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And understood as much of things, 105| And at the best could but commit,
As th' ableit blackbird what it fings;

The petty-larceny of wit;
And yer was honour'd and renown'd

To whom to write was to purloin, For grave, and solid, and profound.

And printing but to stamp false coin; Then why should those who pick and chule Yet, after long and sturdy endeavours The beit of all the best compose,

Or being painful wit-receivers, And join it by Mosaic art,

With gathering rags and scraps of wit, In graceful order, part to part,

As paper 's made on which ’tis writ, To make the whole in beauty suit,

Have gone forth authors, and acquir'd Not merit as complete repute

The right or wrong to be admiru; As those who with leis art and pains 115 And, armd with confidence, incurrid Can do it with their native brains,

The fool's good luck to be preferr d. And make the home-ipun bufineis fit

For, as a banker can dupoie As freely with their mother wit;

Of greater sums he only ones, Since, what hy Nature was denyà

Than he who honestly is known By art and industry's fupply'd,

To deal in nothing but his own.
Both which are more our own, and brave, So, whoros'er can take up mott,
Than all the alnis that Nature gave?

May greatest fame and credit boast,
For what w'acquire by pains ard art
Is only due t'our own delert;
While all th' endowments the confers 125
Are not so much our own as hers,
That, like good fortone, unawares

Fall not l'our virtue, but our thares,
And all we can pretend to merit
We do not purchase. but inherit.


Thus all the great'st inventions, when
They first were found out, were so mean,

Upon the Imperfection and Abuse of
That th' authors of them are unknown,
As little things they fcorn'd to ownl;

HUMAN LEARNING!, Until hy men of nobler thought

135 Thi' were to their full perfection brought,

This proves that Wit does but rough-hew,
Leaves Arito polish and review;

T is the noblest act of human reason,
And that a wit at second-hand

To free itself from llavish prepotieflion, Has greatest interest and command; 140 Alliinie the legal right to disengage For to improve, diípore, and judge,

From all it had contracted under age, Is nobler than t’invent and drudge.

And not its ingenuity and wit,

$ Invention 's humorous and nice,

To all it was iinbued with firit, submit;
And never at command applies ;
Disdains t'oney the proudest wit,

145 Unless it chance to h' in the fit

* In the large General Dictionary, or Bayles (Like proplicev, that can prerage

enlarged by Mr. Bernard, Birch, and Lockman, Succelles of the latest age,

we are told by the learned editors, under the Yet is not able to tell when

article Hudibres, that they were personals EIt next shall prophesy again);

150 formed hy the late Mr. Longueville, That amoroso Makes all her suitors course and wait,

the genuine remains of Butier, which were Like a proud minitter of state,

his hands, there was a poem, entitled TH And, when she's serious, in some freak, fory of Learning.-To the fame purpose is the f. Extravagant, and vain, and weak,

lowing passage, cited from The Pactical Rgo, Attend her n Uy lazy pleasure,

155 vol. II. p. 21.-" In justice to the putius : Until Ine cha ice to be at leisure;

“ is thought proper to declare, that all the II _When 'tis more easy to steal wit :

" nuscripts Mr. Butler left behind him, are 13" To clip, and forge, and counterfeit,

" in the custody of Mr. Longueville (272 Is both the business and delight,

" which is one, entitled The History of Laren Like hunting iports, of those that write ; 160 “ written after the manner of Hudibras) ardia For thievery is but one fort,

not one line of those poeins lately The learned fay, of hunting-sport.

under his name is genuine." Hence'tis that soine, who let up first

As these authorities nust have given the Fx. As maw, and wretched, and unverst,

reason to expect, in this work, a poem of Aind opend with a trock as poor

165 fort, it becomes neceffary for nie to infurm 12 As a bealthy besgar with one fore;

public, that Butler did meditate a prely a That never writin prose or verse,

satire upon the imperfection and abuse of H. Bur pick'd, or coxt it, like a purse,

Learning; but that he only Anished this tot


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Tike true or false for better or for worse,

And all alike are taught poetic rage, To leave or to hold indifferently of course.

