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258

1. Life and Letters of Thomas Henry Iluxley. By his

son, Leonard Huxley. Two Vols. London: Macmil-

lan, 1900.

2. Leaders in Science: Thomas Henry Huxley-A Sketch

of his Life and Work. By P. Chalmers Mitchell, M.A.

New York and London : G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1900,

Aud other works,

ART. XII.--THE NICARAGUAN CANAL

. 279

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Art. I.-BRITISH AGRICULTURE IN THE NINETEENTH

CENTURY

199

1. Reports of the first Board of Agriculture,

London:
1794-1815.
2. The Farmer's Magazine. Edinburgh : 1800, 1801.
3. Transactions of the Highland and Agricultural Society
of Scotland. Second and subsequent series. Edinburgh:
1828-1900,
4. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England.

London : 1839-1899.
5. English Agriculture in 1850-51. By James Caird. Lon-

don: Longmans, 1852.
6. History of the Highland and Agricultural Society of
Scotland. By Alexander Ramsay. Edinburgh and
London: Blackwood, 1879.
7. Pioneers and Progress of English Farming. By R. E.

Prothero. London: Longmans, 1888.
8. Wages in the United Kingdom in the Nineteenth
Century. By Arthur L. Bowley, M.A., F.S.S. Cambridge:
University Press, 1900.
9. Earnings of Agricultural Labourers. Report to the
Labour Department of the Board of Trade. By Wilson
Fox, 1900. (C. 346.)

ARTICLE I.
The distinguishing characteristic of the nineteenth century
in relation to agriculture is that it was the first century
in which science, to any considerable extent, was applied
to practice. It would be too much to say that science was
not applied at all in an earlier period, because, to a small
extent, the sciences of mechanics, physiology, and botany
had long contributed information respectively to inventors
Vol. 193.-No. 385.

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of agricultural implements and machines, to growers of crops, and to breeders and feeders of live stock. The schoolmaster had not been abroad, however, among the rank and file of farmers; and the application of scientific teaching had remained in a rudimentary condition. Moreover, chemistry, which in recent times has done more than any other science for agriculture, was practically unconnected with that art until the nineteenth century came in.

Sir Humphry Davy, the father of English agricultural chemistry, did not publish his Elements of that division of science until 1813; while Boussingault, the father of agricultural chemistry in France, was not born until 1802; and Liebig came into the world a year later.

In the details of practice alone, it hardly requires to be said, great improvement has taken place during the last century; but, except so far as this is the result of the alliance of science with the art of agriculture, it is more remarkable for the general application of the best methods of farming, adopted by only the few a hundred years ago, than for any very striking innovations. The truth of this statement will be obvious to anyone who glances through the agricultural works published towards the end of the eighteenth century. So strikingly true is it, indeed, that a reader acquainted with all branches of agricultural practice, if he consulted the books in question now for the first time, would be tempted to declare, .There is nothing new under the sun.'

To find illustrations in support of this remark, so far as England is concerned, it is necessary only to turn to such works as Arthur Young's ‘Tours,' or the County Surveys' of the first Board of Agriculture; and, for Scotland, to Lord Kames's 'Gentleman Farmer,' the County Reports from Scotland to the Board, or the early volumes of the Edinburgh ‘Farmer's Magazine.'

Beginning with the tillage and cropping of land, it is to be noticed that, on enclosed farms, the courses of cropping, in all their variation, were nearly the same as they are now, except that wheat and beans occupied places in the rotation more generally than at present, while root crops were common in only a few English counties, and were still less widely grown in Scotland. Long before the end of the eighteenth century, Jethro Tull had introduced the

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