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do not stand in their natural order; but then, near the conclusion of that letter, he says: “There ** are many like elliptical expressions in Homer, Antimachus, Aristophanes, Thucydides, Plato, · and Demosthenes, and in almost all other poets and orators.' We may here recollect what Irenæus said long ago, that the apostle frequently useth hyperbata, because of the rapidity of his words i and because of the mighty force of the Spirit in him.'
8. I shall select a few explications of texts of scripture. The first is in an epistle of Photius which is also an Amphilochian question. The text is Luke xxii. 44. He says, that to “sweat · blood,” was a proverbial expression, concerning such as were in a great agony of mind. So • likewise it is said of such as are in a great grief, that they weep tears of blood: nor does St. • Luke say that Christ did sweat drops of blood; but that “ his sweat was as it were drops of • blood;" to signify, that it was not a slight sweat, and that our Lord's whole body was covered
over with large and thick drops of sweat, issuing from it, and falling down to the ground. In this letter it is likewise, that he observes the omission of this paragraph of St. Luke's gospel in some copies, of which notice was taken by us' formerly.
9. In another epistle, considering Rom. ix. 3. “ For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ,” he observes, the & apostle does not say, “I wish,” but “I could wish,” if it were * possible :' and afterwards, I could wish, if it were fit, if it were lawful, and if my fall and • misery might be beneficial to others. This I take to be right; and, so far as I can see, this explication removes all the difficulties of that text.
10. There are many excellent counsels and observations to be found in Photius's epistles.
(1.) In the first epistle, which is addressed to Michael, king of Bulgaria : · It' is one of the commands of Christ, our common Lord, that we should bring forth fruits of righteousness, and • not disgrace our faith by our works : so likewise directs Paul, the great master of the church; • 80 Peter, the chief of the apostles, who was entrusted with the keys of the kingdom of heaven; • and so the whole choir of the apostles taught the world.'
(2.) In the same epistle: Some say, it is the main office of a prince to make a small city, or commonwealth, great; but he says, he should esteem it a greater thing to make it good.'
(3:) To the same prince: If you receive a benefit, be sure to remember it; if you confer • a benefit
, you will do well soon to forget it. This is an indication of a great mind, and raiseth « the value of the benefit conferred.'
(4.) I refer to two other places' concerning friendship and" ingratitude.
CHA P. CLXII..
1. Cave o speaks of Oecumenius as writing about the year 990, but without being certain of his time: and that he has not placed this author too soon, may be argued from Montfaucon's Bibliotheca Coisliniana, who P there informs us of a manuscript chain or comment on St. Paul's epistles of the tenth century, in which the name of Oecumenius is mentioned, among other
• Και οιδα οτι εκ αν σοι δοξη παραδοξον, είναι το τοιολον της • Ουδε γαρ ειπεν, Ευχομαι χορισθηναι, αλλ' ουχoμην αν" 5λλειψειως ειδος: Πολλα γαρ τοιαυλα και παρ' Ομηρω, και Αν. το7' εσιν, ει δυνατον ην... κ. λ. Εp. 216. p. 319. τιμαχω. κ. λ. Εp. 166. p. 240.
Ηυχoμην αν, ει ενεδεχετο, ει ενεχωρει, ει τις ην αποφασις b See vol. i. p. 369.
cwingios. .,x. a. Ib. p. 320. Ep. 138. p. 193.
Ep. i. p. 21.
Ep. i. p. 30. d Qu. 164. ap. Bib. Coisl. p. 338.
m P. 27.
" Ib. p. 34.
n P. 37. € ΙΠαροιμια λεγεθαι, επι των σφοδρα λυπομενων και αγωνιων- • @cumenius, scriptor admodum incertæ ætatis, de quo των αίματι ιδρωσεν. ώσπερ και επι των πικρως οδυρομενων" altum apud veteres silentium. Ιd modo constat, post aanum αίματι κλαιει. .. ότι, ωσει θρομβοι αίματος, ειπων, 8 θρομβες 800 claruisse. Adeoque hoc loco μεum reponimus ad annum ίδρωσαι απεφηναίο αίμαίος. κ. λ. Εp. 138. p. 193.
