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legiance to the new sovereign. At lery to advance. The rebels, having noon the general of the guards and formed themselves into a square, of the staff, came to the palace to had the boldness to fire first, but announce that the oath had been they were soon dispersed, and taken by the regiment of horse pursued in all directions. The guards, by the guards of Preoba- number killed amounted to two jensky Semenoffsky, the grenadiers hundred. At six o'clock order was Pawlowsky, the chasseurs of the re-established; the troops remained guard and of Finland, and by the faithful, and the greater portion of miners and sappers. No accounts them bivouacked all night round had been received from the other the palace. The grand duke Miregiments, but this circumstance chael, who arrived in St. Peterswas attributed to their

bar- burgh at the moment of the tumult, racks being at a greater distance: succeeded in reclaiming six compauntil it was announced that four' nies of the Moscow regiment, who officers of artillery had shown took no part in the revolt, but who some opposition ; that they had refused to take the oath. been put under arrest; and that This disturbance, it was alleged, the remainder of the artillery had was not the effect of any accident taken the oath unanimously. Im or of any predilection of the sol mediately afterwards, news was diery for the prince who had abdibrought that 300 or 400 men of the cated, but the result of a revoluregiment of Moscow had quitted tionary plot which had been in extheir barrack with colours flying, istence for many years, and which and had proclaimed Constantine seized this moment as a favourable the First. These men proceeded opportunity for accomplishing the to the square of Isaac, where they designs of the conspirators, by were soon joined by great numbers means of the assassination of the of the people and by many soldiers whole of the imperial family, and a of the body grenadier regiment, and general massacre of all who should of the marines of the guard. No adhere to their cause. To invesother corps took part in the sedition, tigate the subject, the emperor imand the numbers of the factious mediately instituted a special comdid not exceed 2,000. Informed mittee of inquiry, consisting of the of these disorders, general Milor- grand duke Michael, the minister adovitsch proceeded to the square of war general Tatistcheff, the to address the rebels. But at that privy counsellor prince Galitzin, moment a man in plain clothes generals Berkendorff, Lewascheff, fired a pistol-shot at him, and he and Patapoff. This committee, it died of the wound some hours af- was stated, quickly ascertained the terwards. The emperor himself nature and the extent of the plot, appeared without arms, and at- and the names of those who were tempted to reclaim the mutineers, mosi active in its formation and but without success.

At last, management. Numerous arrests, after having exhausted all gentle especially of military officers, took means, and after having in vain place, both in the capital and in explained the circumstance of the various provinces of the empire. renunciation of Constantine, he “What did the conspirators inwas forced, at the approach of even- tend?" said Nicholas, in a proclamaing, to order the troops and artil- tion issued on the 2nd of January,

“ The sacred words of fidelity, very root; they will purge of this oath, legitimate order, even the foreign contagion the sacred soil of name of the Cesarowitsch and the Russia ; they will cause to disapgrand duke Constantine, were for pear that odious mixture of melanthem only a pretext for treason. choly truths and gratuitous susThey wished to profit by the mo- picions which is repugnant to noble ment to accomplish their criminal minds; they will draw for ever a design - designs long contrived, decisive and ineffaceable line of delong meditated, long matured in marcation between love of country darkness, and the mystery of which and revolutionary passions, between the government had penetrated only the desire of improvement and in part. They intended to cast down the rage of convulsions; they will the throne and the laws, to over show to the world that the Russian turn the empire, to produce anar- nation, always faithful to its sovechy. What were their means? As reign and to the laws, repels the sassination. Their first victim was secret efforts of anarchy, as it has the military governor, count Mi repelled the open attacks of its des laradowitsch. He, whom, in the clared enemies; they will show how field of honour, the chance of war people may free themselves from had spared in 50 battles, has fallen such a scourge; they will prove that, under the hand of an assassin. it is not every where indestructible.” This murder is not the only one. The real nature and extent of Count Sturler, commander of the the alleged plot was not disclosed regiment of grenadiers of the body to the world. The rumour was, guard, killed; major-general Schen- that an attempt to establish a conschin, major-general Fredericks, stitution was to have commenced and others, severely wounded, have by murdering the whole imperial sealed with their blood their fidelity family, on the 12th of January, to honour and to duty.

a day on which every member of “Hurried in the tumult, the the family attends, at the chapel soldiers of the companies that were in the castle, the celebration of a seduced did not participate in these religious ceremony in memory of crimes, either in act or intention. Paul. The imperial victims were A rigorous inquiry has given me to have been shut up in the chapel, the proof of this, and I consider it and there murdered ; the castle as a first act of justice, as well as was then to have been seized, all my first consolation, to declare the foreigners were to have been them innocent. But the same jus- massacred, and the town given up tice forbids us to spare the guilty. to the soldiers, to be pillaged, for All those against whom proceed three days. ingsare instituted, and who shall be That there did exist a conspiconvicted, will undergo a punish- racy, subsequent events showed too ment proportioned to their crimes. plainly. In consequence of the

“From the measures already discoveries made by the committee taken in the proceedings, the pun- of inquiry, orders were sent to arishment will embrace in its whole rest lieut. colonel Mouravieff Aposextent, in all its ramifications, an tol, of the infantry regiment of evil the germ of which is of the Tchernigoff

.

These orders were growth of years; and I am confi- executed by lieut. colonel Gebel, dent they will destroy it to the commanding that regiment: but.

