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"Where are you going?' says the millder to the malder." The meaning of the two words in italics is enquired for. Surely we need not go far in search of it: they must mean the miller and the malter (maltster). F. C. H. NATTER (3rd S. v. 125.) - Natter is the German for an adder; but why a species of toad should be called natter-jack is by no means clear. The Bufo calamita is called natter-jack, and there is a species nearly resembling this, called the Running Toad. They are usually confounded together, but from having kept several of the latter as pets, I am well acquainted with the distinctions between it and the natter-jack. For the present purpose these are immaterial; as both sorts walk and run, but never hop or jump, as the common toad does occasionally, though it usually crawls. Yet the movement of these toads in no way resembles the wriggling motion of the adder, and they have legs, while the adder has none. Nor can the name natter have been given from any resemblance to the adder in colour, for this is less like in them than in the common toad. I own I am at a loss to account satisfactorily for the name natter-jack. F. C. H.

LINES ATTRIBUTED TO KEMBLE (3rd S. v. 119.) I remember an amusing caricature by Rowlandson, which came out more than fifty years ago, representing the complainant, with one eye bound up, and one arm in a sling, addressing a very repulsive looking woman in the lines alluded to; but as I remember them, they ran thus:

"O why will you still so insensible prove?
Why deaf to my vows and my prayers?
Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love,
But why did you kick me down stairs?"
F. C. H.

ORDER OF THE COCKLE IN FRANCE (3rd S. v. 117.)-I imagine that the French order of knighthood, of which the Earl of Arran (Regent of Scotland during the minority of James V.), was a member was that of St. Michael. The collar of

this order was composed of escallop shells (coquilles), connected by golden knots; its badge was St. Michael beating down the dragon.

The Order of the Ship, otherwise known by the name of the Order of the Double Crescents, became extinct in France a short time after its institution by St. Louis; but in Naples and Sicily it appears to have flourished under the House of Anjou for about three centuries. It was instituted by St. Louis in 1269, as an inducement to his nobles to engage in the unfortunate expedition to Africa. Clark (Orders of Knighthood, vol. i. p. 255), adds that it was also intended to induce the nobility to assist the king in for

warding the works at his newly-built maritime town of Aiques-Mortes in the Pyrenees. J. WOODWARD.

BAPTISMAL NAMES (3rd S. v. 22.) In the case of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, the second name is a surname, and not an abbreviation of Richard. In the family of the Needhams, Earls of Kilmorey, Jack is a very usual Christian name. J. WOODWARD.

THE SYDNEY POSTAGE STAMP (3rd S. iv. 384.) You cursorily notice this earliest of Australian stamps by explaining to a Bristol querist the exact motto, "Sic fortis Etruria crevit." It is said to be a quotation from a Latin poet. If so, I should be glad to know where it is to be found.* Having made a fine collection of foreign and colonial postage stamps, I have been lucky enough to secure an almost new specimen of this generally dirty stamp. The landscape, motto, and legend are quite perfect; the former is said (I believe on the authority of the present local postmaster) to be a view of Sydney, but on comparing it with the various engravings of that town in Collins's Account of New South Wales, 4to, 1798, there is not the slightest resemblance between the two. I am aware that is only within the last ten years or thereabouts that our Australian colonies have used postage labels, but as the legend states that it represents the great seal of the colony, it would be interesting to ascertain when this thriving settlement first felt of sufficient importance to adopt a national seal, and why these rough sons of enterprise recurred to classic Latium for a motto, who probably knew no language but their own.


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2, Devonshire Grove, Old Kent Road, S. E.

JOHN FREDERICK LAMPE (3rd S. v. 92.)-MR. HUSK has raised an interesting question relative to this able musician, and, on the strength of his having so done, I could wish to add certain queries respecting Mr. Lampe's opera of Amelia, and Of the two works its extraordinary scarcity. mentioned by MR. HUSK, the Dragon of Wantley, and Pyramus and Thisbe, the first may be said to be very common, and the second, at least accessible. It is in both the British Museum Library and that of the Sacred Harmonic Society, and also occasionally occurs in Catalogues of Music. On the other hand, the opera of Amelia (granting that it has been printed) is not to be found in any [* See Virgil, Georg. ii. 533.]

library or Collection that I know of, and I never saw it entered in any Catalogue. The only trace of its existence that I can find, is in the Sale Catalogue of Mr. Bartleman, the eminent singer, who had the opera in MS. My queries are, can anyone say where a printed copy of the music in Amelia is to be found, and is it known what became of Mr. Bartleman's MS. of the opera ? ALFRED ROFFE.

