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by it remains yet without execu- to fix the standard of weights and tion, I shall indulge only the re- measures; to establish post-offices. mark, that the works in the capi- and post-roads; to declare war ; tol are approaching to completion. to raise and support armies; to That the consent of the family provide and maintain a navy, to desired by the resolution was re- dispose of; and make all needful quested and obtained.

That a

rules and regulations respecting monument has been recently erect- the territory or other property beed in the city, at the expense of longing to the United States; and the nation, over the remains of to make all laws which shall be another distinguished patriot of necessary and proper for carrying the revolution, and that a spot these powers into execution-If has been reserved within the walls these powers, and others enumeratwhere you are deliberating for the ed in the constitution may be efbenefit of this and future ages, in fectually brought into action by which the mortal remains may be laws promoting the improvement deposited of him whose spirit of agriculture, commerce, and mahovers over you, and listens with nufactures, the cultivation and endelight to every act of the repre- couragement of the mechanic and sentatives of his nation, which can the elegant arts, the advancement tend to exalt and adorn his and of literature, and the progress of their country:

the sciences, ornamental and proThe constitution under which found—to refrain from exercising you are assembled is a charter of them for the benefit of the people limited powers; after full and themselves would be to hide in the solemn deliberation upon all or any earth the talent committed to our of the objects which, urged by an charge—would be treachery to the irresistible sense of my own duty, most sacred of trusts. I have recommended to your atten- The spirit of improvement is tion, should you come to the con- abroad upon the earth. It stimuclusion that, however desirable in lates the heart, and sharpens the themselves, the enactment of laws faculties, not of our fellow-citizens for effecting them would transcend alone, but of the nations of Europe, the powers committed to you by and of their rulers. While dwellthat venerable instrument which ing with pleasing satisfaction upon we are all bound to support ; let the superior excellence of our pono consideration induce you to as- litical institutions, let us not be sume the powers not granted to unmindful that liberty is power ; you by the people. But if the that the nation blessed with the power to exercise exclusive legis- largest portion of liberty, must, in. lation in all cases whatsoever over proportion to its numbers, be the the district of Colombia, if the most powerful nation upon earth; power to lay and collect taxes, du- and that the tenure of power by ties, imposts, and excises, to pay man is, in the moral purposes of the debts, and provide for the com- his Creator, upon condition that it mon defence and general welfare shall be exercised to ends of benefiof the United States; if the power cence, to improve the condition of to regulate commerce with foreign himself and his fellow nations and among the several While foreign nations less blessed states, and with the Indian tribes; with that freedom, which is power, than ourselves, are advancing with low-servants in the exercise of the gigantic strides in the career of trust committed to us for the bepublic improvement, were we to nefit of our common sovereign, by slumber in indolence, or fold up the accomplishment of works imour arms, and proclaim to the portant to the whole, and to world that we were palsied by the which neither the authority nor will of our constituents, would it the resources of any one state cani not be to cast away the bounties of be adequate ? Providence, and doom ourselves to Finally, fellow-citizens, I shall perpetual inferiority ? In the await with cheering hope and course of the year now drawing to faithful co-operation, the result of its close, we have beheld, under your deliberations; assured that, the auspices, and at the expense of without encroaching upon the one state of this Union, a new uni- powers reserved to the authorities versity unfolding its portals to the of the respective states, or to the :sons of science, and holding up the people, you will, with a due sense torch of human improvement too of your obliga ions to your couneyes that seek the light. We have try, and of the high responsibiliseen, under the persevering and ties weighing upon yourselves, give enlightened enterprise of another efficacy to the means committed to state, the waters of our western you for the common good. And lakes mingled with those of the may he who searches the hearts


If undertakings like these of the children of men, prosper have been accomplished in the com- your exertions to secure the blesspass of a few years, can we, the ings of peace, and promote the representative authorities of the highest welfare of our country. whole Union, fall behind our fel



MESSAGE of the VICE-PRESIDENT of COLOMBIA in charge of the

GOVERNMENT, to the CONGRESS of 1825. Fellow Citizens of the Senate gress of time, we approach nearer and Chamber of Representatives. to the exact observance of consti-This is the precise day appointed tutional principles. I must conby our Constitution for the assem- gratulate Colombia and yourselves bly of the Representatives of the on an event which gives stability Republic, in order that they may to the political system and hopes exert themselves for the happiness of the most happy results from the and prosperity of their constituents