When hardly one's fit for it in an age.
For Custom, though butuhcr of the school, No rooner are the organs of the brain
Where Nature breeds the body and the foui, Quick to receive, and Itedfast to retain, 40
Uimpe a greater power and interest

Bent knowledges, but all's laid out upon
C'er man, the licir of Realora, than brute heart, Retrieving of the curte of Bahylon;
That by two different inftinéts is led,

To make confounded languages restore
Born to be one, and to the other bred,

A greater drudgery than

barr'd before: And trains him up with rudiments more false i 15

And therefore those imported from the East, 45 Than Nature does her stupid animals ;

Where first they were incurr'd, are held the best, And that's one reaton why more care 's bestow'd Although convey'd in worfe Arabian pothooks Upon the body than the foul's allow'd,

Than gifted tradermen scratch in sermon nuteThat is not found to understand and know

books; So fubtly as the body 's found to grow.

Are really but pains and labour lost, Though children, without itudy, pains, or And not worth half the drudgery they cost, thought,

Unless, like rarities, as they've been brought Are languages and vulgar notions taught, From foreign crimates, and as dearly bought, Improve their natural calents without care,

When those who had no other but their own, And apprehend before ti ey are aware,

Have all succeedling eloquence outdone : Yet as all strangers never leave the tones 25

As men that wink with one eye let more true, 55 They have been used of children to pronounce,

And take their aim much better, than with two ; So most men's rearon never can outgrow

For, the more languages a man can speak, The discipline it fust receiv'd to know,

His talent has but sprung the greater leak; But renders words they firit begin to con,

And, for the industry he 'as spent upon't, The end of all that 's after to be known,


Muit full as much some other way discount. 60 And sets the help of education back,

The Hebrew, Chaldee, and the Syriac, Worse than, without it, min cuuld ever lack; Do, like their letters, set men's reason back, Who, therefore, finds the artificialiit fools And turn their wits, that strive to understand it Have not been chang'd i' th cradle, but the (Like those that write the characters) leftfchools,

handed : Where error, pedantry, and affectation,

Yet he that is but able to express 35

65 Run them behind-hand with their education,

No fenfe at all in several languages,
will pass for learneder than he that 's known
To speak the strongest reason in his own.

There are the modern arts of education, part of it, though he has left very considerable and interesting fragments of the remainder, Vith all the learned of mankind in fashion, 70 tome of which I shall fubjoin.

But practis d only with the rod and whip, The Poet's plan seems to have consisted of two

As riding-schools inculcate horfemanthip; parts; the first, which he has executed, is to ex

Or Romiih penitents let out their skins, pole the defects of human learning--from the

To bear the penalties of others' fins : wrong methods of education from the natural

When letters, at the first, were meant for play, imperfection of the human mind--and from that

And only us'd to pass the time away ; 76

When th' antient Greeks and Romans had no over-eagerness of men to know things above the reach of human capacity. -The second, as far as one can judge by the Remains, and intended To express a school and playhouse, but the same, parts of it, was to have exemplified what he has

And in their languages, so long agone, alierted in the first; and ridiculed and satyrized

To ftudy or be idle was all one ;

80 the different branches of human learning, in

For nothing more preferves men in their wits, characterising the pluilofoplier, critic, orator, &c.

Thun giving of them leave to play by fits, Mr. Longueville might be led, by this, into the

In dreanis to sport, and ramble with all fancies, mistake of calling this work A History of Learn

And waking, littie leis extravagances,

The rest and recreation of tır'd thought, ing; or perhaps it miglit arise from Butler's have ing, in one plan, which he afterwards altered,

When 'uis run down nith care and overwroughi, berun with thele two lines,

Of which wluever does not freely take

Ilis constant flare, is never broad awake The history of learning is fo lame,

And, when he wants an equal competence That few can teli from whence at first it came. Of both recruits, abates as much of sente. What has been said will, I Aatter myself, be a

Nor is their education worie design'd (ufficient apology for the printing an imperfect Than Nature (in her province) proves unkind: werk, if the many good things to be met with

The greatest inclinations with the least n it does not make one unnecessary. -However, Capacities are fatally posleft, or this reason, I did not think fit to place it condemind to drudge, and labour, and take amongst his other Satires, which are perfect in

pains, tä diferent ways

Without adequad competence of brains;



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While those she has indulg'd in soul and body, As a French library by the whole is,
Are most averie to induity and study,

So much an ell for quito, i fer folics;
And th' activ'ft tancı' s share as loote alloys, To wbici they are buit indexes themelve,
For want of equal weight to counterpoile. And anderitano further than the shelves;
But when thoi gicat convenienci s mcety But fmtie: with 'eii tine 241 alition, bi
Oi equal judgment, industry, and wit,