The son of this gentleman was Charles J. F. Lampe, organist of Allhallows Barking, from 1758 to 1769. Was not Mr. Lampe, senr., son-in-law to Mr. Charles Young, referred to in "N. & Q." (3rd S. iv. 417), who was the younger Lampe's predecessor in this office?


You will find a notice of J. F. Lampe's death in the Gent. Mag. for 1751, p. 380.



am not an Essex man, I have never heard the addition to "Every dog has his day" of "and a cat has two Sundays; " but I presume it refers to the common saying that "A cat has nine lives," which, interpreting a life to be a day, might carry the cat's existence over two Sundays.

I have heard another addition to the common proverb, "Every dog has his day," of "but the dog-days do not last all the year; -a serious consideration for the puppy!


PRIVATE SOLDIER (3rd S. v. 144.)-EBORACUM must allow me to correct him. The word in question is fully recognised by military authority, as well as by Act of Parliament. In the Mutiny Act (1862), for example, at par. 39, p. 86, occurs "Reduction to . . . the rank of a private soldier," &c. In the Articles of War (1862), par. 130, p. 61,"rank of private soldier," &c.

In Endle's edition of D'Aguilar's Practice of Courts Martial, 1858, p. 134, " private soldiers,' &c. War Office Regulations (1848, latest edition), p. 122, "sergeants, corporals, drummers,

and privates."

I have taken these instances at random, and have not even opened the Queen's Regulations, or the Field Exercises, where the style of private is constantly repeated. Moreover, a N. C. officer is reduced to the "rank and pay of a private sentinel."


Your correspondent puts the query soldiers call the dark clothes of civilians, in contradistinction to their own red, "coloured clothes?" They call them "plain clothes" and "mufti," but never to my knowledge "coloured clothes;" and in saying so I am certain that I shall be borne out by all who have mixed with soldiers. SL.

Whatever may be the origin of the term private, it is certainly now recognised. In Sir G. D'Agui

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AN EARLY STAMFORD SEAL (3rd S. v. 113.)— The matrix of the seal alluded to was exhibited at Peterborough when the members of the Archeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland held their annual congress there. It is of the time of Edward III., and is a beautiful specimen of art-work of the period, every detail having been exquisitely wrought. An impression of it, produced in gutta percha by Mr. Robt. Ready, of the British Museum, is in my possession. There is no example of it in the archives of the Stamford Corporation, none of the records in the possession of that body being earlier, I understand, than the In Peck's Antiquarian reign of Edward IV. Annals of Stamford there is an engraving of this seal the side not described above exhibits the arms of the town - Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or, impaling chequy or and azure. The following letter-press accompanies it :-"The arms of the town or borough of Stamford as anciently carved upon the south and north gates of

the town, from a book in the Heralds' Office touching the visitation of Lincolnshire. Anno 1634." STAMFORDIENSIS.

EPITAPH ON THE EARL OF LEICESTER (3rd S. v. 109.)-The accompanying quotation from the final note to Sir Walter Scott's Kenilworth (Abbotsford edit., vol. vi. p. 312), answers MR. J. PAYNE COLLIER'S query: :

"The following satirical epitaph occurs in Drummond's Collection, but is evidently not of his composition:

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branch, is induced to commit to the press the results of his inquiries, and the fruits of his persistent studies. British archeologists will henceforward be deeply indebted to Mr. Evans for this valuable summary of all that is known, all that has hitherto been discovered upon the subject of the coinage of the ancient Britons. Mr. Evans's thorough familiarity with this interesting division of numismatics is well known; and how much of gross error and absurd theory exist upon the subject, and how widely scattered are the known facts, may readily be ascertained from the introductory chapter, in which Mr. Evans reviews all that has, up to this time, been published respecting ancient British coins, from glorious old Camden to the late worthy Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries, John Yonge Akerman. The book is the work of an intelligent, pains-taking, and eminently careful and sensible antiquary; and, great as its value is on that account, that value is immensely increased by the beauty and scrupulous accuracy of Mr. Fairholt's engravings of the coins, to which Mr. Evans-himself the best judge— bears the highest testimony.

