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of the season the salmon caught in the female ? - It is well known a state fit for spawning are by no to poachers, that if in the act of means all of the same size ; if, then, spawning they destroy the male we are to take size as an index of fish, the female fish leaves the bed, age, we must arrive at the conclu- and in the deep pools endeavours sion that salmon spawn at different to find another mate. In that way, ages, and before they have reached poachers, by attending to the operatheir full size. I know, likewise, tion of one female, may succeed in in reference to another species of capturing many males, leaving the the genus which I have enume- female fish undestroyed.” rated, the spirlin, for instance, that It is manifest from the evidence it breeds before it reaches its full annexed to this report, that the size. I have taken a young spirlin, general fisheries in the kingdom not two inches in length, full of have for a number of years heen roe, evidently ready or nearly gradually declining in value; ready for exclusion, along with indeed to an alarming degree, in full grown spirlins about six inches some placeş where the population in length.
(particularly in parts of Ireland) “Have you any knowledge of the presses heavily upon the means of number of ova in the roe of a subsistence. The same abundance salmon ? I have never counted the of fish still visits our shores as ova myself, and I should think it formerly, but through the comwould be difficult to assign any plexity, the folly, and partiality of definite number of ova, the number the laws, together with the blind differing according to the size of cupidity of individuals, who grasp an animal and its condition, so that at present profit, to the injury if what may be true in a small fish not extinction of future supply, the may not be true in a large one, and breed is immaturely intercepted, there may likewise be some indi- and sacrificed. In some places vidual differences.
(Cork, for instance) the greatest “Can you state the probable injury is inflicted upon salmon, by number in a well-grown salmon? a prevailing, but most unfounded Not having counted them myself, notion, that the fish is in season I cannot state positively ; but I the whole year round; and where have no hesitation in believing even hogsheads of the fry (notthe testimony of experienced fish- withstanding a prohibitory law) ermen who have counted them, have been publicly exposed for sale and who have said there are 17,000 in the market at three halfpence or 18,000.
the dozen. The scarcity of salmon “In what places do the salmon in the present day, compared with spawn ?-Generally in shallow its former abundance, is curiously fords, with a gravelly bottom. illustrated by an anecdote commu
“ In fact, may it not be said to be nicated to this committee by Mr. always within the reach almost of George Hony, of Edinburgh, who destruction ?-I should think so. alluding to the present scarcity
“You have said that your opinion along the whole line of the Tweed, was, that salmon pair; but if the where salmon was formerly caught male salmon be killed, would not in such abundance as to be a prinanother male salmon immediately cipal article of food, states, with throw its melt over the spawn of reference to that abundance" So
muca, indeed, was this the case, and been equally ruined in both. that I have been informed, that in The stake-nets, seem, in many
old indentures between places, to have been a free (or master and servant, it was a com- rather a freebooting) trade, as mon stipulation on the part of the lawless and destructive as that of latter, that he should not be the seals and grampuses, and obliged to eat salmon more than yet to have turned to little or no four times in the week !"
account ; and the monopolies are The more remarkable fact, too, equally declared to have declined is, that this mismanagement and in the hands of the corporations. consequent decrease has occur. We are now a fish-importing peored in proportion as larger ca- ple, while a century has hardly pital has been embarked in the elapsed since Spain, France, and trade, and greater public and pri- Holland, severally paid very large vate interests become involved in sums annually for permission to its success ; together with bounties fish on the coasts of this kingdom. from the legislature for its support,
Such is the historical fact, eonand a variety of other shifts (for trasted with the present condition they deserve no other name) held of the British fisheries a trade out by the government, which which has, in its course, within the have all proved misplaced and last twenty-five years, been an abortive. There is a fatality about exception to every other in which these fisheries which must puzzle the United Kingdom has been political economists -- they have concerned. had a free trade and a monopoly,
GEOGRPAHY, ASTRONOMY, &c.