990, donec veram ejus ætatem expiscari liceat. H. L. T. ii. f See vol. i. p. 510.
p Bid. Cois. p. 82. M.
writers out of whom that comment was collected : I therefore place him a little higher, but still in the same century.
2. Montfaucon · assures us, from a passage found in a manuscript of the tenth or eleventh century, that Oecumenius was bishop of Tricca in Thessaly ; which was not known before.
3. We have Commentaries of this writer' upon the Acts, St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and the seven catholic epistles. The Commentaries upon the epistles, if not also upon the Acts, are a chain, consisting of notes and observations of several, beside his own ; as John Chrysostom, Cyril of Alexandria, Gregory Nazianzen, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodoret, Photius, and others. At the end of the second volume of Oecumenius is placed the Commentary of Arethas upon the Revelation.
4. In this work, in the edition at Paris, in 1631, which I make use of, the books of the New Testament are placed in the order now generally used; first the Acts of the apostles, next St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and then the catholic epistles : but there is prefixed to those Commentaries a short copy of verses, representing the contents of the whole work, in this manner: • The • book of the Acts, written by Luke; the epistle of James, written to believing Hebrews; the • first epistle of Peter, written to believers; the second epistle of Peter, also written to Christians i • three epistles of John, one of Jude, to all Christians in general; then St. Paul's fourteen epistles, • all enumerated in our present order ; lastly, John's mysterious Revelation.' This, I suppose, was the order of the books, particularly of the Acts and the epistles, in the manuscript; it is also the order observed in the first printed edition of these Commentaries, in Greek only, at Verona in 1532, described by Fabricius, which I likewise have. As for the Commentary upon the Revelation by Arethas, in all probability it was added to make a full volume : moreover, Arethas might be reckoned to be very little distant in time from Oecumenius.
5. James Le Long says, that' Oecumenius wrote a Commentary also upon the four gospels; and that he himself says so; but I do not find it in the place to which Le Long refers.
6. Whether Oecumenius received or wrote Commentaries upon the Revelation, will be considered by and by
7. Upon St. Luke's introduction to the Acts, “ The former treatise have I made, O Theophilus ;' Oecumenius observes, • He calls it a treatise, and not a gospel, avoiding ostentation ; • as indeed do the rest likewise. Matthew says, “ The book of the generation of Jesus Christ; • Mark indeed says, “ The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ ;” but he does not, by “gospel” • intend his own writing, but Christ's preaching... The faithful afterwards called them gospels, as truly containing the gospel, that is, the doctrine of Christ.'
8. Upon Acts xiii. 13. he says, • This John, who is also called Mark, nephew to Barnabas, * wrote the gospel entitled according to him, and was also disciple of Peter, of whom he says, in • his epistle, “ Mark, my son, saluteth you."
9. Upon Acts xv. 13. • This ' James, appointed bishop of Jerusalem by the Lord, was son of • Joseph the carpenter, and brother of our Lord Jesus Christ according to the flesh.”
10. I need not put down the prefaces to St. Paul's several epistles, in which are observed the places where they were written, sometimes right, sometimes wrong,
11. Upon those words of Col. iv. 16. “ the epistle from Laodicea," is a note of Photius. Somet say, this was not an epistle of Paul to them, but from them to him ; for he does not say, the epistle to the Laodiceans, but the epistle from Laodicea.'
12. In the argument or preface to the epistle of James, it' is said to be written to those of the twelve tribes scattered abroad, who had believed in our Lord Jesus Christ.
• Vid. Bib. Coisl. in Præf. et p. 277.
