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thing of ghastliness to the general particularly the latter; and the appearance. His teeth are perfect; main arteries of the exterior of the his power of mastication very good, thighs and legs are large and full, there is no defect in the strength which were, no doubt, augmentof the jaws. His right shoulder ed by the excessive heat of the inclines
much downwards, weather. while the left rises in proportion.
When in France he ate very The upper joints of the arms pre- little if any animal food, a penny sent nothing but bones covered French-roll was enough for a day's with the skin, their circumference sustenance; but as he now parmeasuring just four inches; while takes of animal diet in very small the fore arms, on the contrary, are quantities, his portion of bread is five inches and a half. The hands reduced accordingly. are particularly long, and the nails His digestion is extremely good, beautifully formed; but the fin- and the evacuations of nature regugers are contracted upwards. The larly performed his sleep is unmuscles of the arms are, however, interrupted, except at certain pewasted away or contracted, so that ' riods, when he has violent attacks our subject does not possess the of the night-mare ; to dispel which power of elevating the hands higher his father, who always sleeps with than in a semi-horizontal position, him, and carefully watches his and when in that attitude nothing motions, on perceiving their apcan possibly exceed the sepulchral proach, merely touches him with appearance of this living anatomy. the hand, when the whole subsides.
Perhaps one of the most wonder- His voice is by no means strong, ful circumstances attending the but far from disagreeable: he has living skeleton is, that if measured, a particular passion for music, and externally from the chest to the even can sing in a faint tone: but back bone, the distance is under conversation must not be kept up three inches.
for any length of time, as complete Taken round the waist at the bot- exhaustion would be the consetom of the ribs, the body measures
When speaking, the robarely one foot eleven inches, tatory motion through the skin of and when the object throws its the neck is perceptible, and the pulsarms backwards, the shoulder- ation of the heart conspicuous to blade-bones are scarcely one inch the eye. asunder. From the vertebrze of In raising either of his feet from the back, taken between the shoul- the floor, the limb appears to be ders to the centre of the loirs, distended uselessly from the knee, the falling-in is not less than five and we cannot better illustrate inches.
this idea than by that sensation The thighs are much smaller we commonly experience upon althan the legs, and, like the upper lowing a limb to remain too long joints of the arms, merely covered in one position, thereby causing a with skin ; the knees of a reddish temporary strangulation of the vescolour, protrude in- the front and sels, known by the common term sides, forming as it were a bowl at of the foot being asleep. the bottom of the thigh-bones. The Previous to the arrival of this legs, of which the right is the extraordinary creature in England, largest, merely show signs of calves, the French physicians who had in
gave it as their opi- nature. We come now to the acnion, that his lungs were placed in tion produced by the efforts of the a different position to that usually lungs, and which, strange as it may occupied in the human frame. appear, does not proceed from the Since his arrival, sir Astley Cooper, chest as in ordinary cases, but from by whom he has been visited, finds the lower extremity of the abdothat his heart is placed so much men, as though the organs of resout of the common region allotted piration, from excessive laxity, had to it, that it is precisely its own absolutely descended from their length lower than if properly proper sphere, and that, by a tenaplaced.
cious effort of nature, unwilling The health of this singular to yield possession of her functions, being has been uninterruptedly they had accommodated themselves good, except about five years ago, by time to such an unnatural and when he had a liver complaint, incredible position. which subjected him to the appli- The subject is presented to view cation of numerous leeches, the in a state of nudity, save a mere traces of which are still visible on covering of several inches deep his skin. His respiration is con- round the loins, through which fined, being the necessary result of are cut large holes to admit of the a contraction of the lungs; yet, hip-bones to pass, for the purpose upon the whole, he does not ap- of keeping it in its proper place. pear to be much inconvenienced The poor fellow appears conscious on that account, in consequence of of the only use that can now be the little exercise he takes and the derived from his crazy frame, consequent quiescent state of the and, as the last and only good
he can bequeath to his more forIn regard to the texture of the tunate beholders, patiently submits skin of this living wonder, it is of to every proper examination, and a dry, moistless, parchment-like readily answers any question at all appearance, which, covering any calculated to elucidate his extraorother human form, would not dinary state and existence. answer the purposes of its func- History of a patient from whom tions, but seems calculated alone three hundredand ninety-five to cover the slender juiceless body needles were extracted. The hisof the being whom nature intended tory of this case has been pubto array. On the shins nodes ap- lished by Dr. Otto, of Copenpear in the form of buttons, though hagen. not obtrusively to the eye, and Rachael Hertz, had, up to her the toes of the feet are bent over 14th
year, lived in the enjoyment one another.