Autobiography of Thomas Wright, of Birkenshaw, in the County of York, 1736-1797. Edited by his Grandson, Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A. (J. Russell Smith.)

The present little volume is well and fairly described by its editor as furnishing "a curious and striking picture-one perhaps almost unique-of domestic life among a very important class of English society during the latter half of the last century in what has since become one of the greatest and most active manufacturing districts in our island." The book indeed gives something more than this. It shows the state of the class of society just alluded to, under the influence of the strong religious movement then rising up through the length and breadth of the land, and the controversies which raged between the Calvinistic and Armenian sections of the dissenting communities. While, scattered among the writer's account of his own life and that of his family, there will be found many curious and interesting anecdotes. We think Mr. Thomas Wright has done wisely in giving the book to the world.

Ten Months in the Fiji Islands, by Mrs. Smythe; with an Introduction and Appendix by Col. W. J. Smythe, R.A., late H.M. Commissioner to Fiji. (Oxford and London: Parker.)

Quite a book for a drawing-room table. The subject is terra incognita except to those versed in Wesleyan missions, and it is sketched by Mrs. Smythe in the most lively and agreeable manner. Col. Smythe adds his appropriate quota of solid matter. A sympathising narrative of Bishop Patteson's Melanesian mission is thrown into an appendix; and the whole is brightened up by views of Fiji scenery in chromo-lithograph.


SWIFT'S POEMS. Aldine Edition. Vols. I. and II.

*** Letters stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to MR. W. G. SMITH, Publisher of "NOTES & QUERIES," 2, Wellington Street, Strand, W.C.

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Book to be sent direct to the gentleman by whom it is required, whose name and address are given for that purpose:

NELSON'S CHAPLAIN. London, 1812.

Wanted by Dr. Fisher, 5, Appian Way, Upper Leeson Street,

Notices to Correspondents.

Among many other articles of interest, which are in type, and waiting for insertion, are - Charles Fox and Mrs. Grieve, Lord Ruthven, Gowrie Family, Folk Lore in the South of Ireland, Parish Registers, Norfolk Folk Lore, Proper Definition of Team, Modern Folk Ballads, &c.

SHAKSPEARE. We shall shortly

"N. & Q.," a large collection of Paplis, in a special Number of illustrative of the Life and Writings of Shakspeare. GRORGE LLOYD will find "A chiel's amang you taking notes," in Burns's" Lines on Captain Grose."

AUTOGRAPHS. Our Dublin Correspondent would probably best dispose of the autographs she describes, by consulting Mr. Waller of Fleet Street, or some other respectable dealer in autographs.

TIB'S EVE, OR ST. Tin's EVE, probably a corruption of St. Ube's Eve, or St. Theobald's Eve, see" N. & Q." 2nd S. xi. 269.

GREEK VERSIONS OF GRAY'S ELEGY. Nestor will find all the information he is in search of in the First Series of "N. & Q." i. 108, 138, &c. A. For the origin of Monts de Piété see "N. & Q" 1st S. iii. 372, 524. B. H. C. The Book of Common Prayer with the imprint of P. Didot, Sen. 12mo, 1791, is clearly from the Parisian press, as the small capital к is used for what is technically called the lower case k, which we have never met with in any English printed book. Our Correspondent will also observe, that the only Occasional Office reprinted in this edition is that of "The Form of Solemnization of Matrimony."

MARK ANTONY LOWER. Some particulars of the Rev. James Bramston, author of The Art of Politics, are in type, and will appear in our next number.

ERRATUM.-3rd 8. v. p. 163, col. ii. line 10 from bottom, for “386" read" 261."

*** Cases for binding the volumes of "N. & Q.” may be had of the Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for Six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 118. 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order, payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of WILLIAM G. SMITH, 32, WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND, W.C., to whom all CoMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed.

"NOTES & QUERIES" is registered for transmission abroad.


