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of a division of opinions and maining in the same form it was equality of votes, they shall be practised previous to the separation. decided by the representative of
11. The reciprocal exchange of the sovereign mediator: both the the notification of the present governments shall point out the treaty shall be made in the city of funds from which the first liqui- Lisbon, within the space of five dated claims are to be paid. months, or less if possible, reckon
9. All public claims between ing from the date of the signature the governments shall be recipro- of the present treaty. In testically received and decided, either mony whereof, we the undersigned by the restitution of the article plenipotentiaries of his imperial claimed, or by an indemnification majesty, and of his most faithful for their full value. For adjust- majesty, by virtue of our respecing these claims, both the high tive full powers, sign this present contracting parties shall agree to treaty with our hands, and affix make a direct and especial conven
thereunto the seals of our arms. tion.
Done in the city of Rio de 10. From henceforward the Janeiro, on the 29th of August, common civil relations of the Brá- 1825.
(Signed) zilian and Portuguese nations shall CHARLES STUART. be re-established, paying recipro- LUIZ JOSE DE CARVALHO E MBLO. cally on all merchandise 15 per
BARON DE SANTO AMARO. cent, as duties on consumption FRANCISCO VILLELA BARBOZA. provisionally, the duties on trans- Published at Rio de Janeiro, shipment and re-exportation re
COMMUNICATION from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Republic
of the United Provinces of the Rio DE LA PLATA, to the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Empire of BRAZIL.
The undersigned minister, secre- porate that province with the emtary of State for Foreign Affairs, pire of Brazil, and, in consequence, of the United Provinces of the have expressed, “that their
geneRio de la Plata, especially author- ral, constant, and decided wish ised by his government, has the was, for the union with the other honour to address his excellency provinces of La Plata, to which the minister for Foreign Affairs it always belonged by the most of the empire of Brazil, to inform sacred ties that the world knows.” him, that the inhabitants of the The general congress of the eastern province having recovered, United Provinces, to which this by their own efforts, the liberty of declaration was submitted, cannot, their territory, Occupied by the without injustice, decline to make arms of his imperial majesty, and use of a right which never was after having installed a regular disputable, nor, without dishonour government for the administration and imprudence, abandon to their of this province, have solemnly de- fate an armed, brave, and irritated clared the nullity of the acts by people, who would be capable of which it was pretended to incor- the greatest extremities in defence of their liberties. For this reason, rected the attempts that it has in its sitting of the 25th of Octo- hitherto repeated in vain, to negober last, it decreed
ciate amicably the restoration of That in conformity with the the eastern province, and of which uniform wish of the provinces of it will give fresh proof whenever the state, and of that which was its dignity permits. That at all deliberately expressed by the east- events it will not attack, except to ern province, by the lawful organ defend and to obtain the restituof its representatives on the law tion of the points still occupied, of the 25th of August of the pre- confining its pretensions to preserve sent year, the congress, in the the integrity of the territory, and name of the people, whom it re- solemnly to guarantee for the future presents, acknowledges it as de the inviolability of its boundaries facto re-incorporated with the re- against force and seduction. public of the united provinces of In this state of things, and after the Rio de la Plata, to which it having made known to his excelhas by right belonged, and desires lency the minister for Foreign Afto belong
fairs of the empire of Brazil the By this solemn declaration the intentions and desires of the gogeneral government is bound to vernment of the united provinces provide for the defence and secu- of the Rio de la Plata, it remains rity of the eastern province. It to be added, that it will entirely will fulfil its obligations by all the depend on the will of his imperial means in its power, and accelerate majesty to establish a peace, which by them the evacuation of the only is infinitely valuable to the intertwo points still held by the troops ests of the neighbouring states, of his imperial majesty.
and indeed of the whole continent. The undersigned is at the same The undersigned has the honour, time authorized to declare, that in &c.
