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A remarkable property of this the pure saline spring at Cheltenwater, not hitherto observed in any ham :saline spring, is, that when boiled,

Grains. Muriate of soda

50.0 it becomes turbid, and carbonate

Sulphate of soda

15.0 of magnesia is thrown down; this

Salplate of magnesia

11 0 appears to depend upon the pre- Sulphate of lime

4.5 sence of the carbonate of soda, which, though compatible with

Total saline contents ......

80:5 the earthy salts in a cold and dilute The following is an analysis of solution (such as is the water as it pint of the Leamington water :rises from the earth), decomposes

Grains, Moriate of soda.....

48.5 them at a boiling heat, or when

Sulphate of lime

17. concentrated by evaporation. The Sulphate of soda

9. following, from the same author- Muriate of magnesia ity, is an analysis of the Chelten- Sulpbale of magaesia ham water:

Carbonates proportion Saline contents in one pint of

scarcely noliceable

81 •5

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AGRICULTURE AND BOTANY.

vances.

New South Wales.-From the as likely to repay well the labour speech of the Vice-President of of cultivation in this climate, are the Agricultural Society of New flax and hemp. The New Zealand South Wales, delivered at their hemp is strongly recommended, on second anniversary meeting, on account of its superior qualities, the 5th of July last, it appears although the extreme slowness of that the agriculture of that co- its growth renders it less an object lony, though still in an imper- to the agriculturist of New South fect state, is making rapid ad- Wales than the common flax and

Among the articles of hemp of England. Attention is which the cultivation is succeeds also invited to the cultivation of ing, is tobacco, specimens of which rhubarb and the madder-root, have been forwarded by the so- which, it is suggested, should be at ciety to England; and the vice- first on a small scale, by way of president states, that he had re- experiment. With respect to the ceived a favourable judgment re- growth of wool the report says specting its quality from the mer- little, because the fact of the imchants to whom it had been con- provement it had received was signed, and many of the colonists, sufficiently known to the members it appears, had been induced by of the society; it states merely, this judgment to extend its culti- that “ it not only increases in vation. The growth of vines is quantity every season, but by recommended to the agriculturists crossing with the Merino breed, with sanguine expectations of a has been brought in some instances profitable result, but does not seem to vie with the finest wool in to have become hitherto at all Europe.” The society, it is general. Other plants suggested stated, has commenced a corre

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spondence with the Isle of France, of the convicts, by providing for from whence a collection of valu- them honest employment, with able plants and seeds has been every possible personal comfort procured. Part of them unfortu- consistent with their situation, nately perished on the voyage; endeavouring at the same time, but some pine-apple plants and by strictly inculcating moral duseeds for thorny hedges (much ties, to bring them to a proper wanted in the colony) had been sense of their former degradation. preserved, and were placed in the Various agents, it appears, are government garden, until that employed by the society in Engmaking for the society should be land to second by various means completed. The society had dis- the objects for which it has been tributed premiums for improve- instituted. The society has only ments in the breed of horses and existed two years. of sheep, and had paid a considera- St. Helena Silk - The Honourble sum in rewards to faithful ser- able Company's ship Farquharson vants, and for the destruction of arrived at St. Helena, from Engthe native breed of dogs with land, the 26th of February last, which the colony was infested. bringing captain Pillon in charge Much valuable information had of some silk-worms; eighty were been acquired during the year, landed, with a small quantity of respecting the future resources of eggs: happily the ship arrived on the agriculturists in the interior of the very evening the last stock of New South Wales. The discovery mulberry leaves were expended. of the river Brisbane by the sur- The worms and eggs were removed veyor-general, with its extensive on shore, and the insects ate most banks of rich soil, had opened a voraciously of the island leaves ; wide field for the culture of many they have since gone on in an of the most desirable tropical pro- incredibly progressive improveductions. A large track of fine ment-spun their cocoons, and laid grazing land, extending south to- eggs to the amount of eight thouwards Twofold Bay, had been dis- sand---not more than six were bad, covered by major Ovens; and Mr. which may be attributed to the Cunningham, his majesty's bota- first moth being a female, and nist, had intersected a line of which had come into existence country between Bathurst and three or four days before a male Liverpool-plains, to the extent of made his appearance. They had 100 miles directly north, which been exceedingly prolific, and in a he completed by a circuitous route short time many hundreds of eggs of 500 miles, mostly through a were hatched. The climate of fine grazing country. These dis- the island being generally from 74 coveries, with those previously degrees to 82 degrees of Fahrenmade by Messrs. Wentworth and heit in the valleys, seems exactly Blaxland, lieutenant Lawson, and adapted to the rearing of this Mr. Throsby, presented to the valuable insect. The mulberryagriculturist an almost unbounded tree grows all over the island, and extent of pasturage for his flocks lately many hundreds have been and herds. This society is further planted from slips, which are in a most usefully and benevolently en- promising condition; the island gaged in improving the condition produces two sorts, China and

