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ALCOCK's Capital of the Tycoon 309 DICKSON's Illustration of Bookkeeping PIETROWSKI's Story of a Siberian Exile 315 Alpine Journal, No. I. 313 by Single Entry....
325 ROBERTSON's Secret Mission to the BAILEY's Letters on the Philosophy of HOWITT's History of the Supernatural.. 318 Danish Islands
817 the Human Mind, THIED SERIES.... 322 HUGHES's Geography of British History 824 Senior's Biographical Sketches
316 BOOTH's Epigrams 322 FOL KARD's Sailing Boat 326 SMITH's Cassiterides
323 BROMFIELD'S Lower Brittany and the KENNEDY'S Hymnologia Christiana.... 319 THORNTON's Land-Surveying and LevelBible 323 KIRKUS's Critical and Theological Essays 321 ling.....
825 BURKK'S Vicissitudes of Families, THIRD Lawrence Struilby
823 TYNDALL's Lectures on Heat
316' M'LEOD's Second Standard' of Arith- VILLARI's History of SAVONAROLA ...... 815 COLENSO (Bishop) on the Pentateuch and
325 WATSON's Life of Bishop WARBURTON .. 316 Book of Joshua, Part II. ..
811 MACNAUGHT's Christianity and its Evi- WATTS's Dictionary of Chemistry, PART I, 321 D'AUBIGNE's History of the Reformation
319 WELLBELOVED, SMITH, and Porter's in Europe in the Time of CALVIN, MAY's Constitutional History of England, Revised Translation of the Scriptures $18 Vols. I. and II..... 310 VOLUME the SECOND
313 WILKINS's Elementary Latin Prose ExDick's Mathematical Geography........ 324 MORTON's Agricultural Memoir of H.R.H. ercises
326 the PRINCE CONSORT's Farms
The Capital of the Tycoon : A Narrative of a
Three Years' Residence in Japan. RUTHERFORD ALCOCK, K.C.B., Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in Japan. Pp. 1,052; with 2 coloured Maps, 16 Illustrations in Chromolithography, and 126 Engravings on Wood. 2 vols. 8vo. price 42s. cloth.
[February 12, 1863. N drawing up this narrative of a three years'
residence in Yeddo, as Her Majesty's Representative, the author has had in view two special objects-the one, to give the results of a careful study of the singular people among whom his lot was cast, and so to supply a great deficiency from personal observations and ginal sources; the other, to throw some light on the conditions imposed on Western Diplomacy in an Eastern field. All attempts to meet the first want have hitherto
resolved themselves either into compilations from the old writers (chiefly Kæmpfer and Thunberg), who, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, were attached to the Dutch Factory at Nagasaki; or the reproduction of such superficial impressions as a hasty visit of a few days or weeks to one or more of the ports opened to trade could supply. In treating of Western Diplomacy in the East, the author enters on entirely new ground. As a resident Minister, he has had opportunities, not enjoyed by any previous writers, of studying the practical working of the whole Government machinery and their policy, in connexion with the institutions of the country. He believes, therefore, that his narrative of all the trials and difficulties which beset him as a Diplomatic Agent in the East, in a wholly new field, is likely to throw great light on a problem which, of all others in connexion with our Foreign Relations, has most engrossed the public attention of late years—namely, the essential conditions of great number of illustrations from the pencil of all Western Diplomacy in the East, the ne- the Special Artist of one of the London pecessities and exigencies which govern our action, riodicals, who accompanied the Minister on his last and the limits within which we may reasonably journey overland, and sketches by the Author. look for success in our efforts to amalgamate two As these were all studies from nature, they conflicting civilisations.
