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practicable, the Legislature is required to abolish; and tho office of Master in Chancery being prohibited, the duties devolving upon that officer must be otherwise performed. The Legislature, if deemed expedient,'may provide for the election in each organized county, of one or more persons to be vested with judicial powers, not exceeding those of a Judge of the Circuit Court at chambers.

The jurisdiction of justices of the peace is increased, with exceptions and restrictions to be prescribed by law.

The first election of judges of probate will be on the Tuesday succeeding the first Monday of November, 1852, and every fourth year thereafter.

A law will be required regulating the manner of demanding trial by jury in civil cases, when such trial is not waived under provision of the constitution.

It will be the duty of the Legislature, at its present session, to appor. tion the members of the House of Representatives among the several counties, and to designate the Senate districts, as required by the constitution. It is made the duty of the board of supervisors to divide into representative districts the several counties entitled to more than one Representative, and the Legislature must prescribe the time and piace of performing that duty, and also the manner of canvassing the votes given in each district

The population of the several counties and townships, to be made the basis of the required apportionment, will be communicated to you in the statistical report of the Secretary of State. The Senate must consist of thirty-two members, and the House of Representatives of not less than sixty-four, nor more than one hundred mombers.

After the expiration of the term of the present State Printer, all public printing must be let by contract to the lowest bidder; and all supplies of fuel and stationery furnished in the same manner. An act on this subject will be required, and also some provision in regard to notices published in the State Paper, which is to be abolished.

Cases of vacancy in public offices, and the manner of filling the same, when not provided for in the constitution, may be determined by the Legislature. If the provisions of the new constitution in regard to filling vacancies be construed to apply only to offices, of which the incumbents were elected or appointed since its adoption, then further legislation will be required under which may be filled vacancies occurring in any of the offices held by the present stalo officers and judges of the sup

me court Existing provisions of law in regard to elections will require modification. The oath to be administered to electors in case of chal. lenge must be made to conform to the new constitution; general elections are to be held biennially and the time is changed. The commissioner of the State land office is to be added to the number of State officers to be elected. A district judge and a district attorney are to be elected in the Upper Peninsula on the last Tuesday of September; and county officers, Slate Senators and Representatives in that district are also to be elected at the same time. The place for holding the district canvass must be designated by law.

It is made the duty of the Legislature to provide for the payment of all expenditures of the late Convention.

Existing laws on the subject of exemptions will require modification, especially in regard to personal property.

The Legislatore is prohibited from passing any act authorizing the grant of license for the sale of ardent spirits and other intoxicating liquors; and it may be made a question how far such enactments, now upon our statute books, have the force and vitality of law. It is, however, made your duty to adapt the present laws to the provisions of the revised constitution; and a fair interpretation of that instrument would seem to require the abolishment of the license system hitherto in force. The repeal of all laws regulating this traffic will leave every individual at liberty to pursue it, as he may deem advisable, without restraint. It will, however, be competent for the Legislature to prohibit it, in whole or in part, by annexing penalties to the violation of any restrictions imposed.

A modification of existing laws, regulating the reports of State officers, will be required. These reports are now made annually to the Legislature; but as that body will henceforth hold biennial sessions, some further provision must be made upon the subject

A law will be required to define the duties of Supervisors of the several counties in regard to daming and bridging navigable streams, an authority Dow conferred upon that class of public officers. The

power conferred on the board of Supervisors for laying out highways, constructing bridges, and organizing townships, should be defined, limited and restricted in such manner as may be best caloulated to promote public good. And such powers of a local legislative, and administrative character, as the Legislature may deem advisable, under the constitution, to confer upon organized townships, incorporaied cities and villages, and upon the board of supervisors, should be 30 certain and definite in their character as to prevent all misconception of their scope and intent, and, at the same time, so analagous to the proper objects to be effected, that, in their exercise, the intended sphere of action may not be exceeded.

