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Flying between the cold moon and the earth,
Cupid all arm'd:a certain aim he took

A star dis-orbid," however, (Scé Troilus and Cressida,) is one of our author's favourite images ; and he has no where so happily expressed it as in Anteny and Cleopatra :

the good llars, that were my former guides, - Have empty left thcir orbs, and shot their fires

“ Into th'abysm of hell." To these remarks may be added others of a like tendency, which I met with in the Edinburgh Magazine, Nov. 1786.

66 That a compliment to Queen Elizabeth was intended in the expreflion of the fair Veftal throned in the Weft, seems to be generally allowed; but how far Shakspeare designed, under the image of the Mermaid, to figure Mary Queen of Scots, is morc doubtful. If by the rude fea grew civil at her Song, is meant, as Dr. Warburion supposes, that the tumults of Scotland were appeased by her address, the obfervation is not true; for that sea was in a fiorm during the whole of Mary's reign. Neither is the figure just, if by the stars shooting madly from their spheres to hear the sea-maid's musick, the poet alluded 10 the fate of the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland, and particularly of the Duke of Norfolk, whose projeded marriage with Mary, was the occasion of his ruin. It would have been absurd and irreconcileable to the good sense of the poet, to have represented a nobleman aspiring to marry a Queen, by the image of a star Jhooting or descending from its sphere."

See also Mr. Riison's observations on the same subje&. On account of their length, they are given at the end of the play.

STEEVENS, 3 Cupid all arm'd :] All arm'd, does not signify dressed in panoply, but only enforces the word armed, as we might (ay, all booted.

Johnson. So, in Greene's Never too Late, 1516 :

" Or where proud Cupid fat all arm'd with fire." Again, in Lord Surrey's translation of the 4th book of the Æncid:

66 All utterly I could not seem forsaken." Again, in K. Richard III:

“ His horse is flain, and all on foot he fights." Shakspeare's compliment to queen Elizabeth has no small degree of propriety and elegance to boast of. The sa!ne can bardly be Said of the followiog, with which the tragedy of Soliman and PerJeda, 1599, concludes. Death is the speaker, and vows be will sparc

none but 'sacred Cynthia's friend,
16 Whom Death did fear before her life began ;
" For holy fates have grav'n it in their tables,


At a fair vestal, throned by the west;
And loos’d his love-shaft smartly from his bow,
As it should pierce a hundred thousand hearts:
But I might see young Cupid's fiery shaft
Quench'd in the chafte beams of the wat'ry moon;
And the imperial vot'ress passed on,
In maiden meditation, fancy-free.*
Yet mark'd I where the bolt of Cupid fell:
It fell upon a little western flower,
Before, milk-white; now purple with love's

wound, --
And maidens call it, love-in-idleness.'

" That Death shall die, if he attempt her end

" Whose life is heav'n's delight, and Cynthia's friend." If incense was thrown in cart-loads on the altar, this propitious dcity was not disgusted by the smoke' of it. STEEVENS.

> At a fair vellal, throned by the west;] A compliment to quećn Elizabeth. POPE.

It was no uncommon thing to introduce a compliment to her majesty in the body of a play. So, again in Tancred and Gifmunda, 1592 :

• There lives a virgin, one without compare,
" Who of all graces bath her heavenly share ;
" In whose renowne, and for whose happie days,
16 Let us record this Pæan of her praise. Cantant.

STEEVENS, - fancy-free.] i. c. exempt from the power of love. Thus in Queen Elizabeth's Entertainment in Suffolke and Norfolke, written by Churchyard, Chastity deprives Cupid of his Bow, and presents it to her Majesty : and bycause that the Queene had chosen the best life, she gave the Queene Cupid's Bow, to learne to toote at whome she pleased : fince none coulde wounde her highnessc hart, it was meete (said Chastitie) that the should do with Cupid's Bowe and arrowes what she pleased." STEEVENS.

s And maidens call it, love-in-idlenels.] This is as fine a metamorphosis as any in Ovid: With a much better moral, intimating that irregular love has only power when people are idle, or not 'well employed. WARBURTON.

I believe the fingular beauty of this metamorphosis to have been quite accidental, as the poet is of another opinion, in The Tauring of a Shrew, A& I. fc. iv;


Fetch me that flower; the herb I fhow'd thee once ;
The juice of it, on sleeping eye-lids laid,
Will make or man or woman madly dote
Upon the next live creature that it fees.
Fetch me this herb; and be thou here again,
Ere the leviathan can swim a league.

Puck. I'll put a girdle round about the earth
In forty minutes.

[ Exit Puck: OBE.

