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42. The power of abstraction is bestowed on man, for the purpose solely of reasoning. It tends greatly to the facility as well as cleamness of any process of reasoning, that, laying aside every other circumstance,we can confine our attention to 'heingle property we desire to investigate.

43. Abstract terms may be separated into three different kinds, all equally subservient to the reasoning faculty. Individuals appear to have no end; and did we not possess the faculty of distributing them into classes, the mind would be lost in an endless maze, and no progress be made in knowledge. It is by the faculty of abstraction that we distribute beings into genera and species : finding a number of individuals connected by certain qualities common to all, we give a name to these individuals considered as thus connected, which name, by gathering them together into one class, serves to express the whole of these individuals as distinct from others. Thus the word animal serves to denote: every being that can move voluntarily; and the words man, horse, lion, &c. answer similar purposes.

This is the first and most common sort of abstraction; and it is of the most extensive use, by enabling us to comprehend in our reasoning whole kinds and sorts, instead of individuals, without end. The next sort of abstract terms comprehends a number of individual objects, considered as connected by some occasional relation. A great number of persons collected in one place, without any other relation than merely that of contiguity, are denominated a crowd : in forming this term, we abstract from sex,


from condition, from dress, &c. A number of persons connected by the same laws and by the same government, are termed a nation:and a number of men under the same military command, are termed an army. A third sortofabstraction is, where a single property or part, which may be common to many individuals, is selected to be the subject of our contemplation; for example, whiteness, heat, beauty, length, roundness, head, arm.

44. Abstract terms are a happy invention: it is by their means chiefly, that the particulars which make the subject of our reasoning are brought into close union, and separated from all others however natuTally

connected. Without the aid of such terms, the mind could never be kept steady to its proper subject, but be perpetually in hazard of assuming foreign circumstances, or neglecting what are essential. We can, without the aid of language, compare real objects by intuition, when these objects are present; and when absent, we can compare them in idea. But when we advance farther, and attempt to make inferences and draw conclusions, we always employ abstract terms, even in thinking; it would be as difficult to reason without them, as to perforin operations in algebra without signs; for there is scarcely any reasoning without some degree of abstraction, and we cannot easily abstract without using abstract terms. Hence it follows, that without language man would scarcely be a rational being.

45. The same thing, in different respects, has different names. With respect to certain qualities, it is termed a substance ; with respect to other qualities, a body; and with respect to qualities of all sorts, a subject. It is termed a passive subject with respect to an action exerted upon it; an object with respect to a percipient: a cause with respect to the effect it produces; and an effect with respect to its cause.


ence, 312.

ABSTRACTION, power of, 486. Its use, tion, ib. Opinion and belief influ-

enced by affection, 88. Affection de-
Abstract terms, ought to be avoided in fined, 195. 484.

poetry, 122, 404. Cannot be com- Agamemnon, of Seneca censured, 231.
pared but by being personified, 326. Agreeable emotions and passions, 58,
Personified, 351. Defined, 486.' The &c. Things neither agreeable nor
use of abstract terms,

disagreeable. See Object.
Accent, defined, 292. The musical ac- Alcestes, of Euripides censured, 242.

cents that are necessary in an hexam 438, 439.
eter line, 296. A low word must not Alexandre, of Racine censured, 225.
be accented, 310. Rules for accenting Alexandrine line, 298.
English heroic verse, 309, 310. How Allegory, defined, 370. More difficult
far affected by the pause, 311. Ac in painting than in poetry, 376. In
cent and pause have a mutual influ an historical poem, 424.

All for Love, of Dryden censured, 235.
Action, what feelings are raised by hu- Alto Relievo, 459.

man actions, 27. 115. 172. We are Ambiguity, occasioned by a wrong
impelled to action by desire, 29. Some choice of words, 255; occasioned by
actions are instinctive, some intended a wrong arrangement, 270.
as means to a certain end, 31. Ac- Amynta, of Tasso censured, 222.
tions great and elevated, low and gro- Amor patriæ, accounted for, 45.
velling, 115. Slowness and quickness Amphibrachys, 324.
in acting, to what causes owing, 152. Amphimacer, 324.
157. Emotions occasioned by pro- Analytic and synthetic methods of rea-
priety of action, 168. Occasioned by soning compared, 22.
impropriety of action, ib. Human Anapestus, 323.
actions considered with respect to dig- Anger, explained, 47, &c. Frequently
nity and meanness, 175. Actions the comes to its height instantaneously,
interpreters of the heart, 208. Action Decays suddenly, 66. Some-
is the fundamental part of epic and times exerted against the innocent, 85.
dramatic compositions, 420. Unity and even against things inanimate, ib.
of action, 429. We are conscious of Not infectious, 95. Has no dignity
internal action as in the head, 475. in it, 175.
Internal action may proceed without Angle, largest and smallest angle of
our being conscious of it, ib.

vision, 92.
Action and reaction betwixt a passion Animals, distributed by nature into
and its object, 65.

classes, 467.
Actor, bombast actor, 126. The chief Antibacchius, 324.

talents of an actor, 206. An actor Anticlimax, 286.
should feel the passion he represents, Antispastus, 324.
217. Difference as to pronunciation Antithesis, 259. Verbal antithesis, 183.
betwixt the French and English ac 259.
tors, 219, note.