have a peculiar value. There are, in addition, With the details of his daily life, and the leading two maps taken from native_sources—one, of events which marked the first three years of a all the islands comprising the Empire of Japan, permanent Mission in Japan, the author has in with the names and situation of all the Capitals terspersed illustrations of the life, manners, and and Fortresses and the principal Daimios customs of the Japanese;—from the Feudal Princes, information never before obtained, and which Daimios and Samourai, to the humble and peace- may at no distant date become of great loving peasant, with all of whom he came conti- value; and another, of Osaca, the great comnually in contact, and often under very unlooked- mercial emporium of Japan - the Venice of for and striking circumstances. No traveller, the East - with its rivers and canals, its 300 probably, since the first exclusion of foreigners, bridges, its Daimios' palaces, and its thriving has seen so much of the life and social state of the commerce. The work itself was composed from Japanese, and the relations between the different notes and fragments of a Journal, which were classes, as was revealed to the author in his first reduced to their present form partly to beguile journey in the interior, for the ascent of the the anxious time that had necessarily to elapse sacred mountain of Fusiyama; and in his second between the attempted massacre of the whole expedition from the southernmost port of Na- Legation in July 1861 and the receipt of specific gasaki, across Kiusu, and through great part of instructions from home, as to the course of action Nipon to Yeddo.
to be adopted. In presenting to the public, as While in these journeys and in his daily inter- the fruit of this labour, the narrative of a course with rulers and subjects, the author residence full of exciting incidents and anxious obtained the materials for a new and original responsibilities, the author has endeavoured to work on Japan, he trusts that his steady pur- meet satisfactorily & want, very generally felt, pose of relating nothing but what he has himself of fuller and more authentic information on the seen, or had the means of verifying, has imparted present state of Japan, than it has hitherto been value as well as interest to his narrative. But possible to attain. the time has not yet arrived when it can be pos, sible for any foreigner to produce a complete and
History of the Reformation in Europe in exhaustive work on a country still jealously secluded from all scrutiny, except such as Diplo
the Time of Calvin. By J. H. MERLE matic Agents can make in the practical discharge of
D'AUBIGNÉ. Vols. I. and II. 8vo. pp. 1,266, their duties, or during occasional journeys through price 28s, cloth. [March 9, 1863. the interior. He believes, however, that the work is IN this work, which is to some extent i con, tion of the character of the people, their daily the Sixteenth Century, the Author describes the life, manners, and customs, and as giving many course of events, both civil and religious, which curious glimpses of the working of their prepared the way for the great Christian revival laws, their system of government, and peculiar which bears the name of Calvin. Geneva is the policy—the value of which can scarcely be over- centre of this new phase of the Reformation, as estimated. He has sought, especially, to lay bare Wittemberg had been to that of Luther. As the inherent difficulties under which all relations an episcopal principality, the city of the Leman with the far East must be maintained, if main- had to contend against the tyranny of its bishops tained at all; and the risks to be encoun- and the ambitious designs of the Dukes of Savoy. tered in all efforts to open new markets for The various changes, the hairbreadth escapes, and our commerce in these regions. In his effort the singular deliverances which Geneva went to enlighten the public, and remove erroneous through during the first half of the 16th century, impressions as to the actual dangers of col- are recounted at some length, and prove how lision, which all intercourse between the East strictly conservative were the proceedings of the and the West must of necessity entail (whatever Huguenots, who, like the founders of English may be the desire for peace on the part of freedom, are found constantly referring to old European Governments or their Agents), the charters, immunities, and franchises. Among the writer has addressed himself to a subject on chief victims of episcopal or ducal tyranny were which reliable information was much needed. Berthelier and Levrier, who were foully mur
The value of the work is further enhanced by a dered, and Bonivard, whose long imprisonment
in the Castle of Chillon has been described by one of the greatest of our modern poets. The influence of this learned and witty churchman upon the Genevese Reformation is not unlike that exerted by Erasmus in Germany and France. During the period comprised in these two volumes, Geneva had to contend with enemies within as well as without. By the flight of the canons, and afterwards of the bishop-prince, the city was, to some extent, liberated from the first; but it was not so fortunate with the latter. Pontverre, a determined partisan of Rome and the bishop, and one of the most distinguished gentlemen of Savoy, perished ignobly in a street quarrel. In proportion as the city regained its rights, the citizens became impatient of the disorderly lives of the clergy, who, by resisting all reform within the Church, brought about their own downfall. Much light has been thrown upon this portion of history, and the manners and customs of the people, by documents recently discovered in the archives of Geneva and Berne, some of which are here for the first time made known.