Ιωανν8 μυησις ή κεκρυμμένη: . incertæ ætatis scriptoris, sed judicio ac perspicuitate commen- & See before noteb dabilis, Commentarius, qui cum ejusdem Commentariis si- • See before, p. 56. milibus in epistolas septem catholicas, epistolas sancti Pauli P... 1. Annotationum Commentarii in quatuor evangelia, apostoli, et cum Aretha in Apocalypsin, prodiit Græce Verona ex dictis veterum patrum Græcorum; quos commentarios in typis luculentis 1532. fol. Hæc editio mihi ad manus est. epistolam ad Hebræos, cap. 6. se scripsisse testatur. J. Le Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 788. Vid. eund. T. xiii. p. 845. Long. Bib. T. ii. p. 883. • Των Πραξεων η βιβλος, ας Λυκας γραφει:
• Λογον ειπε πρωθον, εκ ευαγγελιον... κ. λ. In Act. Αp. Πισοις Εβραιων εξ Ιακωζε λογοι.
T. i. p. 1, 2.
P. 122. C.
* T. ii. p. 146. B.
I T. ii.
13. The argument to the first epistle of Peter says, it is a written to the believing Jews • scattered abroad in several places.'
14. Upon 2 Pet. iii. 1, he observes, as I understand him, to this effect: • Hence we perceive • that Peter wrote only two epistles.'
15. In a note upon the beginning of St. John's second epistle he says, “Some had thought • that this and the following epistle were not written by John the apostle, but by another of * the same name, who calls himself Elder.' Our author, however, receives both these, as well as the first.
16. Jude's epistle is said to be written to believers.
17. In a note upon the first epistle to the Corinthians, the · Revelation is quoted as written by John the evangelist.
18. As a farther proof, that Oecumenius received the book of the Revelation, I refer to an anecdote, published by Montfaucon, of which' he speaks very magnificently in his preface to the Coislinian library; but when he sets about translating the passage, he says, it 5 is written in so obscure a style as to be scarce intelligible.
It is said to be the Synopsis of the labours of the blessed Oecumenius, bishop of Tricca, • upon the Revelation of John the divine;' and it begins in this manner : • That' this writing is • the mystical instruction of the disciple who rested in the bosom of Jesus, and is divinely inspired, • and useful, as has been indisputably proved; and that it is not spurious as some have profanely • said, but a genuine writing of the son of thunder:' and the author then proceeds to argue this from the testimonies of Athanasius, Basil, Gregory, Methodius, Cyril of Alexandria, Hippolytus, and from other considerations.
19. I shall now make a few remarks. First, from the passage above cited from the Commentary upon the epistle to the Corinthians, it appears to be probable, that Oecumenius received the book of the Revelation; and this passage may be allowed to afford some additional evidence. Nevertheless, secondly, this writer being unknown and anonymous, what he says cannot be admitted as full proof that Oecumenius ever wrote a commentary upon the Revelation. Thirdly, the argument for the genuineness of the Revelation, here ascribed to Oecumenius, is much the same with what is to be found in the prefaces of " Andrew, and' Arethas, to their commentaries upon that book,
HEOPHYLACT, archbishop of the chief city of Bulgaria, wrote Commentaries upon the four gospels, the Acts of the apostles, and St. Paul's fourteen epistles. He is spoken of by Cave " as flourishing about the year 1077, by Fabricius" about 1070. His Commentaries are collected out of Chrysostom and others, with observations likewise, undoubtedly, of his own.
p. 578. C.
a Ib. p. 479.
• Εκ τείων μανθανομεν, δυο τας πασας ειναι το Πείρα επιςολας. p. 548. D. c P. 605.
d P. 619. A. • Ο ευαγγελισης Ιωαννης φησιν εν τη Αποκαλυψει. Τ. i.