Apostrophe, 359, &c.
Admiration, 65. 131.
Æneid. See Virgil.

Appearance, things ought to be described

in poetry, as they appear, not as they
Affectation, 167.

are in reality, 393.
Affection, to children accounted for, 43. Appetite, defined, 31. Appetites of hun-

To blood-relations, ib. Affection for ger, thirst, animal love, arise without
what belongs to us, ib. Social affec an object, 40. Appetite for fame or
tions more refined than selfish, 62.

esteem, 100.
Affection in what manner inflamed Apprehension, dulness and quickness of
into a passion, 65. Opposed to pro apprehension, to what causes owing,
pensity, 67. Affection to children 152.
endures longer than any other affec- | Architecture, ch. xxiv. Grandeur of


manner in architecture, 119. The si- | Base, of a column, 462.
tuation of a great house ought to be Basso-relievo, 460.
lofty, 166. A playhouse or a music- Batrachomuomachia, censured, 179..
room susceptible of much ornament, Beauty, ch. iii. Intrinsic and relative;
167. What emotions can be raised 103. 449. Beauty of simplicity, 104..
by architecture, 443. Its emotions of figure, ib., of the circle, 105. of the
compared with those of gardening, ib. square, ib., of a regular polygon, 106.
Every building ought to have an ex of a parallelogram, ib., of an equila-
pression suited to its destination, 444. teral triangle, ib. Whether beauty is.
457. Simplicity ought to be the go a primary or secondary quality of ob-
verning taste, 413. Regularity to be jects, 107. Beauty distinguished from
studied, 445. 454. External form of grandeur, 110. Beauty of natural
dwelling-houses, 452, 453. Divisions

colors, 161.

Beauty distinguished.
within, 453. 458, 459. A palace ought from congruity, 166. Consummate
to be regular, but in a small house beauty seldom produces a constant
convenience ought to be preferred, lover, 199. Wherein consists the
452, 453. A dwelling-house ought to beauty of the human visage, 204..
be suited to the climate, 454. Con Beauty proper and figurative, 482.
gruity ought to be studied, 457. Ar- Behavior, gross and refined, 62.
chitecture governed by principles that Belief, of the reality of external objects,
produce opposite effects, 459, 460. 51.' Enforced by a lively narrative,
Different ornaments employed in it, or a good historical painting, 56, 57.,
459, 460. Witticisms in architecture, Influenced by passion, 87. 361. In--
461. Allegorical or emblematical or fluenced by propensity, 88.

naments, ib. Architecture inspires a enced by affection, ib.

taste for neatness and regularity, 465. Benevolence operates in conjunction
Ariosto, censured, 160. 430.

with self-love to make us happy, 97.
Aristæus, the episode of Aristæus in the Benevolence inspired by gardening,
Georgics censured, 323.

Aristotle, censured, 477, note.

Berkeley, censured, 477, note.
Army, defined, 488.

Blank verse, 298. 315. Its aptitude for
Arrangement, the best arrangement of inversion, 317. Its melody, ib. How
words is to place them if possible in far

proper in tragedy,

an increasing series, 252. Arrange- Body, defined, 475.
ment of members in a period, ib. Of Boileau, censured, 360. 417.
periods in a discourse, 253. Ambi- Bombast, 124. Bombast in action, 126..
guity frem wrong arrangement, 270. Bossu, censured, 432, note.
273. Arrangement natural and in- | Burlesque, machinery does well in a
verted, 280, 281.

burlesque poem, 59. Burlesque dis-
Articulate sounds, how far agreeable, tinguished into two kinds, 179
248. 250.

Business, men of middle age best quali-
Artificial mount, 448.

fied for it, 152.
Arts. See Fine Arts.
Ascent, pleasant, but descent not pain- Cadence, 287. 292.
ful, 114.

