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far from being satisfied ; and com the zeal of the fanatical party did plained loudly of the government not abate, and they openly avowed as too liberal. The monks were their purposes. So daring were especially active in exciting the they, that, on the 13th of August, spirit of fanaticism ; and at last, a monk of the order of Mercy, haM. de Zea Bermudez, suspected by ranguing in the public square a all and aided by none, yielded very numerous collection of people, to the intrigues of the adverse said that all was lost in Spain, as it courtiers, and in the beginning of appeared beyond doubt that the August tendered his resignation. king was a freemason; and that in Ferdinand refused to accept it, and such a state of things the object Zea continued in his post. The of all Spaniards, who were the discontent became more general, friends of their country and of reand a project was now entertained ligion, should be, to place on the of setting up the Infant Carlos as throne the Infant don Carlos, king. There was scarcely a town whose good principles and whose in Spain, in which great numbers Catholicism were well known. of persons were not thrown into " Ah!" said he, “if we could, prison.

At Seville, nearly two with the assistance of God, effect hundred persons were placed in so important a change, the state of confinement on the 5th, 6th, and unhappy Spain would not yet be 7th of August : and as all the pri- quite desperate." sons were filled, orders were given serted that upwards of 200,000 to the superiors of convents, to reals had been expended by place at the disposal of the civil conspirators incorrupting the authorities, all such parts of their several corps of the guards, and respective houses, as they had no in distributing proclamations in immediate necessity to use. Among favour of El hombre de la Plathe persons arrested were the zuela."* marchioness de Tabares, and her At length, on the 16th of Auwhole family; the prior of the con gust, a decisive step was taken by sulate of commerce, Andueza ; the the factious. Upon the morning merchants Bayo and Gongora, and of that day, at sun-rise, the cry of many monks and canons. Similar “to horse" was heard at Getafa, a proceedings occurred at Cordova; village about a league distant from and there, as in other towns, Madrid ; and a few minutes afmonks, canons, and individuals of terwards, three companies of the considerable wealth, formed the regiment of Santiago, who were great majority of those who were quartered there, were discovered suspected.

arrayed upon the public square, The arrests were exceedingly their officers at their head, and numerous in all the towns of with accoutrements and baggage upper Andalusia, and particularly ready for their march. They were at Cordova, Carmona, and Ecija. soon in motion, and took the road In the capital, many monks were towards Alcala, saying, that “they sent to prison. A Junta of public safety was created, and the duke By this name the Exaltados desigde l'Infantado was appointed its

nale tho infant don Carlos, in allusion lo

a bronze stalue of the emperor Charles V, president.

in the Plazuela, or petite place of St. In spite of all these precautions, Anno, in Madrid.

were going to deliver the king, Two other officers, who were taken whom his ministers detained a pri- with

Bessieres, were pardoned upon soner.” The moment that the the declaration of Gomez, that he colonel of the regiment, the differ- induced them to accompany him ent companies of which were without acquainting them with quartered in the three several his designs.

The soldiers were villages of Getafa, Leganez, and sent to Madrid. Carabachel, became apprised of

The revolt of Bessieres was not this movement, he immediately a solitary unconnected event. It reported the circumstance to the was followed, or rather accomminister at war, by whom it was panied, by an insurrection in Vain turn communicated to the Junta lencia, headed by general Chambo, of public safety.

and one in La Mancha excited by On the preceding evening, Bes- general Locho. Ortiguela in the sieres had left the capital ; and had province of Burgos, and another pursued the high road to Alcala, chief in the province of Grenada, until he arrived at Torrejon Dar- followed the example of Locho, and doz, which is about three leagues proclaimed the Infant don Carlos. from Madrid. There, having had But the parties which joined the a conversation with the Alcalde, standard of these leaders, were and having received from him very insignificant ; and they were a large sum of money, he returned soon dispersed. At Tortosa, the on the 18th by a cross-road to chief of the conspiracy was a CataTorrija, where the rebels had sta- lonian, named Wach, the comtioned themselves, and on the mander of a battalion in garrison same day assumed the command of in that city. His plan was, by an them. He was joined by con insurrection of the inhabitants of siderable numbers, and published the country, and part of the popua list of persons who were to be lation of Tortosa, to depose the proscribed and put to death. The governor, to seize the citadel, to first name on the list was that of fall upon the constitutionalists, and Zea Bermudez,

