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priests whoofficiate in different cha- At the present time the Pro-
pels in the neighbourhood, where testants are reduced to less than
there is no resident priest; and are one-seventh of the whole popula-
also ready to succeed or assist those tion of the district. Of course the
who are at a greater distance. “ College," as it is called, gives em-
The teachers have each the care of ployment in one way or other, to
a particular school, and are under a great number of persons and
the direction of one who is called none of them are Protestants. In-
a superintendant of studies. There termarriages between Catholic and
are also what are called prefects, Protestant families have been most
who have the superintendence of numerous in the neighbourhood :
the scholars at their studies, their and this we know to have been
sports, and in their walks. Thenum- the most prolific source of what
ber of scholars are about 200: the they term conversions. The refuse
greater part of them are Irish, but meat of 250 or 300 people, the
there are foreigners from every cast-off clothes of nearly the same
part of the globe. Each scholar number (for they provide the
per annum.

Two hun scholars with an uniform dress),
dred (and this number has been must either be given away or sold
sometimes considerably exceeded) for very little ; and it is the gene-
produce 10,000l. Their real pro- ral understanding of the neigh-
perty may be valued at 40,000l. ; bourhood, that nobody must look
including the gift of Mr. Weld, for any thing in the former way of
and what they have themselves ex- disposal, without, occasionally at
pended on the purchase of land, least, appearing at mass.
and the improvement and enlarge- Professor Mezzofanti of Bo-
ment of the building. Their an- logna.—The following amusing ac-
nual revenue may therefore not count of this celebrated linguist is
unfairly be stated at 12,0001. given by the baron de Zach, in one
Their gains must have been very of the early numbers of his Cor-
considerable to enable them to lay respondence Astronomique, Geo-
out 30,000l. in about twenty years, graphique, 8c. :-“ This extra-
and there is no reason to sup- ordinary savant is very truly the
pose that they are, at present, at rival of the celebrated Mithridates,
all below the general average, yet king of Pontus. This professor
they are soliciting subscriptions speaks thirty-two living and dead
towards building a new chapel languages, not in the manner of the
(asking for contributions even of learned jesuit Weittenauer, but

surgeons and physicians), to with a perfection truly surprising. which they themselves magnani- Professor Mezzofanti introduced mously subscribe 3001. In thg himself to me by addressing me course of the five and twenty years in Hungarian ; he paid me a comthat Stonyhurst has been in pos- pliment so well turned, and in session of its present owners, an such good Magyarul, that I was entire change has been wrought in surprised and astonished to the last the religious character of the degree. He then spoke to me neighbourhood, the majority of in German ; first in good Saxon, its inhabitants were not then Ro- and afterwards in the Austrian man Catholics, the preponderance and Swabian dialects, with a purity was on the side of the Protestants. çf accent that raised my astonish


ment to the height; I could not out of his native place, learn a help laughing at the change which language which is neither written the

countenance and language of this nor printed? A Hungarian regiextraordinary professor put upon ment, during the wars of Italy,

He spoke English with cap- had been quartered at Bologna ; tain Smith, and Russian and Polish the professor discovered a Zigan with prince Wolkonsky, with the in it, put himself under his tuition, same ease and volubility as he did and with the facility and happy his native dialect, the Bolognese. memory he derives from nature, I could not quit his side afterwards. soon acquired this language, which At a dinner given by the cardinal is believed to be only a dialect Legate, Spina, his eminence made (apparently altered and corrupted) him sit by me at table; after having of some tribes of the Parias of jargonné with him in several lan- Hindostan.” guages, all of which he spoke much Sierra Leone.-Accounts have better than I did, it occurred to me been printed, by order of the House to address him suddenly with a of Commons, relating to the dufew words in Walachian. With- ties, exports imports, population, out the least hesitation, or appear- schools, churches, and marriages of ing to notice the change, my poly- the colony of Sierra Leone. glot immediately answered me in No duties were levied or rea the same language, and went onceived in this colony, according to at such a rate, that I was obliged these accounts, prior to the month to call out to him, “Softly, softly, of August, 1811, and for the latMr. Abbe, I cannot follow you, I ter half of that year the amount am quite at the end of my Wala- collected did not exceed 1011. chian. It was more than forty 5s. ld. In the following year, years since I had either spoken, or however, they amounted to 2,1751. even thought of this language, 198. 4d., but in the years 1813, with which I was very well ac- 1814, and 1815, they do not apquainted in my youth, when I was pear to have exceeded an average serving in a Hungarian regiment, of 1,5001. In 1816 they amountgarrisoned in Pennsylvania. Pro-ed to 2,4471. 16s. 6d., and in the fessor Mezzofanti was not only well ensuing years, until 1821, they acquainted with this language, but arose to 3, 4, 5, and 6,0001. In informed me on this occasion that the year 1823 they are returned he knew another, which I had at 8,7301. 8s. from the collector's never been able to learn, although books. I had much better opportunities of The exports, which are from the doing it than him, having had years 1817 to 1823 inclusive, are soldiers in my regiment who spoke given in bulk, but not in value, it. This was the language of the and consist of the produce of Africa Zigans, or of that tribe which the in its various states of preparation. French improperly call Bohemi- Hides, mats, tiger-skins, gold dust, ennes (gypsies), and at which de- monkey-skins, stuffed birds, honey, signation the brave and true Bo- nuts, oils, and wax, wood of vahemians (the inhabitants of the rious kinds, indigo, coffee, rice, kingdom of Bohemia) feel very lime-juice, and African curiosities; indignant. But how could an these principally compose the list Italian Abate, who had never been of exports, and denote a stute of