(Signed) this new situation the government
MANUEL JOSE GARCIA. of the United Provinces retains To his excellency Senor Luis the same spirit of moderation and Jose Carvalho e Melo, minisjustice which serves as the basis ter for Foreign Affairs of the of its policy, and which has di- empire of Brazil.
MANIFESTO of the GREEK NATION.
Napoli di Romania, Aug. 2. pendence of nations, and moved by The clergy, the representatives the sentiments implanted in man of the people, the civil officers and for the preservation and safety of the military officers, both of the his own existence, the Greeks have navy
and army, of the Greek na- taken arms to appeal to the justice tion,
of their cause; that during the Considering that, authorized by space of more than four years they the inalienable rights of national- have struggled with perseverance ity, and those of private pro- against the combined land and perty, as well as by the ruling naval forces which have come from principles of religion and the inde- Europe, Asia, and Africa; that in
the midst of the most imminent by the sovereigns at the congresses danger, they have sometimes de- of Laybach and Verona; stroyed the very superior forces of Considering with lively grief their enemy, and sometimes even that the Christians themselves entirely annihilated them; and against the disciples of the Gospel, that though destitute of the re- to succour the followers of the sources necessary for this great Koran, and that a multitude of enterprise, they have at length European officers, contrary to all succeeded in sealing their rights at the principles of policy and all the expense of the most precious sound morality, hasten from disblood of the nation, and in con- tant countries to instruct the latvincing the civilized world what ter, and lead in person the armies can be effected by a people truly of the barbarians who come to lay resolved to re-conquer its indepen- waste with fire and sword the land dence:
which covers the mangled bones of Considering that the very results a Cimon and a Samado, of Leoniof this unequal struggle have only das and Bozzari, of Philopoemen confirmed, in the mind of the and Nicolas : nation, the resolution which it has Considering that the governirrevocably adopted to establishment of Great Britain, happy in its political existence :
guiding a free people, is the only Considering that the agents of one which observes a strict neusome of the continental powers, in trality without deigning to follow spite even of the principles of the manifest violations, and of Christianity which they profess, those distinctions so contrary to have not observed a conduct con- reason, which others have pracformable to the rules laid down tised in Greece, at Constantinople, and established by themselves, and and in Egypt : that this illegal conduct has given Considering that the indifference rise to a variety of political dis- of the British Government is not putes divergent in their nature and sufficient to counterbalance the character:
persecutions which others exercise Considering that some of these against the Greeks, and to which agents endeavour, by the intrigues they daily give a greater extension : of emissaries, whom they send Considering that if Greece has into the interior of Greece, to ex- not hitherto been able to prevent cite among the Greeks sentiments the enterprises of its enemies, or contrary to the spirit and the forms to take offensive measures, it is of government--sentiments which not in consequence of a diminution suit only the intentions and in- of its strength, or of a relaxation terests of these agents :
of its first resolution, but arises Considering that the command- from the reasons above-mentioned, ers of the naval forces of some and because the government has not governments oppose a number of yet been able entirely to prevail unjust persecutions and obstacles over and to subdue all private to the regular proceedings of the passions : Greek marine, and to its move- Considering that in this extraorments, though conformable to the dinary contest the Greeks must rules of the laws of nations, all in either prove victorious or bury violation of the neutrality declared themselves under the ruins of their country on account of the deplora- nation and government, which ble consequences which the nature have always shown the most lively of the contest has brought with it, interest in the prosperity and inand its long duration_two causes dependence of Greece. which have rendered this alterna- The undersigned know that the tive inevitable:
senate and the executive power, in Considering, lastly, that since a their sitting of the 22nd of July, special favour of Providence has have resolved to ask succour of the placed the forces of Great Britain government of the Ionian Islands so near us, Greece ought to take for the preservation of their poadvantage of it in time, found- litical liberty, menaced by the ining its hopes on the justice and vasion of Ibrahim Pacha. humanity which animate that Though it has been very painful great power:
for the undersigned to see the For these reasons, and in the little confidence which the Greek intention of placing in safety the senate in these important circumsacred' rights of the liberty of the stances has placed in the French state and of our political existence, and American nations, they would which is sufficiently consolidated, nevertheless respect this determithe Greek nation prescribes, re- nation, and every other which solves, decrees, and approves, as should have been adopted in a legal follows:
manner, and according to the Art. I.--By virtue of the pre- constitution of the state. sent act, it voluntarily places the But they see with grief that the sacred deposit of its liberty, its senate, instead of executing its , national independence, and its po- preceding decrees, does not employ litical existence, under the absolute the means of security which are defence of Great Britain.