The original invention, established 1821, for marking CRESTS, NAMES, INITIALS, upon household linen, wearing apparel, &c.. N.B.-Owing to the great repute in which this Ink is held by families, outfitters, &c., inferior imitations are often sold to the public, which do not possess any of its celebrated qualities. Purchasers should therefore be careful to observe the address on the label, 10, BISHOPSGATESTREET WITHIN, E.C., without which the Ink is not genuine. Sold by all respectable chemists, stationers, &c., in the United Kingdom, price 1s. per bottle: no 6d. size ever made.

NOTICE.REMOVED from 28, Long Lane (where it has been established nearly half a century), to




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CONTENTS. -No. 114.

NOTES:-The Proper Definition of "Team," 187-Relationship of the Prince and Princess of Wales, 188- Ruthven, Earl of Ford and Brentford, Ib.- A Divine Meditation on Death, 189- Absolute Monarchy of Denmark, Ib. Bibliography of Heraldry and Genealogy - Hanging and Transportation - Sir John Coventry, K.B.-- Mounds of Human Remains - Records of Epitaphs-"Cui Bono?" --Old Painting at Easter Fowlis, 190. QUERIES:-Henry Crabtree - Forfeited Estates "He digged a Pit"-Judicial Committee of the Privy Council Leading Apes in Hell - Mozarabic Liturgy - Paget and Milton's Third Wife- Passage in "Tom Jones"-Private Prayers for the Laity-Quakers' Yards-Rundale Tenure -Simon and the Dauphin The Sound of the Grass growing," &c. Wadham - Taffy, Paddy, and Sandy Islands-"Wit without Money Wolfe, Gardener to Henry VIII. William Wood-Thomas Yorke, 192. QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Sir Thomas Scott- Sortes - Bishop Virgiliana Greek Epigram - Blair's "Grave Richard Barnes Map of Roman Britain "The Howlat" Baal Worship "Nullum tetigit quod non ornavit" - Gormogon Medal, 195. REPLIES:- Hindu Gods, 197-Characters in the "Rol


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liad," 198-Alleged Plagiarism, Ib. - Monkish Enigma, 199 Italics-Sir Robert Vernon -Sir Walter Raleigh Fashionable Quarters of London - Balloons: their Dimensions Irenæus Quoted - Quotation - Revalenta Arabica -Cardinal Beton and Archbishop Gawin Dunbar - Sir Christopher Copley - Esquire - Elkanah - Beech Trees never struck by Lightning - Descendants of Fitz-James-Dr. George Oliver-The Iron Mask On Wit Retreat - Primula, &c., 200. Notes on Books, &c.

Edward May


THE PROPER DEFINITION OF "TEAM." On Thursday, Feb. 11, the learned Judges of the Court of Queen's Bench were engaged in a subtle inquiry into the meaning of this word, the determination of which involved serious consequences. A lessee of the Duke of Marlborough was required by the terms of his lease, to perform each year one day's team work with two horses and one proper person, when required."

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The tenant refused to send a cart to carry coals when required, though he offered to send the horses and man, and thereupon issue was joined. The case was tried at the Oxford Assizes, and a verdict found for the Duke; but the point was reserved, and came on for decision before the Judges sitting in Banco.

The question was argued very ingeniously by the counsel on both sides, and illustrated by quotations from various sources. On behalf of the Duke, a passage in Cæsar, De Bell. Gall. iv. 33, was quoted, of the ancient Britons leaping from their war-chariots, "percurrere per temonem."

As the temo here mentioned undoubtedly signifies the beam or pole to which the horses were harnessed, the quotation proves too much, if it proves anything, as it would imply that the team meant the carriage without the horses. On the same side, the line in Gray's Elegy ·

"How jocund did they drive their team a field,"

was held to imply both horses and cart. This is certainly not tenable, as the poet's reference would be quite as appropriate to horses or oxen going to plough, as to a cart or waggon.

On the part of the defendant, the illustrations were much more numerous and pertinent, derived from Dryden, Roscommon, Spenser, and Shakespeare, showing that the term was usually applied to the animals drawing rather than to the carriage drawn.

Ultimately this reasoning prevailed, and the Court decided by a majority, Mr. Justice Mellor dissenting, that the tenant had fulfilled his contract in tendering horses and man without the


Several of the authorities referred to present some curious points of interest connected with the history of our language.