The second portion of these two volumes (forming one out of the three books into which the work is divided) is devoted to a history of the Reformation in France between 1525 and 1536. This includes the early portion of Calvin's career, and contains several new facts in the biography of that great man. The author shows, from original documents, that the popular estimate of the Genevese reformer is a mistaken one; and that he was not the cold theologian he is generally represented, but a man of warm heart, kindly feelings, estimable personal character, and ardent in his attachment to his friends. Among the curious documents concerning him now first brought to light, is the address (written by him, but delivered by the Rector of the University of Paris, in 1533,) which compelled both of them to fly from France. The history of Calvin's conversion, of which very little was known, is here traced minutely from year to year. Beginning with the time when he was studying for the priesthood in the College of Montaigu, we see him at first opposing the Reformers, then slowly and unwillingly opening his mind to the truth, leaving the Church for the Law, and struggling against his more advanced friends, who desired him to enter upon the duties of the evangelical ministry, until at last he attracts the attention of Queen Margaret, and becomes the most prominent among the enemies of the Church of Rome.
Simultaneously with this religious movement, & great but unsuccessful political movement was going on. Francis I., on his return from Spain, influenced by his sister and the Du Bellays, saw that an alliance with the Protestant princes of Germany afforded him the most effectual means
of humbling his great rival, Charles V. Although he had just given his son in marriage to the Pope's niece, he entered into diplomatic relations with Philip of Hesse, helped him in restoring Wurtemberg to its native princes, thus separating that duchy from Rome, and consulted the German divines on the best means of promoting religious union. The memoirs furnished by Melanchthon, Bucer, and Hedio were the groundwork of a Confession of Faith, nearly approaching to that of Augsburg, which he submitted to the Sorbonne, and which shows that Francis I. was at one time eager to follow the example of his friend Henry VIII. In this he was strongly influenced by Queen Margaret of Navarre, the friend and protector of the Reformers. The sincere piety of that illustrious lady, whose character has been much misrepresented, is proved by ex, tracts from her letters and poems; and her zeal to promote a purer religion is shown by her attempts to throw open the churches of Paris to the preaching of the Gospel.
The Author believes that on all these points, and on several collateral topics of enduring historical interest (among others, the negotiations between Francis and Clement VII. previous to the marriage of Catherine de Medici with the heir to the French crown), he has been enabled to gather much information not hitherto accessible to the public.
The Pentateuch and Book of Joshua criti
cally examined. By the Right Rev. JOHN William COLENSO, D.D., Bishop of Natal. Part II. The Age and Authorship of the Pentateuch considered. 8vo. pp. 264, price
78. 6d. cloth. [February 3, 1863. THE following analysis may be considered to
embody the view taken by Bishop Colenso of the method in which the Pentateuch was composed, and of the Authorship of its several parts.
The discovery of contradictions pervading the Pentateuch must lead to an examination of the alleged unity of authorship for the so-called Mosaic records. As long as this unity was taken for granted, it was possible to offer explanations of some at least among the many difficulties in. volved in the history of the Exodus. But all such attempts to explain away and reconcile contradictions become useless if the composite character of that history is once distinctly recognised, and the different ages of the different writers are clearly exhibited and established beyond a doubt. In the present volume, therefore, the Author has undertaken to show that the Pentateuch furnishes evidence of its composite authorship, as conclusive as that which its contradictions furnish against its entire historical accuracy.