in its power to bring back to order Art. II.-This fundamental act the individual Greeks who dare to of the Greek nation shall be ac- place themselves above the laws, companied by an explanatory me- and endeavour to disturb the pomorial, addressed in duplicate to litical existence established in the government of his Britannic Greece. In consequence, they majesty,
think it their duty to inform (pre
venir) the Greek government of Protest of Messrs. Roche and this illegal attempt, which offends
Washington to the Members the character of two nations that of the Provisional Govern- have taken the most lively interest ment of Greece.
in the independence of the Greeks,
and which may even in the seThe undersigned Philhellenic quel prove detrimental to its indeputies of France and America terests. have learned that individuals, in The Greek government should their mere quality of Greek citi- know the danger it incurs by alzens, have thought fit to place lowing itself deliberations of this themselves at the head of a faction nature, which are dictated by a against the constitution of their spirit of anarchy, and against country ; and have signed and which we formally protest. circulated a declaration extremely The undersigned request the injurious to the character of their executive government to give them
the most clear and precise expla- communicate to their respective nation on so important a subject. committees, in order to regulate
They expect, with the greatest their conduct on this occasion. impatience, a prompt answer, to (Signed)
INAUGURAL ADDRESS of John QUINCY ADAMS upon taking the Oath
of Office, as PRESIDENT of the UNITED STATES.
In compliance with an usage tributed to its formation, through coeval with the existence of our a most eventful period in the anfederal constitution, and sanctioned nals of the world, and through all by the example of my predecessors the vicissitudes of peace and war, in the career upon which I am incidental to the condition of assoabout to enter, I appear, my ciated men, it has not disappointed fellow-citizens, in your presence, the hopes and aspirations of those and in that of Heaven, to bind illustrious benefactors of their age myself by the solemnities of reli- and nation. It has promoted the gious obligation to the faithful lasting welfare of that country so performance of the duties allotted dear to us all ; it has, to an exto me in the station to which I tent far beyond the ordinary lot of have been called.
humanity, secured the freedom and In unfolding to my countrymen happiness of this people. We now the principles by which I shall be receive it as a precious inheritance governed in the fulfilment of those from those to whom we are induties, my first resort will be, to debted for its establishment, doubly that constitution, which I shall bound by the examples which they swear, to the best of my ability, to have left us, and by the blessings preserve, protect, and defend. That which we have enjoyed, as the revered instrument enumerates fruits of their labours, to transmit the powers, and prescribes the du- the same unimpaired to the sucties, of the executive magistrate; ceeding generation. and, in its first words, declares the In the conipass of thirty-six years purposes to which these, and the since this great national covenant whole action of the government was instituted, a body of laws, eninstituted by it, should be invaria- acted under its authority, and in bly and sacredly devoted :-to form conformity with its provisions, has a more perfect union, establish unfolded its powers, and carried justice, ensure domestic tranquil- into practical operation its effective lity, provide for the common de- energies. Subordinate departfence, promote the general welfare, ments have distributed the execuand secure the blessings of liberty tive functions in their various reto the people of this union, in their lations to foreign affairs, to the successive generations. Since the revenue and expenditures, and to adoption of this social compact, the military force of the union, by one of these generations has passed land and sea. A co-ordinate departaway. It is the work of our fore- ment of the judiciary has expoundfathers. Administered by some ed the constitution and the laws; of the most eminent men who con- settling, in harmonious coincidence