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42. The power of abstraction is bestowed on man, for the purpose solely of reasoning. It tends greatly to the facility as well as cleamness of any process of reasoning, that, laying aside every other circumstance,we can confine our attention to 'heingle property we desire to investigate.
43. Abstract terms may be separated into three different kinds, all equally subservient to the reasoning faculty. Individuals appear to have no end; and did we not possess the faculty of distributing them into classes, the mind would be lost in an endless maze, and no progress be made in knowledge. It is by the faculty of abstraction that we distribute beings into genera and species : finding a number of individuals connected by certain qualities common to all, we give a name to these individuals considered as thus connected, which name, by gathering them together into one class, serves to express the whole of these individuals as distinct from others. Thus the word animal serves to denote: every being that can move voluntarily; and the words man, horse, lion, &c. answer similar purposes.
This is the first and most common sort of abstraction; and it is of the most extensive use, by enabling us to comprehend in our reasoning whole kinds and sorts, instead of individuals, without end. The next sort of abstract terms comprehends a number of individual objects, considered as connected by some occasional relation. A great number of persons collected in one place, without any other relation than merely that of contiguity, are denominated a crowd : in forming this term, we abstract from sex,
from condition, from dress, &c. A number of persons connected by the same laws and by the same government, are termed a nation:and a number of men under the same military command, are termed an army. A third sortofabstraction is, where a single property or part, which may be common to many individuals, is selected to be the subject of our contemplation; for example, whiteness, heat, beauty, length, roundness, head, arm.
44. Abstract terms are a happy invention: it is by their means chiefly, that the particulars which make the subject of our reasoning are brought into close union, and separated from all others however natuTally
connected. Without the aid of such terms, the mind could never be kept steady to its proper subject, but be perpetually in hazard of assuming foreign circumstances, or neglecting what are essential. We can, without the aid of language, compare real objects by intuition, when these objects are present; and when absent, we can compare them in idea. But when we advance farther, and attempt to make inferences and draw conclusions, we always employ abstract terms, even in thinking; it would be as difficult to reason without them, as to perforin operations in algebra without signs; for there is scarcely any reasoning without some degree of abstraction, and we cannot easily abstract without using abstract terms. Hence it follows, that without language man would scarcely be a rational being.
45. The same thing, in different respects, has different names. With respect to certain qualities, it is termed a substance ; with respect to other qualities, a body; and with respect to qualities of all sorts, a subject. It is termed a passive subject with respect to an action exerted upon it; an object with respect to a percipient: a cause with respect to the effect it produces; and an effect with respect to its cause.
ABSTRACTION, power of, 486. Its use, tion, ib. Opinion and belief influ-
enced by affection, 88. Affection de-
poetry, 122, 404. Cannot be com- Agamemnon, of Seneca censured, 231.
disagreeable. See Object.
cents that are necessary in an hexam 438, 439.
All for Love, of Dryden censured, 235.
man actions, 27. 115. 172. We are Ambiguity, occasioned by a wrong
talents of an actor, 206. An actor Anticlimax, 286.
Apostrophe, 359, &c.
Appearance, things ought to be described
in poetry, as they appear, not as they
are in reality, 393.
To blood-relations, ib. Affection for ger, thirst, animal love, arise without
manner in architecture, 119. The si- | Base, of a column, 462.
taste for neatness and regularity, 465. Benevolence operates in conjunction
with self-love to make us happy, 97.
Berkeley, censured, 477, note.
Blank verse, 298. 315. Its aptitude for
proper in tragedy,
burlesque poem, 59. Burlesque dis-
Business, men of middle age best quali-
fied for it, 152.
Capital, of a column, 463.
effects that have no resemblance; and
causes that have no resemblance
may produce resembling effects, 283.
Character, to draw a character is the
master-stroke of description, 397, 398.
Characteristics, of Shaftsbury criticised,
Children, love to them accounted for, 43.
A child can discover a passion from
of its emotions, 215.
Chinese, gardens, 450. Wonder and Complexion, what colour of dress is the
most suitable to different complexions,
Conception, defined, 475.
Congreve, censured, 37. 180. 207. note.
gruity distinguished from beauty, 166.
Distinguished from propriety, ib. As
sound, 253. When these are joined, sured, 234.
beautiful colors, 104. A secondary Contemplation, when painful, 156.
loring of the human face, exquisite, ib. 138.
base, 94. The base ought to be guage, 251. In a series of objects,
252.o Contrast in the thought requires
contrast in the members of the expres-
Copulative, to drop the copulative en-
426. Modern manners do best in Coriolanuş, of Shakspeare censured,
Corneille, censured, 219. 229. 240. 243.
compared with respect to beauty, 128. sometimes mean, 174.
him to approach with a swift pace, 89.
Criticism, its advantages, 14, 15. Its
Crowd, defined, 485.
Custom and habit, ch. xiv. Renders
early composition of all nations, com guished from habit, 193. Custom
Davila, censured, 159.
Declensions, explained, 267.
Dedications. See Epistles Dedicatory. ib., of those that respecť others, ib.
Duty of acting up to the dignity of
our nature, 173. 175.
&c. Internal form, 453. 458.
451. Means to promote in young per-
Effect, defined, 488.
the final cause, 175.
tion, 31. It determines the will, 96. Elevation, 110, &c. Real and figurative
rative grandeur, 333, 334.
380. Emotions distinguished into pri-
fiction, 50, &c. Raised by painting,
54. Emotions divided into pleasant
and painful, agreeable and disagree-
istence of emotions, 63, &c. Their
growth and decay, 64, &c. Their
identity, ib. Coexistent emotions, 67,
&c. Emotions similar and dissimilar,
when coexistent, 71. 444. 450. 457. fects of similar coexistent emotions,
painful, 59. and also disagreeable, 60. emotions upon our perception's, opi-
puting the distance of objects, 92, &c. 146. 347. 359. 361. 365, &c. Emo-
Emotions of grandeur, 109, &c., of
sublimity; 110. A low emotion, 115.
Emotion of laughter, ch. vii., of ridi-
in their succession, 149. Emotions
trasted in succession, ib. Emotion of
Emotions produced by human actions,
172. Ranked according to their dig-
those which respect ourselves and junction, 444. What emotions are