Capital, of a column, 463.
Athalie, of Racine censured, 231. Careless husband, its double plot well
Attention, defined, 484. Impression contrived, 426.
made by objects depends on the degree Cascade, 129.
of attention, ib. Attention not always Cause, resembling causes may produce
voluntary, 485.

effects that have no resemblance; and
Attractive passions, 210.

causes that have no resemblance
Attractive objects, 97.

may produce resembling effects, 283.
Attractive signs of passion, 210. Cause, defined, 488.
Attributes, transferred by a figure of Chance, the mind revolts against misfor-
speech from one subject to another, tunes that happen by chance, 418.

Character, to draw a character is the
Avarice, defined, 29.

master-stroke of description, 397, 398.
Avenue, to a house, 448.

Characteristics, of Shaftsbury criticised,
Aversion, defined, 65. 195.

167, note.

Children, love to them accounted for, 43.
Bacchius, 324.

A child can discover a passion from
Bajazet, of Racine censured, 241. its external signs, 211. Hides none.
Barren scene, defined, 431.

of its emotions, 215.

365, &c.

Chinese, gardens, 450. Wonder and Complexion, what colour of dress is the
surprise studied in them, 451.

most suitable to different complexions,
Choreus, 323.

Choriambus, 324.

Conception, defined, 475.
Chorus, an essential part of the Grecian Concord, or harmony in objects of
tragedy, 433.

sight, 69.
Church, what ought to be its form and Concordant sounds, defined, 67.
situation, 458.

Congreve, censured, 37. 180. 207. note.
Cicero censured, 280. 287. 290.

Cid, of Corneille censured, 221. 233. Congruity and propriety, chap. X. A
Cinna, of Corneille censured, 168. 219. secondary relation, 165, note. Con-

gruity distinguished from beauty, 166.
Circle, its beauty, 105.

Distinguished from propriety, ib. As
Circumstances, in a period, where they to quantity, congruity coincides with
should be placed, 273, 275.

proportion, 170.
Class, all living creatures distributed Connection essential in all composi-
into classes, 470, 471.

tions, 23.
Climax, in sense, 116. 220. 278. In Conquest of Granada, of Dryden cen-

sound, 253. When these are joined, sured, 234.
the sentence is delightful, 286. Consonants, 249.
Cæphores, of Eschylus censured, 203. Constancy, consummate beauty the
Coexistent emotions and passions,67,&c. cause of inconstancy, 199.
Colonnade, where proper, 454. Construction, of language explained,
Color, gold and silver esteemed for their 264, &c.

beautiful colors, 104. A secondary Contemplation, when painful, 156.
quality, 59. Natural colors, 161. Co- Contempt, raised by improper action,

loring of the human face, exquisite, ib. 138.
Columns, every column ought to have a Contrast, chap. viii. Its effect in lan-

base, 94. The base ought to be guage, 251. In a series of objects,
square, 95. Columns admit different

252.o Contrast in the thought requires
proportions, 456458.

What emo-

contrast in the members of the expres-
tions they raise, 458. Column more sion, 251. The effect of contrast in
beautiful than a pilaster, 462. Its gardening, 450.
form, ib. Five orders of columns, ib. Conviction, intuitive. See Intuitive Con-
Capital of the Corinthian order cen viction.
sured, 463.

Copulative, to drop the copulative en-
Comedy, double plot in a comedy, 425, livens the expression, 264, &c.

426. Modern manners do best in Coriolanuş, of Shakspeare censured,
comedy, 420. Immorality of English 234.
comedy, 36.

Corneille, censured, 219. 229. 240. 243.
Comet, motion of the comets and planets Corporeal pleasure, 11–13. Low and

compared with respect to beauty, 128. sometimes mean, 174.
Commencement, of a work ought to be Couplet, 298. Rules for its composi-
modest and simple, 39.

tion, 316.
Common nature, in every species of Courage, of greater dignity than jus-
animals, 60. 467. We have a convic-

tice, 174.
tion that this common nature is inva- Creticus, 324.
riable, 468. Also that it is perfect or Criminal, the hour of execution seems to
right, 60. 468.

him to approach with a swift pace, 89.
Common sense, 467. 473.

Criticism, its advantages, 14, 15. Its
Communication of passion to related terms not accurately defined, 212.
objects. See Passion.

Crowd, defined, 485.
Communication of qualities to related Curiosity, 131. 139, &c.
objects. See Propensity.

Custom and habit, ch. xiv. Renders
Comparison, 140, &c. ch. xix. In the objects familiar, 131. Custom distin-

early composition of all nations, com guished from habit, 193. Custom
parisons are carried beyond proper puts the rich and poor upon a level,
bounds, 325. Comparisons that re 201. Taste in the fine arts improved
solve into a play of words, 343. by custom, 472, note.
Complex emotion, 68, &c.
Complex object, its power to generate Dactyle, 324.
passion, 45. 122.