1825. English, one of which is an ever- harvest time. Experience having green. It is caleulated, from the proved, that both the sickle and worms expected from the eggs

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common scythe, originally used in ready hatched, that in the course those countries, as they are still in of a few months, should the mul. Great Britain, could not, with berry leaves not fail for so prolific sufficient ease, economy, and exan insect, as much silk will be pedition, cut lodged and entangled produced as will be worth at least corn, necessity suggested the subfifty thousand pounds sterling. stitution of the implement called

Produce of the French Vine- here the Hainault scythe. Such yards.—The following account of was its original application, about the mean annual produce of the a century and a half ago, in that French vineyards in wines of the part of the Netherlands called Le Claret species, is from the work Pays Wallon (the Walloons). of Mr. William Frank, recently The practical use of this valuapublished at Bordeaux :-Vin de ble instrument has proved to be, Blaye, 40,000 tuns; Libourne, in many respects, so advantageous, 60,000 tuns; Larial, 35,000 tuns; that it has, by degrees, entirely Bazas, 10,000 tuns; Bordeaux, superseded the sickle and the com85,000 tuns ; Lesparre, 20,000 mon scythe; the first is not used at tuns: total, 250,000 tuns, or all; and if the last is occasionally 2,283,000 hectolitres.

resorted to, it is to cut the daily The Flemish Scythe.The prin- provender for the beasts of the cipal object of the Highland So- farm, during a few hours; or a crop ciety, in putting the merits of this of wheat, oats, and barley, when instrument to the test of experi- very low and thin, as in this case ment, has been to ascertain its not offering a sufficient degree of value, as compared with the im- resistance, it would cause much plements in common use for reap- fatigue to the reaper using his oring ; in what manner, and in what dinary scythe, with less expedition degree it falls short or excels these than is to be expected from the comlast; whether, as it is generally mon scythe. It is to be remarked, understood, it will surpass the by the by, that a labourer using sickle in economy of labour and this last instrument, receives higher time, and the scythe, in the regu- wages, and is allowed, besides, a larity with which it will lay down portion of strong beer a day, which the swathe to the binders; and, is not granted to the other lastly, the society expressed their proof that the common scythe is desire that a calculation should be considered as more fatiguing than made of the probable comparative the short one. expenses of reaping by the Flemish Another recommendation has scythe and by the sickle.

most effectually contributed to its The Netherlands being, in all general adoption. The implement their extent, a flat and open coun- is light and works easily; it retry, and their soil generally com- quires only a slight inclination of posed of a rich deep loam, their the body, and not much muscular crops are mostly very high and exertion ; the weight of the arm strong, and consequently easily and of the instrument gives it its lodged by the winds and rain, chief momentum; and the cut is which too frequently occur in directed by a jerking of the wrist,