And place them in their clasica, titions; The one hut it: ives the other to divert,

Wien ail a tudent kalba of the reads While Fate and Custom in the feud take part, Is not in 's own, but und Treniraheads And scholars, by prepofterous over-doing, 105/Of coinmon-places, nit in die oun power, And under-judging, all their projects ruum; But, like » Datch 'an's mouet, i' th cantore, Who, though the understanding of mankind Where all he c:n make of it it the best, 111 Within fo ftiait a compass is contin'd,

Is barılly three per ceni. for intereli; Dildain the limits Nature sets to bound

And whether he will ever set toit, The wit of man, and vainly rove beyond. 110 Into his own potletlion, is a condi: The bravest foldiers 1corn, until they ’re got Affects all books of paftun: modern ages, 13 Close to the enemy, to make a shot;

But reads no further than the title-pages, Yer great pluilofophers delighit to stretchi

Only to con the authors' names by rote, Their talents moit at things beyond their reach, Or, at the bett, those of the booss the quate, And proudly think t’unriddle every cause 115 'Enough to challenge intimate acquaintance

That Nature uses, by their own bye-laws; With all the learned Moderns and the Ancients. When 'tis not only' iinpertineni, but inde, As Roman noble:nen were w nt to greet, Where the desies aumwilion, to intrude;

And compliment the rabble in the Itreet, And all their industry is but to crr,

Had nomenclators in their trains, to claim Luleis they have free quarantine from her; 120 Acquaintance with the meanest hy his name, Whence 'riside world the lets has understood, And, by fo mean contemptible a bribe, By ítriving to know more than 'tis allow'd, Trepann'd the rurages of every tribe; For Adam, with the loss of Pi radile

So learned men, by authors' na res unknown, Bought know ledge at too desperate a price, Hive gain's no imail mprovement to their own And crer iince that miferabic fate


And he's titeeni'u the learned'it of all others, Learning dia never cost an eafier rate ;

That lias the largeit catalogue of authors. Iyo For, though the most divine and sovereign good Thar Nature has upon mankind beitow'd, Yet it has prov'd a greater hunderance To th' interest of truth than ignorance, 130 and therefore never bore so high a value

FRA G M E N T S As when 'tu as low, contemptible, and thallow; Had acidemics, schools, and colleges, Endow'd for its improvement and increase; With ponip and thew was introduc'd with maces, More than a Roman magistrate had faices;

S Е со N D PART Impower'il with iiatute, privilege, and mandate, T'allume an art, and after understand it; Like bills of store for taking a degree,

OF THE FOREGOING SATIRE. With all ihe learning to it cuitorr-fiec; 140 mind own proteiions which the never look

JESS talents grow more bold and So much delight in as to read one bock;

deni, Like princes, had prerogative to give

The Turtier they're beyond their just exteni, Convicted malefactors a reprieve; And, having but a little paltry wit

145 More than the world, reduc'd and governd it, There Fragments were fairly written oui, : But scorn'd, as soon as 'twas but understood, several times, with fome little variations! As beter is a spiteful fue to good,

scribed by Butler, but never connected to reAnd now has nothing left for its support, duced into any regular form. They may be me But what the darkeit tines provided for 't. 150 sidered as the poreipal parts of a cur inson Man hits a natural desire to know,

each separately finished, but not united it was But th’ one half is for interesi, th' other show: general lengi. As scriveners take more pains to learn the Neight From there the reader ma; forni a n. tiga Oi making knots, than all the band they wrie: tolcrable idea of our Author's intended in. So all his study is not to extend

155 and will, I doubt not, regret, with me, that The bounds of know ledge, but some vainer end; did not apply himself to the finishing of all?

l'appear and pats for learned, though his claim to well suited to his judgment and particular
Will bardly reach beyond the empty vame: of wit.
For moit of those that drudge and labour hard, It may be thought, perhaps, that forme pers
Fuimth their undertandings by the yard, 160 it ought to hure been illustrated with actes, la



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A: (matterers prove more arrogant and pert,

Yet with his lantern went, by day, to find The lets they truly understand an art;

One honeft mau i'th' heap of all mankind; And, where they've le: it capacity to doubt, An idle freak he necdied not have done, Are wont t'appear moit perempiory and fout; If he had known hinneli to be but one. While those that know the mathematic lines Willi 'warms of maggots of the foll-fanie rate, Wicre Nature all the witeiman confines; The learned of all ages celebrate And when it keeps within its bounds, and where Things that are properer for Knightsbridge colIt acts beyond the limits of its iphere;

lege, Enjoy an abioluter free comniand

Than th' authors and originals of knowledge ; O'er all they have a right to understand,