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establishments of offices for carry- generally the northern counties,
ing on the trust business are more present a far higher average of
numerous and expensive than they wages than those of the south of
ought to be; the trusts conse- England, besides the benefit, which
quently in debt, and money bor- does not appear on the returns, of
rowed even at annuity interest, to a supply of fuel at a much easier
provide a mode of discharging it. price.
The committee, therefore, recom- In comparing the several districts
mend that all the trusts near Lone where the custom prevails of as-
don should be consolidated under sisting the farmer to pay his la-
a single set of commissioners, for bourers out of the poor's rates, with
the sake of effecting the three those where such a practice has
grand objects of durability in the not yet been suffered, we cannot
work, economy in the expenses, find that there is any

obvious reand relief to the public, by the relation between the existence of moval of vexatious obstructions, that abuse, nd either a high or from the frequency and inconve- low rate of wages. Thus, in the nient position of the toll-gates. division of Bassetlaw, county of

Poor's Rates. There has been Nottingham, the wages being from published by order of the House 10s. to 128. per week, are paid in of Commons, an abstract of returns part out of the poor's rates; while, prepared by the direction of the in Southwell division of the same select committee of last session, county, the rate not exceeding 108., appointed to inquire into the prac- the poor's rate is never so applied. tice which prevails in some parts Hundreds of instances, bespeaking of the country of paying the wages similar irregularity, might be enuof labour out of the poor's rates, ' merated, and lead to the belief and to consider whether any and that more depends on the caprice what measures can be carried into of the magistrates than on the neexecution for the purpose of alter- cessity of the case. Where the ing that practice, and to report system has once commenced, we their observations thereon to the are aware that more than ordinary House. The present document skill and firmness are requisite toconsists of returns only of the rate wards its abolition: and in the inof wages throughout the several stance of a labourer with a numecounties of England, and of an- rous family, the difficulty of introswers to a circular list of questions ducing any change seeins almost bearing upon the proposed subject insurmountable. Something less of investigation. The committee than one-third of the kingdom is have not annexed to the abstract a

visited by this perversion of the single observation or opinion of poor's rates. their own.

England Fifty Years ago.-In With regard to the wages of seventy years the people of Great labour, it seems worth notice how Britain have advanced full eight the growth of manufactures in a millions in number. In twentycountry tends to improve the com- five years, the number of inhabited forts of the agricultural classes in houses in England and Wales their neighbourhood. The manu- alone have advanced one-half. facturing districts of Lancashire, Fifty years ago, the very existence the West Riding of Yorkshire, and of canals was a matter of incredų:

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must be very considerable, for that complained of, and which have 42 petit, and from 8 to 10 grand given rise to the appointment of jurors are usually summoned every successive committees, each of which sessions from the coloured inha- has testified to the serious nature bitants.