North Pole Expedition. The In this situation, the crews of expedition, it will be recollected, the Hecla and Fury remained sailed in May, 1824, and very soon nearly ten months, during which encountered the mortifying obsta- time they were left entirely upon cle of being embayed within moun their own resources, for not a tains of ice crossing Baffin's-bay: single native visited them in their they were eighty days encircled winter-quarters, nor was the shore with in this icy barrier, and the oc- which they occupied stocked with eurrence took place during our the same quantity of game, or insummer months of June, July, and deed animals of any description in August. They were only twelve the same numbers as
in that days extricated from this position, where the former expedition had when the state of the weather, and wintered. The specimens brought frozen obstruction of every object home by the sailors are merely of around them, rendered it abso- the common sea-fowl-they hrad lutely necessary they should seek only two of the arctic foxes; they winter-quarters, which they did saw none of the native dogs; the in a small inlet called Port white bears, however, abounded, Bowen, on the Ist of September, and afforded occasional sport on 1824.
the ice. It was quite impossible to penetrate the shore any distance succeeded in working down the inland, the surface being entirely western shore, which they were composed of conical heaps of ice, exploring, when they again enwith deep ravines intervening; countered heavy floating masses of and the short expeditions which ice, and the Hecla was thrown were made by captain Hoppner very nearly on her beam-ends. and lieutenant Sherer, were made These impediments continued with by coasting on the ice, and skirting more or less danger until the 1st the land to the southward and of August, when the Fury was northward.
driven on shore with great force With the exception of these by the impulse of the ice, and in little excursions, in which the such a situation that a bold pership's crews were indulged as far pendicular craggy cliff out-topped as was consistent with their safety, her mast-head more than 500 or the time was spent in gymnastic 600 feet. She was, however, with exercises, in dramatic representa- great difficulty, by the united extions, and in masquerades in each ertions of both crews, removed a ship on alternate fortnights, into little from her situation of immiwhich it would seem a good deal nent peril, and hove down for reof spirit and character was infused. pair in a more convenient spot ; The ordinary dress of the seamen, but on the 19th of August the wrapped up as they were during situation of the Hecla herself bethe winter in their fleecy clothing, came so critical, that it was absoas a protection from the nipping lutely necessary to change her poseverity of the weather, was in it- sition; or else she must have likeself sufficiently grotesque; but wise drifted ashore ; and the only when to this was superadded the alternative was,' to abandon the more fantastic and gayer variations Fury to her fate, after removing of costume of the officers, a very her crew, stores, &c. decent set of masks appears to have, At this time, the sea was getting been got up. The business, how- tolerably clear ; but captain Parry, ever, at length got monotonous under the circumstances of the and tiresome, notwithstanding the shipwreck of the Fury, and the praiseworthy and considerate at- consequent alteration in the contention of the officers, and the con- dition of the means of prosecuting stant supply of every thing which his original object, determined upon could administer to the health and returning to England without furcomfort of their crews; and the ther delay. On the 1st of Sepreturn of summer in the present tember, the homeward
beyear, which detached the block- gan, and the necessity of this was ading masses of ice, was hailed the more regretted, because, for a day with the most lively satisfaction by or two before, the ice was getting all hands. The ships got under more detached, and there was in weigh on the morning of the 20th the distance, and between icebergs, of last July ; but two days after, a very clear
comparawere driven back to Lancaster tively safe sea-room, with (as the Sound by adverse weather, which sailors say) a perceptible current drifted immense icebergs against setting in, which in their judgment their track. At this time it blew denoted the proximity of an open very fresh, but on the 24th they ocean. The distant view in this
direction was studded with small bably the latitude is nearly correct, islands, the position and shape of as they had an observation at noon, which exactly resembled that given and the ship had been running by captain Franklin of the sea due west. There can be no doubt view he obtained, in the extreme of the longitude, as captain Johnpoint of his severe land-journey son's chronometers are so good, from Hudson's Bay.
that after being five months withThough there were no natives out an opportunity of ascertaining seen by our seamen during this their rate, he made Pedro Branca expedition, there were abundant to a mile. His lunars, also, were tracks to show that the inlet at never ten miles different from the Port Bowen was occasionally the chronometers." resort of human beings, for the re- French Guyana. - A commismains of artificial caverns were sion, nominated by baron Milius, found in the snow, and fragments governor of French Guyana, set of culinary vessels of rude con- out some time since to explore the struction aces were also ex- sources of the Oyapock and the plored, which, judging from their Maroni. This commission returned shape, and the decayed bones that on the 24th of January last; and were thinly scattered on the spot, though a variety of circumstances appeared to be cemeteries.