of pretty good health ; she was of The ribs are not only capable of a delicate constitution, active, and being distinguished, but may be cheerful. On the 16th of August, clearly separated, and counted one 1807, she came under the care of proby one, and handled like so many fessor Herholdt for a violent colic, pieces of cane, and, together with the which soon yielded to the employskin which covers them, resemblement of antiphlogistic medicines. more the hoops and outer covering She continued well up to the 24th of a balloon of a small size, than of November of the same year, at any thing in the ordinary course of which time she was seized with Vol. LXVII.
erysipelas of the face, accompanied On the 20th of May, a violent with severe fever, which subsided vomiting of blood, continuing for in about the usual time, but re- three days and nights, more or less, turned again very frequently dur- was added to the list of her former ing the three following months. complaints, followed by a cough,
In March, 1808, the patient hiccup, and purging of a very darkfound lierself very weak, and be coloured offensive matter. came gradually emaciated; her On the 5th July, 1809, she was countenance was pale and haggard, seized with a peculiar pain in the and many symptoms appeared lower belly; she complained of which partook of an hysteric na- nausea, a sense of writhing, and ture, but which would not yield great uneasiness in the region of to the ordinary anti-hystercial me- the left flexure of the colon, with dicines.
great anxiety of countenance and From March, 1808, to the end depression of spirits: to this sucof May, 1809, a period of fourteen ceeded a severe and obstinate ismonths, she suffered from very dis- churia, which was treated in the tressing paroxysms of hysteria, usual manner without much benesometimes accompanied by faint- fit; a careful examination of the ing, so severe that many persons rectum showed that there was a thought that she was dead. At stricture of the gut, and that the other times she was seized with distension about the strictured violent epileptic attacks, and some point pressed upon the urethra and times with high delirium, drowsi- bladder. The rectum was so firmness, and hiccup. These symptoms ly contracted that the pipe of an continued from March 'to May, injecting syringe was with diffi1808, and during the fits of deli- culty passed; the daily employrium she repeated long passagesment of the catheter was necessary from the writings of Goethe, Schil. in order to procure the evacuation ler, Shakspeare, and Oehlensch- of the urine, till at length, by the lager ; she delivered them with a use of various diuretic medicines, loud voice and with as correct an the hip-bath, aromatic fomentaemphasis as any one in health tions, and copious injections, the could do ; and although at such spasmodic contraction of the rectimes her eyes were closed, she ac- tum was overcome, and with it companied her declamations with the globus hystericus was also suitable gesticulations. The deli- removed; the ischury continued, rium wen
on increasing, and at however, just as bad as before, last reached a fearful height; she notwithstanding the further emgnashed with her teeth, bit the ployment of the same remedies people about her, and kicked and for a great length of time. fought with great violence, so as In the beginning of March, to disturb, not only her own house- 1809, the general state of the pahold, but the whole neighbourhood tient was somewhat improved, and with her ravings: sometimes she she was able at last to take some lay in a soporose state, deprived of rest, which afforded a hope that a ali sense and power of motion, ap- favourable change had taken place ; pearing scarcely to breathe, and she soon verged into the opposite would again suddenly start up and extremes, and became so comatose utter wild and piercing shrieks. that it was necessary to give stimulating medicines in large doses. In April 1813, she had the About the middle of the day this measles, and in July of the same unfortunate woman lay as if year she was attacked by intermitdead, deprived of sense and motion, tent fever, succeeded by cough and and the respiration so slow, that some vomiting of blood. Cooling it appeared at times altogether sus- vegetable acids were administered, pended, and the pulse was so small with sedatives, and by the end of and soft that it could' scarcely be November these complaints were felt. Medicine could accomplish removed, and up to the 13th of nothing for her relief, and during June, 1814, she remained pretty the space
of a week she took no- well. A large carbuncle then thing to eat or drink; her bowels made its appearance on the left were opened only once in eight thigh, which was removed by the days, and then without her known ordinary means. ledge.