of the evil, and to the urgency of The colonial authorities at Sier- some effectual cure. From the ra Leone say that they are unable number of separate acts of parliato furnish an account (as ordered) ment under which the several of the number of persons subsisting trusts were created, there has been by the produce of their own labour, no regular principle of managedistinguishing their several kinds ment, nor any central and supreme of employment ; for that liberated authority by which the interests Africans, settled under superin- of the public might be at once tendents in the several villages, protected. The dilapidation of the are the only persons under the im- funds raised for road-making, and mediate view of the colonial go- the consequent heavy debts under vernment accounts. The usual which the trusts (almost without rate of wages paid to labourers is exception) have been labouring, are 9d. or 10d. per day, and from half- proofs of a radical vice in the a-crown to 75. per day to artificers, whole system, and obstacles to imaccording to their skill. It is added, provement nearly, if not quite inhowever, that these rates of pay- vincible, if measures be not taken ment are on the decline. In ships to establish in some quarter a more and fishing-boats, exclusive of a definite responsibility than has ever small number belonging to natives, yet existed. This committee state the property of the inhabitants of that the income raised is “much the colony is small, and does not larger” than would be necessary exceed a small tonnage. There are under good management to keep about 35 vessels from 10 to 88 the roads in the best state of retons burden, besides 14 boats em- pair ; that the “accounts were in ployed by fishermen.

a very confused state;" that the Road-Trusts. The turnpike needless frequency of ill-conducted trust committee, for inquiring into repairs is, as indeed every one the state of the trusts within ten feels, an extreme inconvenience to miles of London, have made a re- travellers; that distinct trusts are port, founded on a large mass of granted by act of parliament for evidence, and calculated, we hope, spots in close contiguity to each to bring about considerable relief, other; that sometimes a parish is both as to economy and comfort, in the habit of receiving an annual in behalf of the population of this sum from a trust beyond its own metropolis and its environs. In- limits, for taking upon it the duty different roadstoll-gates multi- of road-repairing which ought to plied beyond endurance

enormous have devolved upon the trust ittaxes, provokingly and universally self, to the extinction of all active misapplied to the maintenance ra- responsibility; and that several ther of a shoal of clerks and other trusts are in possession of estates, officers, than to the repair of the independent of their tolls, which public avenues to London-have still continue to levy tolls, as if been grievances which the inhabit- the necessity for them had not ants as well as travellers loudly been thereby superseded ; that the degree to which the produce of the 106,000, Versailles 40,000, and mines fell otf, has been thus given Aniens 40,000. In the roval liin a recent publication, “Tooke *rary at Paris there are several on High and Low Prices.* uncollated MSS. of the Scriptures.

Prison Discipline. The state Annual produce of American Mines in of crime in Sweden is less than in dollars.

most other countries. The whole 1800 to 1810. After 1810. number of persons committed to Mexico ......30,000,000 12.000.000 Peru 5,480,000 2,744,000

prison for offences does not exceed Chile ........

866,000 886,000 1,500_víz., about 800 convicted Buenos Ayres .. 3,640.000 1,820,000 of various crimes, and 700 impriBrazil

4,344,000 4,340,000 soned for vagrancy and other of New Grenada .. 2,735,000 2,735,000 fences of police. A royal commis47,061,000 24.501,00€ sion has been appointed to super

intend all the prisons and houses Thus the quantity of the prea of correction, so as to place their cious metals derived yearly from discipline and administration on a these sources was reduced one-half common footing. A house of corin consequence of the war. rection is building at Stockholm,

Public Libraries in France.- in which the prisoners will be alIn Paris the royal library has above lowed part of the gains made by 700,000 printed volumes, and their work, and may lay it up to 70,000 MSS.

The library of form a sun against the time of Monsieur 150,000 printed volumes, their liberation. Similar measures and 5,000 MSS. The library of are also in progress at Christiana, St. Genevieve 110,000 printed vo- in Norway. lumea, and 2,000 MSS. The Wolves in Russia. The folMazarine library 92,000 printed lowing is the official account of volumes, and 3,000 MSS. The the devastations committed by the library of the city of Paris 20,000 wolves in the government of Livolumes. All these are daily open vonia only, in the year 1823: they to the public. In the departments devoured-horses, 1,841 ; foals, there are 25 public libraries, with 1,243; horned cattle, 1,807; above 1,700,000 volumes, of which calves, 733; sheep, 15,182 ; Aix has 72,670, Marseilles 31,500, lambs, 726; goats, 2,545; kids, Toulouse 30,000, Bordeaux 183; swine, 4,190; sucking pigs, 105,000, Tours 30,000, Lyons 312; dogs, 703 ; geese, 673.

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