Vigesimum quartum ex eodem codice prodit, estque longe præstantius opusculum Ecumenii, episcopi Triccæ in Thessaliâ. Notes velim, antehac, cujus civitatis episcopus esset Ecumenius, ignotum fuisse. Is auctoritate patrum, ineluctabilibusque argumentis, probat Apocalypsin esse veram et canonicam scripturam. Præf.
6 Sequens autem opusculum stylo tam perplexo scriptum est, ut vix intelligi possit. Aliquot etiam in locis vitiatum
videtur. Ipsum tamen pro facultate meå Latine interpretari studui. Bibl. Coisl. p. 277.
*Εκ των Οικομενίω τω μακαριω επισκοπω Τρικκης Θεσσαλιας θεοφιλως πεπονημενων εις την Αποκαλυψιν Ιωαννε τα θεολογε, , συνοψις σχολικη. κ. λ. Ιb. p. 277. F.
· P. 277. F. et 278.
k See before in this work, vol. i. p. 340, Andrew cited from Prolog. ad Apoc. p. 3. B. ad Calc. T. viii. Opp. S. Chrysostom. Ed. Morell.
| Vid. Areth. ap. Oecumen. T. ii. p. 640.
• Du Pin. Bibl. T. viii. p. 113. R. Simon Hist. Crit. des Comment. du N. T. ch. 28. p. 390, &c. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 787.
2. Beside these works, he is said to have written likewise a Commentary upon the twelve lesser prophets, mentioned by Cave in the place before referred to, and more particularly by Fabricius: but I have not seen it; and whether it has been yet published I cannot certainly say.
3. I proceed directly to take notice of divers things in his Commentaries upon the books of the New Testament.
4. In his preface to St. Matthew's gospel he says, that • Christ has given us four gospels." · And that there are four evangelists, two of which, Matthew and John, were of the choir of • the twelve apostles; the other two, Mark and Luke, were of the number of the Seventy. Mark
was a companion and disciple of Peter, Luke of Paul. Matthew first wrote a gospel in the · Hebrew language, for the sake of the Hebrew believers, eight years after Christ's ascension ; • and John, as is said, translated it out of Hebrew into Greek. Mark wrote ten years after our - Lord's ascension, having been instructed by Peter; Luke fifteen; and John, the most excel• lent divine, two and thirty years after our Lord's ascension ; for it is said, that when he had • outlived them, after their death their three gospels were brought to him, that he might judge • whether what they had written was true. Having seen them, he added some things omitted • by them: and whereas they had not taken notice of the eternal existence of God the Word, he gave an account of his divinity, lest he should be esteemed a mere man; for Matthew discourseth only of his nativity according to the flesh, because he wrote for the Hebrews, who were fully satisfied, when they had been assured that the Christ was born of David and Abraham.'
5. The preface to St. Mark is to this purpose: • The 8 gospel according to Mark was written ' at Rome, ten years after Christ's ascension, at the request of the believers there: for this Mark
was a disciple of Peter, whom he calls his son spiritually. His name was John. He was * nephew to Barnabas, and was also a companion of Paul.'
6. In this same preface ' he mentions the symbols of the evangelists: but differently from many others. The gospel of John, in the first place, he supposes to be resembled by the face of a lion, the king of beasts, denoting John's pre-eminence: Matthew's by the face of a man. Mark he compares to an eagle, because he begins with the history of John, who was a prophet; and the gift of prophecy is far-sighted. Luke he compares to a calf or ox.
7. In the Commentary upon Acts xii. 12, where John, surnamed Mark, is mentioned, he says, Perhaps & this is Mark the evangelist, by whom, as is said, Peter evangelized; for Mark's gospel is said to be Peter's:' and he thinks that opinion probable.
8. In the preface to his Commentary upon St. Luke, Theophylact expresseth himself as if he thought the evangelist, in the introduction, referred 'to the gospels according to the Egyptians, and according to the twelve. He also says, that * from that introduction it appears,
Luke was not from the beginning a disciple, but only afterwards : for others were disciples from the beginning, as Peter, and the sons of Zebedee, who delivered' to him the things which he had not seen or heard.