to pillage their houses. But the In the mean time, the count captain, who commanded the fort, d'Espagne had been despatched having caused the bridge to be with a considerable force in pur- drawn up, instead of favouring the suit of the rebels. On the 25th projects of the conspirators, their of August he overtook and arrest- accomplices in the city did not ed Bessieres and hi accomplices, venture to make any hostile atone league from Molina d'Arragon. tempt, and the country people, On the following day, Bessieres, who were already arriving at the notwithstanding his former ser- gates, thought it prudent to retire. vices, was shot with seven of his Wach, with two officers, immeassociates : - Bagnos, a colonel; diately fled ; and in the evening two Gomez, a captain of cavalry ; Pe- battalions sent by the marquis de ranton, an officer commanding a Campo Sagrado, in consequence of party; Ortega, an adjutant of previous information, entered Torcavalry; Belosco, Guisbona, and tosa, and secured the tranquillity Torres lieutenants of cavalry. They of the place. In Biscay, in Alava, all met death with the greatest forti- in Gallicia, throughout Arragon, tude. They made no disclosures. and indeed in every quarter of Spain,

symptoms of revolt displayed them- the mother country ? and what selves; and it was said, that it had means should be adopted to facilibeen ascertained from the papers of tate the negotiation of a loan, and a monk, who had acted as treasurer to render its conditions less oneto the faction, that the chapters of rous ?” The Junta promised to all the metropolitan churches of do their utmost for their suffering Spain, and many rich convents of country. “Our integrity,” said the orders of Carthusians, and of they, in the address presented by St. Bernard, St. Jerome, St. Au- them to his majesty on the day of gustin and St. Basil, had taxed their installation, “shall not be themselves to raise 14,000,000 of dismayed by the dread of the enreals for the support of the conspi- mity or persecution which usually racy. Though the open progress attends truth; we will endure its of revolt was checked, it can shafts with undaunted constancy. scarcely be said, that order was The glory of your majesty; the restored. In every province dis- splendor and perpetuity of your turb ces either occurred or were throne ; the integrity of your hereapprehended ; and no man's per- ditary dominions; the decorum of son or property was safe, either your august family; the indissofrom the fanatical zeal of the people, luble union of the empire and or from the suspicions of the king. priesthood; the re-establishment The royalist volunteers of Sala- of the fame the Spanish state once manca voted an address to Ferdi- enjoyed among other powers; the nand, soliciting from him the re- encouragement of individual riches, establishment of the holy office, endeavouring to bind them to those as the surest method of securing of the state and government; therethe public tranquillity. In Sep- placing the many deficiencies, and tember various plots for placing losses we have experienced; the the crown on the head of don adaptation of the contributions to Carlos, were formed and detected possibility, and no more; the consoin Valencia, Grenada, and divers lidation of a credit, to supply the other plaees. In these plots, as place when contributions fail; the well as in the previous commotions, saving of every thing that may not the name of don Carlos was used, be indispensably necessary; the it was believed, without any ap- suspension of all allowances not probation or concurrence on the arising out of just demands; repart of that prince.

trenchments, which do not bring To cure the miseries of Spain, with them indigence; reforms and Ferdinand and his advisers could modifications, which may re-anidevise no better expedient, than to mate the nation without depresscreate a Consultative Junta of ing the subjects such will be government, who were to aid the the objects for the guidance of the council of ministers. This new Junta ; and the will of your mabody was formally installed on the jesty, and the directions of your 26th of September. Among other council of ministers, shall be their arduous duties imposed on them, only rule of action.” they were to discover “ What were In spite of their good intentions, the means calculated for conciliat- however, they were unable to do ing the colonies, and bringing them their country any service; and even back to their former obedience to the advice, which they presumed to

give, was not followed. They re the fears, and endangered the commended the publication of an

throne of his master. amnesty, and the cessation of po But even these sacrifices to litical prosecutions, as one means the bigotry and alarms of his of restoring order ; but the council master, and to the fanaticism of of Castile opposed this recommend the courtiers and of the people, ation, and the ministry joined the were insufficient to secure his fanatical party In this spirit, power.