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to the lower part of the stalk, at tween fifteen and eighteen days, about two inches from the ground. instead of five or six weeks, which That it requires but a little practice the harvest takes in this precarious to know how to use it, is suffi- climate. When all kinds of grain ciently proved by the rapid pro- ripen at once, when consequently ficiency of many of those who have the reapers are scarce and dear, as lately tried it under our eyes and they are at this very moment in direction. It is a known fact, that Scotland, the farmer feels that he in the Netherlands, at least a fifth is independent of them, and that of the reapers using the short scythe he is secure against any imposition are composed of women, and that or the loss of his crop; it happens lads of sixteen and eighteen years very often in reality that the employ it with great ease. It follows, farmer, his sons, the male and that it possesses, over the common female servants of his farm, set scythe, the advantage of being themselves to the gathering of better proportioned to the average their harvest, which they are able strength of the greatest part of the to achieve within a very short time. rural population. It requires a They use their short scythe in prestout and robust man to be able ference to the long one, because to work ten or eleven hours a day although this last should do more with the common scythe; such men work (which is not the case, howa form generally exceptions to the ever in strong crops), they find no common standard, and it is not on advantage and no economy in it, exceptions that farmers must rely the difference being more than to secure an early and expeditious compensated by the corn being harvest. Had the common scythe taken up cleaner, and the work been adapted to the physical powers being better executed by their of the generality of reapers, is it short scythe, the swathe laid down not evident that it must have su- more regularly, and in a more perseded the sickle, as the Flemish proper order for the binder, and scythe has done both of them? The ultimately for the thrashing-mill working day of a Flemish reaper is by their wanting no gatherer, but of ten or eleven hours. He takes an only a binder, whilst the common hour for his breakfast ; two hours scythe reaper requires both (a most and a half for his dinner, from half important saving)—by the work past 11 to two o'clock, the hottest being executed with less fatigue part of the day; and three quarters to the labourer, with a great saving of an hour, between 4 and 5, to of the straw, and no loss whatever smoke his pipe, to take some re- of the grain from the ear, a great freshment, and repair his imple- deal of it being lost by the whirlments. With such a distribution ing about of the sickle reaper, as of labour and rest, he can continue well as by the raking, gathering, his exertions, with apparent ease, and putting up of the corn cut during the whole time.

by the common sithe; and at last Many beneficial consequences by the facility with which they can follow, from the easy and general cut lodged and entangled corn, to employment of the Flemish sithe: both of which the common scythe it enables the farmers to cut the or the sickle is inapplicable. whole of their crop, in ordinary Nothing has been wanting to weather, in the short space of beput the merits of the Flemish scythe to a fair test of experiment; it has small ones. Its ultimate adoption been successively exhibited in will depend on the combined exthirteen of the best agricultural ertions, encouragement, and excounties of Scotland ; and we ample of the several classes of think ourselves justified in the proprietors and farmers, and esopinion that, generally speaking, pecially of the farming clubs and their soil may be gradually accom- agricultural societies, under the modated to the use of this instru- guidance of that noble specimen of ment, by a preparation which will the power of association, of that prove itself an improvement, that grand focus of public spirit, enis, the cleaning away of the biggest lightened patriotism, and positive stones, and the rolling in of the knowledge.

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES.

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Suspension Railway.--A line of placed before the other; and two railway on the suspension princi- receptacles for goods, which are ple, invented by Mr. H. R. Palmer, suspended, one on each side, the having been constructed for prac- centre of gravity being below the tical use, at Cheshunt, in Hert- surface of the rail. A number of fordshire, by Mr. Gibbs, of that these carriages are linked together place, it was opened for public in- by chains, and a horse is connected spection on June last. The line with the whole by a towing rope of railway runs from the high road attached to the foremost machine. to the lower end of the village, The most striking peculiarity of through Mr. Gibbs's land to the this plan is its extreme simplicity, river Lea, and is nearly a mile considering the many obvious adlong. It consists of a single ele- vantages it presents beyond the vated line of surface, supported ordinary double rail-road, particuupon vertical

posts of wood, fixed larly the great expense it avoids in the ground in a peculiar manner, in embankments, culverts, and to render their position secure. drains--the trifling space of ground These posts are at the distance of it occupies--the increased effect about ten feet from each other, which can be produced upon it, varying in height according to the from its reduced force of resistundulation of the ground, so as to ance-its comparatively small cost, keep their upper extremities pa- -its facilities of loading and unrallel with the necessary plane.

loading, &c. In a cleft on these are laid reverse Zinc plates for Engraving. In wedges, on which rest a line of Germany at present artists have bearers of wood, the upper surface begun to substitute zinc plates inof which, covered with a plate of stead of copper plates, and also iniron, forms the road for the pas- stead of stone for engravings. sage of the wheels. The average

The artist draws on the zinc as on height of this road above the stone, and the expense of engravground is from two to three feet. ings is thus saved. A large work, The carriage has two wheels, one being a collection of monuments of

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