Among the duties of your present session will also be that of di. viding the State into congressional districts. The number of the members of the House of Representatives of Congress will be two hundred and thirty-three, to be apportionod among the several States according to their representative population. On the return to his office of the result of the enumeration of the inhabitants of the seve. ral States, the Secretary of the Interior is required to make the apportionment of representatives, and, without delay, transmit to the Executive of each State a certificate, under his seal of office, of the number of members apportioned to such State. I have not yet received this certificate, and consequently can not communicate to you the number of representatives to which this State will be entitled. It may reasonably be expected within a short time, and when received will be immediately transmitted. Should, however, tion be delayed, it may be advisable, before your adjournment, to take such action upon the subject as will enable the people to elect representatives to Congress at the general election in 1852. Knowing the number of the population of our own State, and that of most of the other States, it will

, I think, be safe to assume that the number of representatives to be assigned to Michigan, under the law of Congress named, will in all probability he four, and certainly can not ex. ceed five. The State, then, may be divided into four districts, as the probable number of representatives, and, if deemed expedient, provision may be conditionally made at the same time, for five districts, in case that number be required, of which notice may be given by executive proclamation, or in some sther appropriate manner.

The term of one of our Senators in Congress expiring on the third day of March next, it will devolve on the present Legislature, within ten days after the commencement of its session, to elect a successor.

Corporations, except for municipal purposes, can only be established under general laws. A law authorizing the establishment of banks must, before it tahes effect, be submitted to the electors of the Stata at a general election, and approved by a majority of the votes given upon the question of its approval.

The limitations and restrictions imposed upon corporations, so to be formed, are particularly designated in the constitution, and need not be here repeated. It is, however, competent for you to superadd such other limitations and restrictions as you may deem advisable, not inconsistent with those enumerated in that instrument.

Associations of individuals with corporate powers, in many cases, possess advantages that materially aid in the prosecution of some legitimate enterprize, which, without such powers, could not be underlaken with prospect of success.

The most material advautage conferred by an act of incorporation is, that the business of an association, under its provisions, is in no way affected by the death of one or more of the corporators, but may be continued by the survivors and heirs of the deceased without prejudice or delay.

Some enterprises, such as the construction of lines of Railroads and plank roads would hardly be undertaken or prosecuted with success but under corporate powers; and 10 associations for such purpose we may give more extensive privileges than to those formed for less hazardous and less extensive undertakings.

By a vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each house, acly of incorporation heretofore granted may be altered or amended; but a previous notice of any application for such alteration must have been given in a manner prescribed by law. As no law now exists applicable to the case, it will be the duty of the Legislature to make the necessary provision.

Under the new constitution, banks will be divested of the obnoxious features of monopoly, which have constituted one main objection to their existence. The security of State or United States stocks, bear.

ing interest, to be hereafter deposited with the State Treasurer, constitutes perhaps a sufficient guarantee at present for the redemption, of their notes issued as money; and if no other or further view was to be taken of the subject, banks and paper money might now be considered as established upon a sure foundation, and perfection attained in the financial world.

The very existence of State stocks can, however, for the most part, be traced to the evil effects of paper money, to the spirit of over. trading and speculation consequent upon its over issue; and the tax now to be imposed on industry to provide means for their redemption is the penalty we are required to pay for our previous infatuation and folly. If banks, then, in the failure of all other schemes, can have no safe foundation, but in the evidence of public misfor. tunes, traceable to their own pernicious effects, it affords at least pre. sumptive evidence that the evils of the banking system are so far inhe. rent and inseparable, that liule hope can be entertained of results more favorable in future,

A public debt, of which the stocks are but the evidence, is now no longer considered a public good; and the principles of political economy, requiring the early payment of all public indebtedness, are everywhere conceded to be just. In our own State, the members of the late constitutional convention not only made it imperative upon the Legislature to pay off the existing debt of the State, but prohibited it from incurring similar liabilities in future. In other States a like feeling exists, and comparatively but few years will elapse before all public stocks, State and national, will be redeemed.

The restrictions laid upon the establishment of banks, in requi. ring this class of securities for their paper issues, for whatever purpose designed, must, if persisted in, result in their entire extermina. tion at a period not remote. With the lapse of every year the amount of stocks outstanding will be diminished, and the number and capital

of banks, for want of the required securities, must likewise dimin.. · ish, until, with the redemption of the public debt, the entire system of banking, with all its ramifications, ceases to exist,

This result is inevitable, and I have no doubt that the advocates of paper money so understand it. The plan of furnishing public stock, securities was adopted by bankers as a measure necessary to satisfy

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