More fortith than the two fanatics, trying Than thoie that falsely venture to encroach

To mend the world by langting, ol' ly crying; Where Nature has deny'd them all approach,

Or lie that laughi'd until hechok'd bis whistle, And still, the more they strive to understand, To rally on an ais that ate a tiristle; Like great estates, run furthest behind-hand; That th' antique sage, that was gallant t'a goose, Will undertake the universe to fathon,

A titter mistress could not pick and chuse, From infinite down to a single atom;

Whole tempérs, inclinations, lenfe, and wit, Without a geometric instrument,

Like two indenturos, did agree to fit.
To take their own capacity's extent;
Can tell as easy how the world was made,

The antient sceptics constantly leny'd
As if they 'ad been bred up to the trade,

What they maintain'd, and thought they justify'd; And whether Chance, Neceflity, or Master, For when they attirin'd that nothing 's to be Contriv'it the whole establishment of Nature;

known, When all their wits to undertiand the world They did but what they said before disown ; Can never tell why a pig's tail is curi'd,

And, lihe Polemics of the Poit, pronounce Or give a rational account why rith,

The iame thing to be true and falte at once. That always use to drink, do never piss.

Thele jol.ics had fuch influence on the rabble,

As to engage them in perpetual rynatybie;
WHAT mad fantastic gamhols have been play'd Divided Rome and Ainens into clans
Bv th' ancient Greek forefathers of the trade, Of ignorant mechanic partisans;
That were not much inferior to the freaks Tha!, to maintain their own ly pocheres,
Of all our lunatic fanatic fects!

Bruke one another's blockheaus, and the peace ;
The first and beit philosopher of Athens Were often set by officers i chi stocks
Was cracks, aud ran stark-staring mad with pa: For quarreling about a paradox:

When pudding-vives were launcht in cock-quean And had no other way to shew his wit,

1tools, But when his wife was in her scolding-fit; For falling foul on os szer-women's schools, Was after in the Pagan inquilition,

No herb-svomen fold cabbages or onions, And futer'd martyrdom for no religion.

But to their gofiips of their own opinions. Next him, bis scholar, Itriving to expel

A Peripatetic cobler (corn's to foal All poets his poetic commonweal,

A pair of thoes of any other schorl; Exild himself, and all his fellowers,

And porters of the judgment of inc Stoics, Notorious poets, only bating verle.

To go an errand of the Cyrensics; The Stagvrite, unable to expound

That ured I'encounter in athleil siis, The Euripas, leapt into 't, and was drown'd: With beard to bears, and tee:h anu ni's to fists; so he that put his eyes out, to confider

Like modern kicks and cuits amonthe youth and contemplate on natural things the steamier, Of academics, to mainiain the truth. Did but himself for idiot convince,

But in the boidett fea's of arms he Sioic Though reverenc'd by the learned ever since. And Epicureans were the most herok, impedocles, to be esteem'd a god,

That itoutly ventur'd breaking up their necks, seapt into Ætna, with his fandals fbou:

To vindicate the intercfs of their felis, Chat being blown out, discover'd what an ass And still behav'd themícres as it iute The great philosopher and jungler was,

In maging cuits and bruiles as difputt, Chat to his own new deity sacritic's,

Until with wounds and bruises which they' had 111e was himself the victim and the priest.

got, Che Cynic coin'd false money, and, for fear

Some hundreds were kill'd dead upon the spot; f being hang'd for 'i, turn's philosopher;

Wheit all their quarrels, righely undeftilor,
Here but to prove disputes tàc lovereign guod.

s the printing an imperfect work may be judged,

DISTINCTIONS, that had been at first dey some readers of great delicacy, a fort of in

fign'd rusion upon the public, I did no: care to enhance To regulite tiie errors of the mind, he objection by clogging it with additional obser- | By being too nicely overtrain's and vext, ations of mine oli n.

Have made the cominent liarder than thac text, VOL. II.