prevented the completion of its Islands Discovered. - Extract object, yet it proceeded a considerfrom the agent to Lloyd's at able distance from the mouth of Singapore, dated the 7th of Sep- the river Oyapock, and entered tember, 1824: “ The Francis into an alliance with the tribe of and Charlotte, arrived from the the Oyampis. Ounanica, the north-west coast of America, dis- chief of this tribe, took an oath of covered three islands on her pas- fidelity to the king of France. M. sage. The following is an extract Bodin, commander of the French from the master's log : At day- expedition, invested him with the light on the 26th of May, saw uniform and insignia of captain, three islands, bearing due north and during this ceremony, the by compass, distant 8 or 9 leagues. French flag was
hoisted by They are not laid down in any of Ounanica, who gave a fête upon the latest charts, nor mentioned in the occasion, enlivened by dancing. any modern work.
Their size ap
The tribe of Oyampis is composed feared small and their height of about 6,000 individuals, and is molerate : the one most western not far from that of the Emerillons, appeared in the horizon like a which is also very numerous. small hillock; the others, undu. Among the useful things which lating and lower.
were brought by baron Milius, is eastern was the largest : the dis- some cotton, cultivated by the tance between them, 2 or 3 miles Oyampis, which is extremely beauin an east north-east and west tiful, and is said to be much supesouth-west direction. We had a rior to that of Cayenne and even good sight for the chronometer at of Pernambuco. In a great part 7 a. m., which places the islands in of its course, the Oyapock is barred long. 114. 48. m., and the latitude by cataracts and waterfalls, which (of this we cannot be equally cere in some places are at an immense tain) above 18. 11 north. Pro- elevation; one of these cataracts is 500 feet long and 80 high. M. Tsad, which is an immense fresh Bodin has brought back a branch water lake, visiting many towns of a tree, called the galibis or and villages in his journey. The carouachi, the leaf of which is a country to the southward of Fezzan mortal poison. The difficulty may be considered as a new dis which the Indians raised to M. covery, and extends from that Bodin taking this away, led him place to about the ninth degree of to believe that it is with the sap of latitude, between the sixth and this vegetable that they poison fourteenth degrees of longitude their arrows. Ounanica aceom- east of Greenwich. It has hitherto panied the expedition as far as Caw been deemed impracticable to travel mopi; and Macarayou, another in any part of Africa as Christians chief, confided his son, a youth, to until this time. Both these officers M. Bodin, who brought him to performed the journey as such, ocCayenne. The abbé Fournier, casionally wearing their uniforms, while with the Oyampis, baptized and were deemed by many of the 49 children.
followers of Mahomet as curious The Interior of Africa. The personages. Ministers have conaccounts brought by captain Clap- sidered it an object of such imperton and major Denham from portance, as to again send another Soudan, and other places in the mission, placed under the direction interior of Africa which have been of captain Clapperton, in which he visited by these enterprising tra- will be assisted by captain Pearce vellers, is very satisfactory, and (also of the royal navy). The much valuable information relative Camelion sloop of war was prepared to the inhabitants has been obtain- at Portsmouth for their conveyance. ed. The surprise of the former Directions for vessels navigatgentleman may readily be conceive ing the channels of Corfu.-" The ed, upon his reaching Sockatoo, in Ionian government, desirous of finding plates, dishes, basins, and affording every possible security other articles of English manufac- and facility to vessels navigating ture, with the makers' names mark- the channels leading to Corfu, has ed thereon ; and during his resi- caused to be erected four lightdence, which was nearly three houses, which are kept constantly months, he daily used wares of this lighted every night, from sun-set description. The markets are re- to sun-rise. gularly supplied, in addition to “ The first is on the old citadel of flour, with fine stall-fed beef, mute Corfu ; it is a single light, 240 feet ton, and kids ; as also poultry, in- high, and can be seen from the cluding wild ducks and geese, eggs, entrance of the north channel, and &c. The existence of this place, some distance to the southward of which is to the westward of Bornou, Point Lefchimo, in the south chanwas before unknown; it is governa nel : it is particularly useful to ed by a sultan, who has several guide ships to the harbour of Corfu. wives, and many children, and “ The second is a single floating with all the persons, about him light, moored off Point Lefchimo, evinced every attention to captain in the south channel. The vessel Clapperton. Major Denham pro- lies in five fathoms water, one ceeded to the south and east of cable's-length_N. W. by W. 4 W. Bornow, and examined the lake from the N. E. point of Letching