in the last canon of the apostles. What shall we say to this ? Can we think, after all, that Damascenus had any particular regard for the Apostolical Canons? or shall we suppose that the 85th canon was wanting in his edition of the Apostolical Canons? or shall we not be obliged to admit a suspicion, that the last clause in this catalogue of Damascenus, the Canons of the holy Apostles by Clement,' is an interpolation, or an addition made by some officious Greek to Damascenus's original work?
There is another doubt, that may arise in the mind, supposing the genuineness of this clause: Whether by the Canons of the apostles, Damascenus means Apostolical Constitutions, or Apostolical Canons: I perceive this doubt to have arisen in * Cotelerius, as it had in me, before I had observed it in him.
IV. I shall observe but a few particulars more:
1. At the beginning of his work, De Orthodoxa Fide, which is a kind of system of divinity, and reckoned to be the first regular system among Christians, speaking of God, he says: • AND things which are delivered to us by the law and the prophets, the apostles and evangelists, we receive, acknowledge, and venerate, seeking not any thing beyond what has been taught .by them.'
2. Again: • We cannot think, or say any thing of God, beside what is divinely taught and • revealed to us by the divine oracles of the Old and New Testament.' Not that he denies the use of reason, or that heathen people, without revelation, might, by the light of nature, learn the existence of God from his works : however, in these passages we see the general divisions of the books of scripture, and the great respect which was shewn to them by Christian people.
3. Damascenus seems not to have had the heavenly witnesses in his copies of St. John's first epistle.
4. He seems to say, that' there were then no extraordinary gifts in the Church; such as the gift of knowledge, or the gift of miracles ; at least he acknowledges, that he had no such gifts.
C H A P. CLAI.
PHOTIUS, PATRIARCH OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
1. Photius, as is generally reckoned, was constituted patriarch of Constantinople in 858 : but • Pagi placeth the commencement of his patriarchate in 857. It is generally supposed that he died in 891, or 892.
2. The history of his life, and his character, and good accounts of his works, may be seen in divers "authors, to whom I refer. The account, which Fabricius' has given of his Bibliotheque, and the several articles therein, deserves high commendations. I shall by and by take some farther notice of Photius's works, so far as they relate to the interpretation of scripture.
a Cæterum an Joannes Damascenus Orthodoxæ Fidei, lib. d Vid. Ib. 1. i. c. 1. et c. 3. et alibi. iv. c. 18. qnando Canones Apostolorum per Clementem • Και τρεις εισιν οι μαρτυρανίες, το ύδωρ, και το αίμα, και το editos cum divinis voluminibus enumerat Constitutiones, vel WVEULA. De Hymn. Trisag. sect. iv. T. i. p. 484. c. dumtaxat Canones Constitutionibus subnexos intelligat, quæri f Hμεις δε οι μηδε το των θαυμάτων, μηδε το της διδασκαλιας
Malim accipere de solis canonibus, quo majori parte DEER PEVOL X2.0104a. De Fid. Orth. I. i. c. 2. p. 125. D. erroris vir sanctus et doctus levetur, et quia rarior prima ac- 8 Crit, in Baron. Ann. 686. n. v. 858. D. xiii. xiv. 859. ceptio, &c. Coteler, Judic. de Constit. Ap. ap. Patr. Ap. Tii.
» Vid. Martin. Hapk de Rer. Byz. Script. P. i. cap. 18. • Παντα τοινυν τα παραδεδομενα ημιν δια τε νομό, και προ- Cav. Hist. Lit. T. ii. p. 47. Fabric. Bib. Gr. lib. v. cap. 38. φηλων, και αποσολαν, και ευαγγελισων, δεχόμεθα, και γινωσ- T. ix. p. 369, &c. Du Pin. Bibl. T. vii. J. C. Wolff. Præf. ad xousy, xu gebouay, sex wepailepw Telwy stičylarles. x. i. De Anecd. Gr. T. i. Ja. Basnag. Hist. de l'Eglise, L vi. ch. vi. Fid. Orth. 1. i. c. 1. T. i. p. 123. E.
T. i. p. 323, &c.
θε8, η όλως εννοησαι. Ιb. cap. ii. p. 125. Β.
3. They who are pleased to look back to the ninth section of the 63d chapter of this book, may there - see, that Photius received the scriptures of the Old and the New Testament, and
particularly, in this last, four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, fourteen epistles of St. Paul, and seven catholic epistles: I suppose likewise, that he received the book of the Revelation; though I do not now recollect any particular proof of it.
4. Among the works of Photíus are mentioned some commentaries upon scripture; as upon the Psalms, the Prophets, and St. Paul's epistles: which last is in manuscript in the public library at Cambridge, as we are assured by Cave. I place below · Fabricius's account of it.
5. In the epistles of Photius, in number 248, published at London in 1651, by R. Montague, bishop of Norwich, many texts of scripture are explained.