The clue to this evidence is furnished in the the book of Genesis down to the age of Joseph, opening chapters of the Book of Genesis. That there are many compounded with Elohim, there there ate apparent inconsistencies between the is not one compounded with Jehovah ; that, inastwo narratives of the Creation is admitted on all much as the impossibilities found in the story of hands, whatever may be the explanations offered the Exodus are equally conclusive against the for them. These contradictions might of them- historical truth of the whole, the Elohist must be selves suggest that the two accounts proceed from regarded as introducing the name Jehovah as a different writers, and the suggestion receives new name for the God of Israel,—that there is strength from the fact, that throughout the first not in the book of Judges a single name which narrative the Creator is always spoken of by the can be appealed to with confidence as compounded name Elohim, God, whereas throughout the with Jehovah, while many are combined with the second, as well as in the story of the Fall, he is, name El, but during and after the time of Samuel, with a single exception, called Jehovah Elohim, an increasing partiality is discernible for names Lord God. The same fact is observed in the compounded with Jehovab, - that the supposition contradictory accounts given of the selection of of Samuel being the Elohist becomes almost a the clean and unclean creatures which were to certainty when it is proved that David in his enter the ark. But the most solemn passage earlier Psalms made little or no use of the name in the Book of Exodus states that the name Jehovah, while in his later Psalms he used it Jehovah was unknown to the Jews until it was more freely. Hence the Jehovistie writer must revealed to Moses; hence the use of the name have written in a later age than the early days of Jehovah throughout certain portions of the David, and not earlier than the latter part of Book of Genesis not only points to plurality David's life, when the name became more common. of authorship, but becomes, as it were, the pivot There is, in fact, reason for believing that all on which the whole argument turns, since the those portions of the first four books and the revelation of that name to Moses is the very core book of Joshua which are not due to the Elohist and centre of the story of the Exodus. If, there- were composed by one or more writers who fore, it can be proved that the name did not wrote in the latter days of David and in the originate in so early an age, it would follow not early part of the reign of Solomon, with the merely that one of the most vital portions of the exception of some interpolations which were innarrative is shown to be unhistorical, but that troduced by the Deuteronomist. These interthe later writer who makes use of the word polations, together with the questions relating to Jehovah freely inserted matter of his own into the composition of the book of Deuteronomy, will the earlier narrative of the Elohist. This dis- be fully examined in the THIRD Part. tinction, grounded on the use of these two names, It is, however, of paramount importance to is in most cases so clear, that it cannot be mis- estimate at their right value the conclusions to taken by any attentive reader; while it further which these investigations appear to lead. If they proves that the original Elohistic document was teach us that the Pentateuch most probably orinot considered so venerable and sacred by the ginated in a noble effort of one illustrious man, in second writer, that he was restrained by any reli- an early age of the Hebrew history, to train his gious fears or scruples from altering, enlarging, people in the fear and faith of the living God, we or curtailing at his own pleasure, and mixing up are not justified in imputing to him either fraud with it, his own compositions as of equal value. or imposture, or in asserting that the narrative An examination of the Pentateuch furnishes which he put forth was baseless.
The most the most cogent reasons for concluding that the searching analysis of all national traditionary Elohistic writer was the prophet Samuel, to history tends inevitably to the conclusion laid whom may be ascribed about one-half of the down by Mr. Gladstone, in his work on Homer and book of Genesis, a small part of Exodus, still the Homeric Age, that men may exaggerate history, less of Numbers, and a few passages in the books but they cannot invent. There is no legendary of Deuteronomy and Joshua. As a summary of narrative which has not its foundation in fact; the evidence which is given at length in support and if the legends of Rome before the rise of of this conclusion, it may be stated that the contemporary history could not have come into exElohistic narrative which asserts the first revela- istence if there had been no pre-historic struggles tion of the name Jehovah to Moses in the wilder- between the several orders in the state, so neither ness, contradicts the Jehovistic narrative in could the Hebrew narratives have assumed shape Genesis, which places that name in the mouth if there had not been a real Exodus. It is imnot only of Eve and Abraham, but of the heathen possible not to feel that some real movement out Abimelech, and