. present session. It is with the If, in the two former sessions, greatest pleasure that the ExecuCongress assembled at a later tive is about to fulfil its duty, and period than is provided for by the contribute to this favourable issue, Constitution, owing to causes by giving you an accurate idea of which are inherent in infant the state of the affairs of the Recieties (although the enemies of the public in the various branches of Republic have affected to overlook its administration. them), the present assembly will The government of his Catholic convince them, that with the pro- . majesty, far from abandoning its


former pretensions to the sove- fresh succours which the congress reignty of these countries, as jus- bad so promptly decreed ; the libetice, experience, and the ruin of rator has triumphed over all these the Spanish nation would counsel, obstacles, and, aided by the patriotstill labours to advance its hostile ism of those Peruvians who reviews, without affording the slight-mained faithful to their duty, and est hope of reconciliation. The by the valour of the united army, Executive has reason to think that has liberated an important part of the cabinet of Madrid is well the vast territory previously posaware of a conciliatory disposition sessed by the Spanish troops, after on our part, and of our desire to inflicting on them a severe humilterminate a war, which, during iation in Junin. The Executive fifteen years, has involved both has every hope that the auxiliaries nations in so many evils. The which left Panama for Peru in earnestness, however, with which October, have arrived at an opporthe Executive has sought peace tune moment, and that, by extending with Spain on the basis of inde- the scene of operations, they will pendence, has not caused its vigi- consolidate the advantages already lance to slumber. Congress may gained, accelerate the day of Pebe assured that our means of de- ruvian liberty, and irrevocably fis fence are at the present moment the destiny of South America. abundant, and that any enterprise This new glory was reserved for on the part of Spain against the Colombia, and for you the satisfacRepublic will only serve to add tion of having contributed thereto lustre to our arms, and to increase by all the means in your power, the humiliations of Spain.

and more especially, by having Our relations with the American permitted the liberator to leave governments subsist on a footing the territories of the republic. In of friendship and good understand- conformity with the resolution of ing becoming states sustaining a the legislature, I have not ratified common cause. The services and the convention respecting territosupplies which we have rendered rial limits entered into between to Peru have so materially altered Colombia and Peru. Notwiththe situation of that country, that standing the importance of this no doubt can exist of its acquiring measure, the Executive has abliberty and independence. The stained from renewing the negoliberator and president of Colombia tiations, under an impression that has displayed on this occasion even we ought to give an example of more than on former ones, those good faith and generosity, by susvirtues which are peculiar to illus- pending all discussion thereon, trious men, and to which the Co- whilst the Peruvian republic shall lombian republic owes its exis- be occupied by the troops of Cotence. Surrounded with difficulties lombia. almost insurmountable : obliged to The republic of Mexico has just contend with enemies who to nu- given a terrible lesson to usurpers merical superiority, united the of the rights of the people. Geconfidence inspired by victory; neral Iturbide violated the law fettered by disasters brought on by which banished him, and landed rashness, weakness, and perfidy; on the Mexican territory under doubtful of receiving in time the circumstances which alarmed the government. He was declared a The agitated state of the Bratraitor deserving death by act of zilian empire has not yet enaCongress, and the penalty was bled us to form relations of friendinflicted without opposition. It ship and good understanding with seems evident that the Mexican that government, with which we government has, by this measure, have likewise to arrange questions made an important stride towards regarding territorial limits. We stability and prosperity. Recent are assured of the good disposition intelligence from that part of of the emperor towards Colombia ; America states that the most ener- and, on our part, we have avoided getic and extraordinary measures all cause of complaint and dissenare taken to defend its indepen- sion. When the moment shall dence against the views of Spain, arrive for negotiating with the and to compel those towns that Brazilian government, the Exedisregard the pact of union to re- cutive will not fail to observe that turn to their duty.