6. There is extant in manuscript, in several libraries, a work entitled Amphilochia, consisting of 308 questions, and answers to them, addressed by Photius to Amphilochius, bishop or metropolitan of Cyzicum, to whom several of Photius's letters, published by Montague, are directed. Both 'Cave and Fabricius have spoken somewhat largely of this work, and deserve to be consulted. The learned Montfaucon observes, that those questions relate chiefly to divers texts of scripture, with some other matters of literature: and in his Bibliotheca Coisliniana he has exhibited the title and first words of each chapter; or the question, and the first words of the answer. Many of those questions are treated in the epistles of Photius before mentioned; which, nevertheless, Montfaucon takes no notice of: whereas, it seems to me, it would have well become the diligence of an exact editor, as he put down the titles of the chapters of that work, to have added a reference to the epistles already published, in which the answer might be seen at length. Moreover, after having put down the 308 questions, in the manner above mentioned, he transcribes at length four of them, as specimens of the whole, and as of some special moment: two of which, nevertheless, had been before published in Montague's collection of our author's epistles. One of those two questions Montfaucon recommends to the observation of " the learned, as a curiosity. All this Montfaucon perceived, when he came to write his preface: nevertheless, he still calls this last-mentioned question, with the answer, an " anecdote; and the better to justify himself, he says, there are some faults in Montague's edition. Well, then, let it be republished from the Coislinian manuscript, as a better 'copy, though the errors in Montague are not numerous: but let it not appear as a new thing, or be recommended to the attention of the public as somewhat extraordinary.
The late learned J. C. Wolfius, of Hamburg, published a large part of the Amphilochian questions, and the answers at length, at the end of the fourth and last volume of his Curæ upon the New Testament.
7. This great critic was a great admirer of the apostle Paul, ando celebrates his manly and unaffected eloquence: indeed, in one of his p letters, Photius takes notice of a large number of hyperbata, or elliptical expressions in St. Paul's epistles, where some words are transposed, and
• Vol. ii. p. 238, 239.
turæ Sacræ tam Veteris quam Novi Testamenti. Intermixta. • In Psalmos: Catena ex Athanasio, Basilio, Chrysostomo, quoque sunt aliæ philosophicæ, physicæ, grammaticæ, et et Theodoro Heracleotà, Photio. MS. in Bib. Segueriana sive aliæ id genus. Ipsæque omnes sunt numero 308. Montf. Bib. Coisliniana. Vide Catal. MS. ejusdem Bib. editum a Cl. Coisl. p. 326. Montfauconio. p. 58, 59. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. ix. p.
i Mr. Wolfius computes that about a sixth part of the c. Prophetarum liber cum expositione.' Extat Ms. in Amphilochian questions are in the epistles published by Bibliotheca Vaticană, uti Possevinus nos docet. Cav. H. L. Bishop Montague. Quod ad Amphilochia ipsa spectat, sexta T. ii. p. 50.
circiter illorum pars in epistolis Photii, quas eruditæ MontaIn prophetas. MS. in Bib. Vaticana, ut ex Possevino Colo- cutii industriæ debemus, extat. Vid. reliqua. Wolf. Præf. ad mesius et Caveus. Fabric. ib. p. 566.
Curar, vol. iv. d. In epistolas Pauli.' MS. in Bib. Cantabrigiensi. Ex hoc * Ex hisce porro quæstionibus paucas, quæ majoris esse commentario idem Caveus notat, plura desumsisse Ecume- videntur momenti, híc edendas duximus. Bib. Coisl. p. nium, (a quo etiam nomine tenus non raro Photius laudatur) 345. fin. codicem vero istum esse mutilum initio et fine, et totum in Ep. 144. p. 201. Ep. 209. p. 306. epistolam ad Romanos commentarium desiderari. Fabr. ibid. m Quæstio clxvi. Digna sane quæ historiæ ecclesiasticæ e Vid. Fabr. ib. p. 519.
peritis offeratur. Cujus hæresis erat Eusebius Pamphili. Bib. f
Quæstiones ac Dubia ad Amphilochium Cyzici Metropo- Coislin. p. 348. litam, de variis S. Scripturæ locis. Extant MSS. grandi n Vigesimum nonum (anecdoton) ejusdem Photii quæstio, volumine, sed absque Photii nomine, in CI, Seguerii Galliæ cujus hæresis esset Eusebius Pamphili.... In eâ vero, quæ de Cancellarii Bibliothecâ : item in Bibliothecis Vaticana, Bar- Eusebio agit, mendæ sunt quædam, interque alias, wind.c. berinâ, Bavaricâ, et forsan alibi. Cav. T. ii. p. 49.
pro wonos, quæ lectio sensum alio transfert. Id. in Præf. ad & T.ix. p. 561.
Bib. Coisl. * Sunt porro quæstiones et plurinium circa lota varia Scrip- • Vid. Ep. 165, 166. . p Ep. 166. Vid. et Ep. 164.