so calls into question the histori- of Egypt in former days must lie at the base of cal truth of all the other statements of the Jebo- the Elohistic story. It is inconceivable that such vist—that, although among the names given in a narrative should have been written by Samuel or any one else without some real tradition giving struggles and final triumph of religious liberty: the foundation for it. But the supposition that he It sketches the constitutional history of Ireland ; worked on the basis of such traditionary accounts of municipal institutions, and local self-governis in no way inconsistent with the belief that ment; and of Colonial administration. It conSamuel was a true servant of the living God, in cludes with a summary of the general legislation whose name he spoke and of whom he witnessed ; of the period, which evinces — as the natural restill less are we warranted in imputing to him, on
sult of extended liberties — not only enlarged such an alternative, any deliberate and unworthy principles of government, but a wider spirit of fraud. Even into the very name which he intro- humanity and
more generous consideration for duced, we at the present day import a fulness and the interests of the people. depth of meaning which the seer himself did not While the narrative embraces many of the most ascribe to it. In his mind it was only the ex- stirring incidents of political history, it follows pression of the idea of a Living God, in oppo- the development of the laws and liberties of sition to the dead idols of the heathen. Such England during a period which, more than any conclusions will still lead us to regard the Bible as other, affects our present political condition and the best of books, in which the word of God will be future destinies. heard by all who will humbly and devoutly listen for it. They will not clash with the conviction that The Alpine Journal; a Record of Mountain the Hebrew Scriptures are a precious gift of God, Adventure and Scientific Observation. By which He in His providence has caused to be Members of the ALPINE CLUB. Edited by written for our learning' in divine things, and
H. B. GEORGE, M.A., Fellow of New Colthat the Jewish nation was singled out by His
No. I. 8vo. pp. 48, price express will from all other nations, to be the
18. 6d. sewed. To be continued Quarterly. instrument by which His more clear and full revelations of Himself should be in the earliest
[March 2, 1863. days conveyed to mankind, and
thus to be the IT is felt that the geographical and other inforspecial messenger of His grace and goodness to all the ends of the earth.
members of the Alpine Club deserves to be made
known more generally than by means of the The Constitutional History of England since papers read at their monthly meetings. It has the Accession of George the Third, 1760
therefore been resolved to establish a Journal, 1860. By THOMAS ERSKINE Mar, C.B. In
which shall not only give an account of their proTwo Volumes. Vol. II. 8vo. pp. 658, price
ceedings, but also contain other matter relating
to mountain explorations. 18s. cloth. [February 21, 1863.
The Journal will report all new and interesting THE First VOLUME of this work (published in mountain expeditions, whether in the Alps or
February 1861) comprised an historical re- elsewhere, and give all such new items of scienview of the prerogatives and influence of the tific and geographical knowledge as can be proCrown, and of the relative powers of the two cured from the various available sources, together Houses of Parliament. It exhibited the ascen- with some account of all new books treating of dency of the king and the aristocracy in the coun- Alpine matters, and, generally, of all facts and cils of the State, and the manifold corruptions by incidents which it may be useful to the mounwhich the popular branch of the legislature had taineer to know. As the Club is responsible for a become their tool. It traced the progress of Journal published under its direction, all the popular power, until the Commons acquired their narratives will be written by members; but a proper constitutional position - controlling the section devoted to · Alpine Notes and Queries' executive, without encroaching upon its authority will be open to all persons interested in the matters - predominant in legislation, without overbearing with which the Club is concerned. the House of Lords, and themselves accountable The Contents of the First Number are as to their constituents and to public opinion.
follows: The present volume (which completes the work) Introductory Address. continues the survey of constitutional progress, The Ascent of Monte della Disgrazia, height under aspects no less interesting. It illustrates 12,074 feet. Read February 3, 1863, before the the influence of party organisation in a free State, Members of the Alpine Club. By Edward Shirand the principles which have advanced public LEY KENNEDY, M.A. F.R.G.S. President of the liberty. It describes the progress of freedom of Alpine Club. opinion- including the press, public meetings, A Narrative of an Accident on the Aletsch and political agitation. It reviews the history of Glacier in August 1862 ; with Remarks on the the Church, the progress of Dissent, and the Necessity of making use of a Rope on Glacier