In May, 1816, the patient was On the 13th of May, 1809, she seized with violent pains in the was seen by the celebrated Callisen, abdomen, particularly about the who recommended that snuff region of the left hypochondrium, should be introduced into the nose, succeeded by vomiting of blood, in order to rouse her from that from which she again recovered, comatose state in which she was at and remained without any relapse times plunged, and the first essay for about three years. was attended with great success ; In January, 1819, violent colic it did not produce sneezing but re pains seized the patient, attended stored her to her senses, and during with considerable fever and purgthe rest of the day the power of ing of blood, and so low was she motion also returned. During the reduced, that no one who saw her eight following days the snuff pro- thought that she could recover. duced less effect, and the patient On the 2nd of February, a gradually reverted to her former tumour, which had appeared just state of torpor, drowsiness, and de- beneath the umbilicus
was examinlirium, which continued with the ed, and was found to consist of ischury, more or less severe, from three principal divisions or lobes ; the 18th of May, 1809, to the 8th sedative and emollient cataplasms of December, 1810.
were applied to this, but the pain At the end of November, 1810, was not assuaged ; the patient apshe was seized with extreme weak- peared to be gradually sinking. ness: her extremities were cold, She remaired very low until the the countenance had a cadaverous 12th of February, when Professor appearance, the deglutition was Herholdt considered it necessary difficult, the respiration slow and to make a deep incision into the laborious, and interrupted fre- swelling, in order to let out any quently by sighs ; the bowels much pus that might have been conconstipated, and the secretion of tained in it. No matter came out, urine almost entirely suppressed. and but very little blood ; he then From this she again gradually re- examined the wound with a probe, covered, but remained incapable of and felt it strike against something, moving the right side. During which communicated the sensation the two following years she en- to the hand of its being a metallic joyed tolerable health.
body; with a forceps he laid hold
of it, and, to his great surprise, the extraction. The patient, durdrew out a needle. All the symp
All the symp- ing the greatest part of this time, loms gradually subsided, but soon was so low and weak that she was after returned again with a fresh obliged to keep to her bed, and vomiting of blood. The abdomen although she did not experience was again examined, and another much pain when the needles were tumour was discovered in the left deep, yet as soon as they approachlumbar region, the slightest touch ed the surface her sufferings were of which occasioned great pain. very great. Professor Herholdt
On the 15th of February, an was often urged to cut into the incision was made into it, and a skin to seek for the needles, and black oxydised needle extracted thus to afford some relief to the from its centre. From this time, patient, but such attempts were that is to say, from the 12th of without success; it was in vain February, 1819, to the 10th of that he sought for them; he was August, 1820, a period of 18 obliged to wait several days, until months, the patient experienced the needles appeared in the wound, pains in different parts of the body, or could be distinguished by the supposed to be occasioned by needles touch. Only once did he attempt deeply seated, and during that time to draw out a needle with his 295 needles were at different in- fingers from the breast without tervals extracted; namely
making an incision, but the needle
broke and he was obliged to make From the left breast
22 two openings to get it out. On between the breasts
four occasions only did any bleedthe epigastric region.
41 the left hypochondriac region 19
ing follow the extraction, but no right hypochondriac region 20 suppuration attended a single case. the navel......
The patient bore her sufferings the left lumbar region
39 with wonderful fortitude until the right ditto the hypogastric region
January, 1822 ; when her mother
14 right iliac region
was seized with an apoplectic fit, left iliac region
which had such an effect upon her the left thigh
3 mind that she became paralytic, the right thigh
23 first in her right arm, then in her between the shoulders
1 beneath the left shoulder.
left, and afterwards in her lower 1
extremities also; she lost the use Total
295 of speech, so that neither by words
nor by signs could she direct the Many of them were broken or cor- attention of the by-standers to the roded, some being without points, places at which the needles gave others without eyes; some were her pain. In about five days the large and black, like the pins used voice returned, and up to the 10th for dressing the hair, and others of August, 1820, no more needles were small.
The brass needles were discharged; the pain in the retained their proper polish, but bowels, and other symptoms, had all the others were black and oxy- also ceased. By the employment dised. They made their appear of antispasmodic medicines, cold ance at different intervals; some- baths, blisters, and so on, the times days, weeks, and months in- patient gradually became better, tervening between the times of and, on the 8th of March, 1821,