Having once this juice,
I'll watch Titania when she is asleep,
And drop the liquor of it'in her eyes;
The next thing then she waking looks upon,
( Be on lion, bear, or wolf, or bull,
On meddling monkey, or on busy ape, )

• But see, while idly I stood looking on,
" I found th' effe & of love in idleness ;
" And now in plaioness I confess to thee,
" Tranio, I burn, I pine, I perish, Tranio,

" If I atchicve not this young modest girl." And Lucentio's was surely a regular and honest paflion. It is scarce necessary to mention that love-in-idleness is a flower. Taylor; the water poet, quibbling on the names of plants, meations it as follows:

" When passions are let loose without a bridle,
" Then precious time is turn'd to love-in-idle."

STEFYENS. The flower or violet, commonly called pansies, or heart's ease, is named love-in-idleness in Warwickshire, and in Lyte's Herbal. There is a reason why Shakspeare says it is “ now purple with love's wound," because one or two of its petals are of a purple colour. TOLLET,

It is called in other counties the Three-coloured violet, the Herb of Trinity, Three facos in a kood, Cuddle me to you, &c. STEEVENS.

6 I'll put a girdle round about the earth --] This expression also occurs in The Bird in a Cage, 1633 : Perhaps, it is proverbial :

5. And when I have put a girdle 'bout the world,

". This purchase will reward me." Again, in Bully d'Ambois, by Chapman, 1613 :

To put a girdle round about the world." And in other plays. STEEVENS.

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She shall pursue it with the soul of love.
And ere I take this charm off from her fight,
(As I can take it with another berb,)
I'll make her render up her page to me,
But who comes here? I am in visible; 7
And I will over-hear their conference.

Enter DEMETRIUS, HELENA following him.

Dem. I love thee not, therefore pursue me not. Where is Lysander, and fair Hermia ? The one I'll flay, the other flayeth me. 8 Thou told'st me, they were stol'n into this wood, And here am I, and wood within this wood,'


7 I am invigible;] I thought proper here to observe, that, as Oberon and Puck his attendant , may be frequently observed to {pcak, when there is no mention of their entering, they are designed by the poet to be supposed on the frage during the greatest part of the remainder of the play ; and to mix, as they please, as spirits, with the other adors; and embroil the plot, by their interpofition, without being seen, or heard, but when to their own purpose.

THEOBALD. See Tempeft, page 41, note 5. STEEVENS. 8 The one I'll say, the other flayeth me.] The old copies read

" The one I'll stay, the other stayeth me. STEEVENS. Dr. Thirlby ingeniously saw it must be, as I have corređed in the text. THEOBALD. and wood within this wood,] Wood, or mad, wild, raving.

Pope. In the third part of the Countess of Pembroke's Ivy-Church, 1591, is the same quibble on the word :

“ Daphne goes to the woods, and vowes herself to Diana;

Phæbus grows ftark wood for love and faucie to Daphne." We also find the same word in Chaucer, in the charader of the Monke, Tyrwhitt's edit. v. 184 :

“ What shulde he studie, and make himselven wood?" Spenser also uses it, Æglogue III. March :

6. The elf was so wanton, and so wode." " The name Woden," says Verstegan in his Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, kc. 1605: “ signifies fierce or furious; and in like fense we still retain it, saying when one is in a great rage, that he is wood, or taketh on as if he were wood." STEEVENS.

the more

Because I cannot meet with Hermia.
Hence, get thee gone, and follow me no more.

Hel. You draw me, you hard-hearted adamant; But yet you draw not iron,” for my

Is true as steel: Leave you your power to draw,
And I shall have no power to follow you.
Dem. Do I entice you? Do I speak you

Or, rather, do I not in plainest truth
Tell you I do not, nor I cannot love you?
HEL. And even for that do I love

I am your spaniel ; and, Demetrius,
The more you beat me, I will fawn on you:
Use me but as your spaniel, spurn me, strike me,
Neglect me, lose me; only give me leave,
Unworthy as I am, to follow you.
What worser place can I beg in your love,
(And yet a place of high respect with me,)
Than to be used as you use your dog?
Dem, Tempt not too much the hatred of my

fpirit; For I am sick, when I do look on thee.

Hel. And I am sick, when I look not on you.

Dem. You do impeach your modestys too much, To leave the city, and commit yourself Into the hands of one that loves you not;

You draw me, you hard-hearted adamant :

But get you draw not iron,] I lcaro from Edward Fenton's Certaine Secrete Wonders of Nature, bl. l. 1569, that now a dayes a kind of adamant which draweth unto it fleshe, and the same so fronglý, that it hath power to knit and tie together, two mouthes of coatrary persons, and drawe the heart of a mår out of his bodie without offendyng any parle of him."

Sreevens. impeach your modefly -] i. e. bring it into queflion. So in The Merchant of Venice, Ad III. sc. ii :

6. And doth impeach the freedom of the state,
“ If they deny bim justice." STEEVENS.

" there is


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