3 (0)

Ani do not now, like carving, hit the joint, Is but a titular princess, whose authority But bieak thie boses in pieces, of a point, Is always under age, and in minority; And with impert.nent erafins; force

Has ali things done, and carried in its name, The clearest icaion from its native course

But most of all where it can lay no claim; That argile things to’uncertain, 'tis no matter As far from gaiety and complaisance, Whether they are, or never were in nature ;

As greatness, infolence, and ignorance ; And .enture to demonstrate, when they've llurd, And therefore has surrendred her dominion And palm’d a fallacy upon a word.

O’er all mankind to barbarous Opinion, For disputants (as (wordímcn use to fence That in her right usurps the tyrannics With bunted foy es) engage with blunted sense; And arbitrary government of lyesAnd, as they 're wont to falsify a blow,

As no tricks on the rope but ihose that break, Uie else to pass upon the foe;

Or come most near to breaking of a neck, Oi, if they venture furthur to attack,

Are worth the fight, so nothing goes for wit Like bowlers, itrive to beat away the jack ; But nonsense, or the next of all to it: And, when they find themselves too hardly prest For noniense, being neither falle nor true, 0.1,

A little wit to any thing may icrew; Prevaricate, and change the state o' th question ; And, when it has a while been usid, of courie The nobielt icience of dcience and art

Will Itand as well in virtue, power and force, In piaciuce now with all that controvert, And pass for senie t all purposes as good And th' oniy mode of prizes, from Bear-garden As if it had at first been understood: Down to the schools, in giving biows, or warding. For nonsense has the amplest privileges,

And more than all t'ie strongest senie obliges; AS clit knights-errant in their harness fought That furnishes the schools with terms of art, As la fe as in a castle or redoni,

The mysteries of science to impart; G3;c one another desperate a't..cks,

Supplies all se ninaries with recruits To storm the counterfiarp?pniheir backs; Oi endless controversies and disputes; So disputants advance, ani post their arms, For learned nonsense has a deeper sound To storm the works of one another's terms; Than easy renfe, and gues for more profound Falt foul on some extravagant expresiioi, But ne'cr aitempe tiie niain design and reason FOR all our learned authors now compile So fosse polemio ure to draw the'r swords Archarge of nothing but the words and itske, Againit tie language only and the words ; And the most curious critics or the learned As he who miglitat barriers with Salmafius, Believe themselves in nothing else concerned; Eng g'd with nothing but his style and phrases, For, as it is the garnitire and dress Ward to allert the nurther of a prince,

That all things wear in books and languages The author of faire Latin to convince;

(And all men's qualities are wont s'appear, Burlaid the mei its of the caute afide,

According to the habits that they wear), By those that understood them to be try'd ; 'Tis probable to be the trueft teft And counted breaking Prifcian's head a thing Of all the ingenuity o'th' reft. More capital than to bchead a king;

The lives of treus lie only in the harks, For which he 'as been admir'd by all the learn'd, And in their styles the wit of greatest clerksi Of knaves concern’d, and pedants unconcern'd. Hence 'twas the ancient Roman politicians

Went to the schools of foreiga rhetorician JUDGMENT is but a curious pair of scales, To learn the art of patrons, in defence That turns with th' hundredith part of true or of intere{t and their clients' eloquence; falle,

When consuls, censors, senators, and presenting And still, the more 'tis us'il, is wont t'abate With great dictators, usid to apply to Thetuting The fub letv and vicenets of its weight,

To hear the greater magistrate o' th' school Unless 'tis file, and will not rise nor fall, Give fentence in his haughty chair-curuie, Like those that are less artificial;

And those who mighiy nations overcame, And therefore students, in their ways of juiging, Weie tain to say their leilons, and declame. Are fain to fw.llow many a lentelers gudgeon, Words are but pictures, true or false dek Amd by their over-indeiicanding lote

To draw the lines and features of the nuit, Jis active taculty with too much ufis;

The characters and artificial draughts, For refon, when to curioudly pris spun, T'express the inward images of thoughts; Is but the next o! all removed from none. And artists say a picture may be gonal, It is Opinion governs all mankind,

Although the moral be not understood; As wise'y as the blind that leads the blind: Whence fome inter they may admire a ftik, For, as thor: furnac: arc efteenid the best Though all the ieft be e'er fo mean and F. That fignity in all hings lleihe least,

Applaud th' outfides of words, but neser So men pats fairelt in the world's opinion, With what fantastic tawdry they are lin's That have the least of truth and reason in them, So orators, enchanted with the twang Truth would into the world, i! it poffeít Os their own trillos, cake delight to harass The meaneit of its right and ia:ciet;

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