9. This seems to be contrary to what was said in the preface to St. Matthew's gospel, that Mark and Luke were of the number of the seventy; unless he can be understood to mean some things only, even in the inore early part of Christ's ministry, about which Luke might be informed by those disciples, who then attended upon the Lord. It is also said, in the argument of Luke's gospel, that he was said to have been one of Christ's seventy apostles, and, after the Lord's resurrection, to have met him with Cleophas. Here likewise he says, that Theophilus, to whom St. Luke wrote, was a man of senatorian rank, and possibly a governor; förasmuch as he calls him · most excellent,' the same title which St. Paul useth in his addresses to Felix and Festus.
a Theophylacti, Bulgarorum Archiepiscopi, qui circa A. C. was begun; which is different from the sentiments of more 1070 claruit, Commentarios in xii prophetas ininores, ex early writers. antiquiorum patrum monumentis decerptos, brevi in lucem 1'.... αυλοις εθεολογησε edendos speramus a C. V. Johanne Henrico Lederbiso, Lin- % In Marc. ib. p. 189. guarum Orientalium in Academiâ Argentoratensi Professore, h αλλα και Πανλε συνεκδημος. 'P. 190. A. B. qui illos ex Græco codice Bibl. publica, illius urbis descripsit, * Ταχα ουλος εςι Μαρκος ο ευαγγελισης. In Act. Αp. p. 115. et utrâque lingua vulgaturum recepit. B. Gr. T. vii. p. 775. M. Coloniæ. 1568.
• Τεσσαρα δε δεδωκεν ημιν ευαγγελια. Ρr. in Μatt. p. 1. Β. ! Πολλοι γαρ συνεγραψαν ευαγγελια δηθεν· οίον εςι το κα7 Paris. 1631.
Αιγυπτιας, και το επιγραφομενον των δωδεκα. κ. λ. Ρr. in * Τεσσαρες μεν εισιν οι ευαγγελισαι τελων οι μεν δυο.... Luc. p. 297. B. ησαν εκ τ8 χορ8 των δωδεκα οι δε δυο, Μαρκος φημι και Λακας, mn Ib. p. 297, 298. εκ των έβδομηκοντα. κ. λ. Ιb. p. 2. D. E. p. 3. Α.
ωσε φασι τινες, ένα και αυτον γενεσθαι των έβδομη• Θεολογικώλαθος.
κονία αποσολων και εκ νεκρων δε ανασανίι τα Χρισω συναντη. According to that account St. John's gospel was written σαι μελα Κλεοπα. ... Γραφει δε προς Θεοφιλον, συγκληλικον in the year of our Lord's nativity 65, or thereabout, before ονία και αρχονία ισως το γαρ κραλισος επι των αρχονlων και the destruction of Jerusalem, and before the siege of that city ήγεμονων ελεγείο: ας και ο Παυλος φησι προς τον ηγεμονα
$7507° xgalıse $756. p. 293.
10. In his comment upon the history of the two disciples, whom Jesus met in the way to Emmaus, one of whom is said to be Cleophas, Luke xxiv. 18, Theophylact says, some * have thought the other to be Luke the evangelist, who, out of modesty, declined to mention himself. Here again St. Luke is supposed to have been personally acquainted with the Lord Jesus.