frankness and good faith which The provinces of Guatimala form the basis of its principles, by continue to preserve unmolested conforming to the last territorial the sovereignty into which they treaty made between Spain and spontaneously elected themselves. Portugal, in Madrid, in 1777. An accredited minister from that With the United States we government to the republic is now maintain the most friendly and residing in our capital. A favour- cordial relations. The treaty of able opportunity, therefore, pre- peace, friendship, navigation, and sents itself of settling points of commerce, celebrated by the Exegreat interest. The establishment cutive with those States, through of limits between Colombia and the medium of duly-authorized Guatimala, is imperiously called plenipotentiaries, will be forthfor, in consequence of certain with laid before you. The prinforeigners pretending to a right to ciples we have therein adopted are the coast of Mosquito, and inas- so commendable in their nature, as much as the interior boundary-line to render all eulogium superfluous. between the countries is not ascer- Never has the government of Cotained. The Executive, in strict lombia appeared more attached to compliance with the law of the that spirit of civilization and hu12th of July of the year 1821, has manity which ought to distinguish declared that that part of the the governments of free people, Atlantic coast which extends from than in this treaty. Colombia will Cape Gracias a Dios to the river have the laudable pride of having Chagres belongs to the republic, been the first among the states of and that colonization made therein ancient Spanish America, to appear without the sanction of the go- before the world united by public vernment and laws of Colombia is treaties with the most favoured null and void. I submit this de- nation of liberty. You will also cree to your judgment, as well as examine the convention entered the arguments I have adduced in into with these States, for the defence of the integrity of the purpose of putting an end to the territory of the republic, and its horrible traffic in negroes of Africa. rights, and in order to frustrate Our laws have already forbidden the views of our enemies.

this execrable traffic, and the Executive has formed its conduct on Colombia, instead of the republic their basis. The law of the 21st of of Colombia, by which latter title July of the year 11, has forbidden it was determined by our fundathe introduction of slaves ; and the mental law, that this country provisional cruising ordinances con- should be known since the year demn as lawful prizes all vessels 1819; and the consuls are therein trading in African negroes, that accredited to the authorities that may be captured in the waters might happen to be established, within the jurisdiction of the Re- instead of being accredited to the public; but no penalty being Executive power, or president of awarded for the violation of this the Republic, as they ought to have law, and it being a justice due to been, agreeably to the principles of the human race to modify our cruis- public right, to our constitution, ing laws, the Executive thinks that and to the conduct observed by the these objects have been obtained United States. The Executive by our convention with the United considered these errors as a necesStates.

sary consequence of that state of To convey a correct idea of ambiguity and practical difficulties, our relations with Europe, I in which the English government deem it incumbent on me to deal found itself placed in treating of frankly, by entering on a detail the recognition of the independwhich will give you this informa- ence of Colombia, as was stated to tion, and at the same time demon- Parliament by the ministers of his strate to the world the political Britannic Majesty's government : principles of the government of for, in reality, it would have been Colombia. The commissioners of a manifest contradiction to have his Britannic Majesty in this capital accredited consuls to the ports of requested that the Executive would Colombia in the usual terms, and issue the exequatur necessary for as the rights of nations demand, the recognition of the consuls sent without recognizing the independby the king to some of our ports. ence and existence of the governAs no commissions accompanied ment from which it sought the adthis application, as is usual and mission of these officers. The customary, the Executive was under Executive did not hesitate in adoptthe painful necessity of deferring ing the line of conduct most conthe exequatur until these commis- formable with the dignity of the sions should be duly presented by Republic, and serviceable to the the several parties, relying on their interests of the British nation. being framed in the terms usual Placed in the painful situation of amongst nations. As soon as the deceiving the Republic, by illegally person on whom the title of consul- recognizing as duly accredited congeneral had been conferred arrived suls, persons who did not come in this capital, he presented his recommended to the government of commission, assuring the Execu- Colombia, and who did not appear tive, at the same time, that the destined for the ports of the Recommissions of the consuls of La public, I did not hesitate to refuse Guayra, Maracaibo, Carthagena, the exequatur to their nominations, and Panama, were conceived in and caused to be explained to the the same terms. The commission commissioners of his Britannic mamakes mention of the provinces of jesty the powerful motives I had

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