In October, Zea and one of the ministers, having adopt- the whole cabinet, of which he ed or pretended to adopt the was the head, suddenly received notion that Freemasons were the their dismissal; and the ecclesiasgreat cause of national anarchy tical and fanatical faction came and public misery, demanded a more into full possession of power. The severe set of enactments against duke del’Infantado, who was high masonic aprons and symbols. A in credit with that party, and was body of persons, calling them- supposed to be on bad terms with selves “ defenders of the faith and the French cabinet, now became of the king," had been lately de- the chief of a new ministry. Nottected at Grenada in possession of withstanding the bigotry of his secret symbols: for this offence, character, the general opinion was, they were ordered to be tried and that his administration would be executed as Freemasons. Suffi more steady than that of his predecient evidence was sent to Madrid cessor: for, though he might be to prove that the place where they willing, in general, to be the prompt met was not a lodge, that the instrument of the priesthood, and badges which they wore were not might thus longer oppose salutary masonic, and that the objects which reforms; yet as the church could they had in view had nothing in place reliance on his zeal, they common with the subjects generally would more readily listen to his discussed in the conclaves of the counsels, and he would possess craft; but the order was peremp more power to execute moderate tory, and the “defenders of the measures, if so inclined, than a faith” suffered as masons.

Zea man like Zea. If ever the time being himself suspected of liberal was to come when any portion of ism, could not venture to put down the property of the church would the rebellion of fanatics, without be mortgaged for the relief of the at the same time proving that he nation, the proposition was more was ready to support the faction, likely to be heard with favour from whose furious excesses had alarmed him than from any other minister.

CHA P. XII.

PORTUGAL-Change of Ministry-Recognition of the Independence of

Brazil - Treaty with Brazil Change of Commercial System BRAZIL-Executions- The Emperor's Course of Government--The Relations between Brazil and Peru~Invasion of Chiquitos by Brazilian Troops-The Emperor's disavowal of this Step-Insurrection of Fructuoso Rivera in the Banda OrientalExpedition of Lavalleja -Provisional Government of the Banda Oriental-Incorporation of the Banda Oriental with the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata Military Successes of the Independents-Victory of Sarandi--The Emperor's preparations-Blockade of Buenos Ayres. I N the beginning of the year it Mello, minister of finance, and

was generally believed that sir president of the royal Exchequer ; William A'Court, the English and admiral J. J. Monteiro Torres, ambassador at the court of Lisbon, secretary of state of the marine was exerting all the influence of and colonies. Pinheiro, it was Great Britain to bring about such understood, was nominated pro a change in the Portuguese minis- tempore merely, to the department try, as might pave the way for the of foreign affairs, and was to retain recognition of the independence that office only until the count of of the Brazils. Strong represent- Villa Real, then ambassador in ations were made to the king on London, could resign his functions the subject; while M. Hyde de there and return to Lisbon. Neuville threw his weight into the The effects of the British influopposite scale. Though the topic ence were seen, still more plainly, could not be very palatable to his in the new footing on which the majesty, he was too sensible of his relations between the Brazils and complete dependence upon the Portugal were placed. On the power of England for protection 13th of May, the king, by his letagainst the intrigues of the queen's ters patent, created and recognized faction, not to give way ultimately. Brazil as an empire, independent Accordingly, on the 14th of Janu- of Portugal, and ceded and transary, a change of ministry took ferred the sovereignty of it to his place; and immediately afterwards son don Pedro. This preliminary decrees were issued appointing Jose step being taken, the proffered Joaquim de Almeida de Aranjo mediation of Great Britain between Correa de Lacerda, minister of the the two states was accepted ; and interior ; Fernando Luiz Perreira sir Charles Stuart proceeded from de Sousa Barradas, minister of jus- Lisbon to Rio Janeiro as plenipotice and ecclesiastical affairs ; the tentiary of the king of Portugal, count de Barbacena, minister of in order to negociate a treaty bewar; senhor Silvestre Pinheiro tween the mother and the new Ferreira, minister for foreign af- trans-Atlantic empire. He does fairs; don Miguel Antonio de not seem to have me

with many

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