Davila, censured, 159.
Complex perception, 479.

Declensions, explained, 267.

Dedications. See Epistles Dedicatory. ib., of those that respecť others, ib.
Delicacy, of taste, 61. 472.

Duty of acting up to the dignity of
Derision, 169. 179.

our nature, 173. 175.
Des Cartes, censured, 477, note. Dwelling-house, its external form, 452,
Descent, not painful, 114.

&c. Internal form, 453. 458.
Description, ít animates a description to
represent things past as present, 55. Education, promoted by the fine arts, 14.
The rules that ought to govern it,

451. Means to promote in young per-
392, &c. A lively description is sons a habit of virtue, 40.
agreeable, though the subject describ- Effects, resembling effects may be pro-
ed be disagreeable, 409. No objects duced by causes that have no resem-
but those of sight can be well des blance, 283.
cribed, 480.

Effect, defined, 488.
Descriptive personifications, 351. Efficient cause, of less importance than
Descriptive tragedy, 217.

the final cause, 175.
Desire, defined, 29. It impels us to ac- Electra, of Sophocles censured, 204.

tion, 31. It determines the will, 96. Elevation, 110, &c. Real and figurative
Desire in a criminal to be punished, intimately connected, 114. Figura-
99. Desire tends the most to happi tive elevation distinguished from figu-
ness when moderate, 108.

rative grandeur, 333, 334.
Dialogue, dialogue writing requires great Emotion, what feelings are termed emo-
genius, 216, &c. In dialogue every tions, 26. Emotions defined, 27,

expression ought to be suited to the And their causes assigned, 28. Dis-
character of the speaker, 404. Dia tinguished from passions, 30. Emo
logue makes a deeper impression than tion generated by relations, 41, &c.
narration, 415. Qualified for express Emotions expanded upon related ob-
ing sentiments, 416. Rules for it, jects, 41, &c. 275. 283. 309. 349, 350.
427, &c.

380. Emotions distinguished into pri-
Dignity and grace, chap. xi. Dignity mary and secondary, 43. Raised by
of human nature, 469.

fiction, 50, &c. Raised by painting,
Diiambus, 324.

54. Emotions divided into pleasant
Diphthongs, 249.

and painful, agreeable and disagree-
Disagreeable emotions and passions, able, 59, &c. 480. The interrupted ex-
58, &c.

istence of emotions, 63, &c. Their
Discordant sounds, defined, 68.

growth and decay, 64, &c. Their
Dispondeus, 324.

identity, ib. Coexistent emotions, 67,
Disposition, defined, 483.

&c. Emotions similar and dissimilar,
Dissimilar emotions, 68. Their effects 68. Complex emotions, 69, 70. Ef-

when coexistent, 71. 444. 450. 457. fects of similar coexistent emotions,
Dissimilar passions, their effects, 76. 69. 457. Effeets of dissimilar coex-
Dissocial passions, 33. All of them istent emotions, 71, 444. Influence of

painful, 59. and also disagreeable, 60. emotions upon our perception's, opi-
Distance, the natural method of com nions, and belief, 82, &c. 92, 93. 144.

puting the distance of objects, 92, &c. 146. 347. 359. 361. 365, &c. Emo-
Errors to which this computation is tions resemble their causes, 94, &c.
liable, 455. 459.

Emotions of grandeur, 109, &c., of
Ditrochæus, 324.

sublimity; 110. A low emotion, 115.
Door, its proportion, 452.

Emotion of laughter, ch. vii., of ridi-
Double action, in an epic poem, 430. cule, 138. Emotions when contrasted
Double Dealer, of Congreve censured, should not be too slow nor too quick
231. 431.

in their succession, 149. Emotions
Double plot, in a dramatic composition, raised by the fine arts ought to be con

trasted in succession, ib. Emotion of
Drama, ancient and modern compared, congruity, 165, &c., of propriety, 167.
432, &c.

Emotions produced by human actions,
Dramatic poetry, ch. xxii.

172. Ranked according to their dig-
Drapery, ought to hang loose, 95. nity, 173. External signs of emo-
Dress, rules about dress, 167. 443. tions, ch. xv. Attractive and repul-
Dryden, censured, 375. 427. 431. sive emotions, 210. What emotions
Duties, moral duties distinguished into do best in succession, what in con-

those which respect ourselves and junction, 444. What emotions are
those which respect others, 170. Foun raised by the productions of manu-
dation of duties that respect ourselves, factures, 451, note. Man is passive

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