11. In the preface to St. John's gospel, Theophylact says, that • John wrote his gospel • when he was an exile in Patmos, two and thirty years after Christ's ascension.' He proceeds: • John was beloved above all the disciples, because of his simplicity, and meekness, and mild
ness, and purity, for he was a virgin; moreover he was related to the Lord. But how can that • be? Attend. Joseph, husband of the blessed Mary, had seven children by a former wife; four . sons, and three daughters, Martha (perhaps it should be Mary], Esther, and Salome, whose son • John was; therefore Salome was reckoned our Lord's sister, and John was his nephew:' so Theophylact in that place. In another place he says, Joseph had by the widow of his brother Cleophas, who died without issue, six children, four sons, and two daughters, named Mary, who was reckoned daughter of Cleophas according to law, and Salome: and he always supposeth 5 Mary, mother of our Lord, to be the same as Mary the mother of James and Joses, who were Joseph's children by a former wife ; as was also Salome, the mother of Zebedee's children. And whereas in John xix. 25, mention is made of Mary, wife or daughter of Cleophas, and sister to our Lord's mother, he says, that " by • sister' must be there understood relation ;' for that Mary is supposed to be daughter of Cleophas, brother of Joseph, whose widow he had married.
ii. Theophylact says, there was this very extraordinary in John the evangelist, that he had three mothers; his own mother Salome, and Thunder, and blessed Mary, forasmuch as the Lord said to him, “ Behold thy mother.” John xix. 27.
12. He likewise says, that there are four Marys mentioned in the gospels: our Lord's mother, Mary Magdalene, Mary daughter of Cleophas, and the sister of Lazarus.
13. In the argument or preface to the Acts of the apostles Theophylact says, the writer is Luke, native of Antioch, by profession a physician. He here also says, that “Paul wrote fourteen epistles: and indeed our author has explained them all.
14. I need not give a particular account of his several prefaces to St. Paul's epistles: I observe: a few things only.
15. He says, the epistle to the Ephesians was written by the apostle Paul at Rome, when he was a prisoner.
16. Upon Coloss. iv. 14, he says, that ° Luke, the physician there mentioned, is the evangelist; but he does not there say that he was a native or citizen of Antioch.
17. Upon Col. iv. 16, he writes, “ that (or · which') is the epistle from Laodicea ? It is the • first epistle to Timothy, for that was written from Laodicea. But some say it is an epistle
which the Laodiceans had sent to Paul; though I do not know what they have to justify this • opinion. From all which it may be reckoned very probable, that Theophylact had never heard of any epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans:
18. The epistle of St. James is several times quoted in Theophylact's Commentaries : he quotes it 9 expressly as written by James, the Lord's brother.
a P. 539. C.
& Vid. in Matth. cap. xxvii. p. 178. C. D. In Marc. cap. xv. b...ο και συνεγραψεν εν Παλμω τη νησω εξορισος διατελων. p. 286. C.D. in Luc. cap. xxiv. p. 538. D. In Joan. cap. xix. x. 2. p. 554. B.
p. 896. C. D.
to Ib. p. 826. B. C. « So likewise in the latter part of the Synopsis ascribed to 1 Μονος γαρ δυτος τρεις μητερας αναφαινεται εχων, την φυσικης Athanasius, it is said, 'The gospel according to John was την Σαλωμην, την βροντην, υίος γαρ βρον7ης δια ευαγγελια • dictated by the holy and beloved apostle, when he was an μεγαλοφωνιαν, και την θεολοκον, κ. λ. In Joh. p. 554. D. E. • exile in Patmos, and was afterwards published by him at .... η θεολοκος.... δευθερα η Μαγδαληνη,... τρίτη και το • Ephesus, under the care of Gaius his host
, and of the other Kreona, xas Telasin ni To Mažapa aderen. In Jo. p. 826. '. apostles, of whom Paul says in the epistle to the Romans | Comment, in Act. Ap. p. 1. Colon. 1568. ' [xvi. 23.] “ Gaius my host, and of the whole church, * saluteth you.” Ap. Ath. T. ii. p. 202. F.
" In Ep. Paul. Comm. p. 498. Londin, 1636. • P. 554. B. C. D.
PP. 676. e In Matth. cap. xiii. p. 79. C. D.
9 In Evangel. p. 218. C. *Την Μαριαν, η ελεγείο το Κλεοπα θυγατηρ κατα τον νόμον, και την Σαλαμην. Ιbid.
m Ib. p. 3.