Those who have occupied themselves with philological inquiries are aware that one great cause of confusion and misunderstanding is the fact that words originating from diverse sources, owing to the unsettled condition of orthography in former times, are frequently mixed up and mistaken for' each other. So it has been in the present case.

For instance (I quote from the report in The Times):

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"The learned Counsel cited Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Team; issue, offspring, progeny, a succession of children; anything following in a line.'

"Mr. Justice Crompton: Surely the word there must be spelt teem?' (Laughter.)

"The learned Counsel cited Richardson's Dictionary. Team; a team or yoke of working cattle'; adding, 'Somner applies it to a litter of pigs.' (Laughter.)

"Mr. Justice Crompton: What, is the word applied to a string of little pigs?' (Great laughter.)

"The learned Counsel observed that it was even applied to a line of ducks; in fact to a line of any sort of


Now here are two words of entirely different origin and signification, owing to the carelessness of our lexicographers, classed together as one, and leading to uncertainty and obscurity as to the meaning of either or both. The A.-S. substantives tema, tem, team, tyme, ge-tem, and the verbs teman, temian, teaman, tyman, ge-temian, ge-teman, are employed interchangeably to represent very different ideas. Let us endeavour to unravel the mystery.

The Gothic verb tamjan and its primitive, timan, are identical with the A.-S. tamian, Eng. tame. Along with the Gr. daude, and Latin dom-o, they are derived from Sansk. dam, to set in order, regulate, and applied to animals, to tame. In the concrete sense, as tema, it was applied to the trained cattle yoked together, in the same way that in German and Dutch a team is called a spann, from spannen, to harness, and in English a yoke" of oxen is spoken of. The first instance of the use of the word which I have met with is in Archbishop Alfric's vocabulary, of the tenth century, where


Lat. jugalis is translated by ioc-tema, where it has precisely the meaning of the modern "team." In Piers Ploughman's Vision we read "Grace gaf Piers a teeme Of foure grete oxen." And so the term has continued to be employed down to the present time.

The other application of the word to a litter of pigs, issue, offspring, a succession of children, &c., is really derived from the verb teem, which is descended from the Norse töma, originally to pour out, empty, and metaphorically, to bring forth; then applied in the concrete to what is brought

forth. The A.-S. form of teem is written indifferently tyman, teman, &c., and is naturally confounded with the derivatives from tamian, with which it has no connection. On the Wear and Tyne, the teem of coals signifies the quantity shipped, the coals being teemed, or poured into

the hold of the vessel. The word is most in use in those parts of the country where the Danish

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I inclose a table showing the fourfold relationship between the Prince and Princess of Wales through the House of Saxe Coburg. Cavan,

1. Fras. Josias, Duke of Saxe-Anne Sophia, of Schwartzb.
Coburg, ob. 1764.
Rudolstadt., ob. 1778.

2. Ernest Fredk., Duke of Sophia Antoinette, of Saxe Coburg, ob. 1800.


2. Charlotte Sophia Louis, Prince of Mecklenburg ob. 1810. Schwerin, ob. 1778.

Brunswick, ob. 1802.

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RUTHVEN, EARL OF FORD AND BRENTFORD. In the preceding series of "N. & Q." there occurs an article relative to Patrick Ruthven, the friend of Gustavus Adolphus, who recommended him in the most urgent manner possible to Charles I. (2nd S. ii. 100). It may not be out of place to say a few words relative to the ancestors of this person, who subsequently distinguished himself as a warrior in Britain, and fully justified the encomiums bestowed upon him by the Lion of the North.

The friend of Gustavus was not descended from the Earls of Gowrie. He was a male descendant of William Ruthven of Ballindene, a younger son of

the first Lord. Ruthven; and upon his return to the land of his forefathers, Charles at once took him into his favour, and made him, in 1639, a Scotch Baron, by the title of Lord Ruthven of Ettrick, and conferred upon him the governorship of Edinburgh Castle. Subsequently, he was elevated to an earldom in Scotland by the title of Earl of Forth, March 27, 1642, with limitation to the heirs male of his body; and in 1644 (July 26), he obtained the English earldom of Brentford, with a similar remainder. He died at Dundee in January, 1651, when his earldom became extinct for want of heir male of his body. The Ettrick peerage may exist, as he left three daughters:

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