Mouravieff attacked that officer in the district of Vassilkoff. Mouand wounded him in several places. ravieff Apostol, seeing the imperial He then instigated six companies troops approach, formed the rebels of the regiment to revolt, by ure into a square, and advanced upon ging upon them the obligation to the artillery : but being received remain faithful to the oath which by a discharge of grape shot, the they had taken to Constantine. square was immediately broken. He next arrested the courier and The cavalry then made a charge, the gens d'armes who had been and all the insurgents threw down sent to convey him to St. Peters- their arms. About seven hundred burgh, pillaged the regimental soldiers were taken prisoners, as chest, set the malefactors who were well as Mouravieff Apostol himself, confined in the municipal prison who was severely wounded by a of Vassilkoff, free from their chains, grape shot, and by a sabre cut on and gave the town up to the licen- the head; the second captain, baron tiousness of the soldiery. Three Solovieff, lieutenant Bystrytchy, companies, however, of the regi- the sub-lieutenant Bestoujeff-Rioument, under the orders of major mine, of the infantry regiment of Trouchin, remained firm to their Poltava, and a brother of Mouraduty, and separated themselves from vieff, a lieutenant-colonel on halftheinsurgents. As soon as the com- pay, were also prisoners. mander-in-chief of the first army Lieutenants Kouzmine, Chippela, was informed of these events, and another brother of Mouravieff he ordered prince Scherbatoff to Apostol, were killed, besides many proceed directly, with a sufficient soldiers; and some were wounded. number of troops, to exterminate Of the imperial troops not a man the rebels; and lest they might es was either killed or wounded. cape from the pursuit of that offi. Nicolas professed a firm purpose cer, the emperor confided the com to pursue the same policy which mand of another corps of infantry his deceased brother had followed. to the grand duke Constantine, The note addressed by count with a view to secure more cer Nesselrode, minister for Foreign tainly the suppression of the revolt. Affairs, to the foreign ministers

Mouravieff at first seems to have accredited to the court of Russia, intended to march upon Bronssi- on the emperor's accession, was in loff by Yastoff: but the motions of these words :-“ Called to the inhis pursuers compelled him to heritance of the dominions of the change his plan, and he was pro- emperor Alexander, the emperor ceeding towards Bela-Tcherkoff

, Nicolas inherits also the principles in the hope of getting posses- which directed the policy of his sion of considerable sums of august predecessor; and his Imperial money, which were in the house Majesty has therefore given orders of the countess Branicka. He was, to his ambassadors, ministers, and however, soon surrounded on all agents at foreign courts, to declare sides; and, on the morning of the to them, that, earnestly striving to 15th of January, a detachment follow the footsteps of the Sovereign under the command of lieutenant whose loss he deplores, he will general Roth came up with the profess the same fidelity to the eninsurgents on the heights of Ousti- gagements contracted by Russia, novka, near the village of Pologoff, the same respect for all rights con

secrated by existing treaties, the maintain the relations of intimate same attachment to the maxims friendship and mutual confidence, which ensure the general peace, which, having been established and of the bonds that subsist be- and maintained under the emperor tween the powers. On the other Alexander, have given to Europe hand, the emperor confidently hopes ten years

of

repose." from them the same disposition to

C H A P. XI.

SPAIN.- Appointment of M. de Zea Bermudez to be Minister--His Dis

advantages-Dismissal of Ugarte- Finances of Spain- Disturbances --Decrees-- Plots of the Priests and of the Ultra-Royalists - Project for placing Don Carlos on the Throne - Insurrection of BessieresHis Failure and DeathOther Plots and Insurrectionary Movements-Institution of the Consultative JuntaThe course of the Administration-Dismissal of Zea and his Cabinet— The Duke de l'Infantado appointed Minister.

Zea was

THE history of Spain during on the morrow,

His almost total the present year is nearly a want of personal influence, of family blank. On the last day of 1824, connexions, or of party support, Zea Bermudez was placed at the made it necessary for him to conhead of the ministry. This ap- sult the caprices of those whose pointment was said to have been erroneous views and mischievous almost forced upon Ferdinand by passions he should have been able the influence of France, and by the to control, and thus rendered it extreme difficulties in which the impossible for him to observe any court found itself placed.

consistent line of conduct in atconceived to be a man of ability, tempting to restore public credit or of knowledge, and of moderation to suppress dangerous disturbances. in politics ; and hopes were enter- The consequence was, that the tained that he would follow a more fanatical party, imagining that they enlightened policy than that of his had now something to apprehend, predecessors in office. But he had and at the same time freed from not sufficient strength to effect any the check of the French army, good. As he refused to go all the became more violent than before : lengths of the fanatical party, he and most of the principal towns was from the commencement of his in Spain exhibited scenes of anarchy ministry obnoxious to the church and tumult. The disorders were and the leading courtiers ; and as, increased by the

verty of the from the very nature of his situa- government, who, being without tion, he could not obtain the sup- either money or credit, were unable port of public opinion in a country to furnish regularly the requisite where there was no public, he was supplies forthe scanty and miserably obliged, in order to maintain him- appointed troops, and were in the self in office, to oppose intrigue to habit of having recourse to forced intrigue ; to make a compromise contributions. with wrong, when he could not Many negotiations were set on carry what he thought right; and foot for the purpose of raising a to render ineffectual the measure loan, but without effect. In March, of one day, by the promulgation of Ugarte, whose private influence had a modifying or counteracting decree long been great, was dismissed from

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