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"some insight into the feelings and the thoughts " of two illustrious characters in our history, I "passed through my martyrdom." — (Eliot, Hampden, and Pym, 1832, p. 9.)
• From this the reader of the present volumes may probably infer that the martyrdom of their writer has been somewhat more severe, when I inform him that they include, either textually or in substance, the entire contents of that book of manuscripts of which the very imperfect mastery of less than a tenth part so severely taxed the patience and sight of an experienced historical enquirer; that, in aid of their subject, the contents of seven other volumes of equal bulk have been deciphered, sifted, and used; and, finally, that from three additional packets of detached papers, the majority in rough draft, too often almost illegible, some in pencil nearly faded, and all apparently untouched since Sir John Eliot's death, some of the most important discoveries in this biography have been made.
• Such are my obligations, for which it would indeed be difficult to find fitting language of acknowledgment, to the Earl of St. Germans, who also entrusted to me, for the purpose of being engraved, two original paintings of his ancestor at Port Eliot, one of them of surpassing interest.
• The state papers, and some manuscript collections of my own, bave furnished to this work the rest of its materials. From the Record Office I have been able to illustrate, by a very large number of letters till now unpublished, the early connection of Eliot with state employments; the attempts, after bis conduct in the second parliament, to deprive him of his vice-admiralty, and, by means of hired agents of the King and the Duke of Buckingham, to effect the ruin of his fortunes ; and the proceedings against him in the courts, after the dissolution of the third parliament. In all the instances where I have resorted to these invaluable documents of the period, rendered lately so accessible by the perfect arrangements of the Master of the Rolls, and the admirable calendars of Mr. Bruce, every quotation has been taken from the originals.
A more careful and minute examination of the contemporary and other printed records having been rendered necessary by the new illustrations thus obtained, this biography of Eliot will probably be found to present a picture of the opening of the struggle against the government of Charles the First, in many respects more detailed and accurate than has yet been afforded. Not merely was its later interest so absorbing, and the issues involved so momentous, but its actors claimed necessarily so large a space from the bistorians, that they had some excuse for less carefully attending to those earlier leaders of the con
flict who were its first inspiring minds. A stronger circumstance in proof of this could hardly be named, than that no biography of Eliot existed in any form until I published a sketch of him in my Statesmen of the Commonwealth in 1834. Yet no one will ever fully understand what the rising against the Stuarts meant wbo is not thoroughly acquainted with its beginning; with the loyalty to the throne that then accompanied the resolve of its beroes to maintain the popular liberties ; and with the reverent regard for law and precedent by which all its opening movements were so implicitly guided as to have left upon it to the very last a deep and ineffaceable impress. For these reasons it seemed especially desirable that a more exact account than elsewhere exists of what preceded and attended the enactment of the Petition of Right should be here supplied. It was necessary to the proper comprehension, as well of the new illustrations of that great third parliament afforded by the Port Eliot manuscripts, as of the memoir and notes on the parliaments preceding it in which the patriot himself plays the part of bistorian.
. For the personal characteristics of Sir John Eliot established by the papers thus given to the world, the biography will speak sufficiently. Few public men have suffered more from evil party speaking. The indignity the king would have offered to his body after death, royalist writers persisted in fixing on his memory. But the veneration and affection of his countrymen may given now to an unsullied name. Few characters could have stood the test of the sudden masses of light here poured upon his ; yet no blot appears, and no brightness fades. Under a pressure which even old friends and associates joined to make it painful to resist, he kept to the close his faith and constancy; he calmly underwent his martyrdom ; the last utterances ihat escaped from bis prison were the expression of bis belief that upon the abandonment or maintenance of the privileges of her parliaments would turn the future misery or glory of England ; and he deserved, if ever man did, that her constitutional historian should have singled him out and set him apart, as the most ILLUSTRIOUS CONFESSOR IN THE CAUSE OF LIBERTY WHOM THAT TIME PRODUCED.'
The Four Experiments in Church and State, and the Conflict of Churches.
By Lord Robert Montagu, M.P. 8vo. pp. 450, price 12s. cloth.
[January 23, 1864. THE marked differences of opinion which exist
within the Church, and the controversies and litigations which have arisen out of them, have. shaken the minds of many warm adherents of our National Establishment. The differences which
The last chapter relates to the struggle which is being carried on between the Russian, Roman, and Protestant Churches in the East, in Poland, and in other parts of Europe. This conflict of religions is shown, by a reference to Parliamentary papers, to be the back bone' of diplomacy. Á portion of this chapter is devoted to the discussion of Jesuitism and Muridism ; which are the active agents of two of the Church forms.
separate the church parties are as great as those which have kept Churchmen and Dissenters assunder. Why, then, (it has been often asked,) should the Church of England be established in the land? Why shoulil there be any connexion between the Church and the State? Why should not all religions be treated alike?
Yet, in former times, as great differences of opinion existed, among the learned at least, while the peace and unity of the Church were never disturbed, nor even endangered. How was this? What sort of connexion subsisted then between the Church and the State ?
Thus the controversy concerning the connex: ion of the Church and State becomes invested with a terrible importance for all men.
Yet this dispute has never been treated in a sufficiently methodical manner. Arguments of great force liave undoubtedly been brought forward on either side, but the meaning of a connexion between Church and State has not been clearly defined. Neither has any classification of the different kinds of connexion ever been attempted.
The first point which has to be accurately determined is the meaning of the term National Church. Such a definition has to be established from authorities ; and then the peculiar form of the National Church of England has to be investigated.
The Author maintains that only four forms of Church and State are possible. (1.). When the Church is identical with the State ; i.e. when it is a National Church. (2.) When the Church is under the State. (3.) When the Church overrides the State. (4.) When there is no Church at all. Each of these forms has, for many hundred years, been tried in a different part of the globe. In England we have a National Church; the second form exists in Russia; there is an example of the third in Romanism; while America gives an instance of the fourth form.
The Author therefore narrates, at length, the history of each of these experiments. He then proceeds to draw his deductions from them.
The National is the only normal form of Church and State. In each of the other forms the Church and State are depraved.
The National form alone does not stand on dogma, and is independent of all variations in opinion within its bosom. While all the other forms of Churches profess merely to promulgate doctrines, and enforce the acceptance of them wherever they have the power.
A great portion of the work is necessarily de. voted to discussion of the character of dissent in England and in Scotland, which the Author proves to be the same as Americanism.
The close connexion between this American form and Popery, is the subject of another portion of the volume.
Public Schools for the Middle Classes. By
Earl FortesCUE, Patron of the Devon County
price 48. 6d. [February 22, 1864. IN N this volume a brief account is given of the
successful'establishment of the Devon County School, and occasion is taken to bring before the general public the views on Education which led to that institution, and further proposals of establishing County Colleges and a County University are put forward. The noble Author considers that the question of Middle-Class Education cannot be solved by merely extending to that class the operation of the Universities from above, or of the Government Education from below; but that they require a distinct intermediate system, analogous however to the Public School and College course of the upper classes, rather than to the system maintained by the Privy Council. He points out advantages which a county system would offer, and its special attractiveness to the farmers. Lord FORTESCUE dwells very seriously on the importance of providing a supply of improved masters from the Middle Classes, and points out how this would be effected by the establishment of County Colleges and a County
, University. He also seeks to show the political necessity of improved public education for the Middle Class, through whom most of the local administration has hitherto been conducted; and points out how the evils of centralisation are aggravated, and its growth neces. sitated by the ignorance and incompetence resulting from the want of public schools for the education of this class. He particularly insists on the unsatisfactory and mischievous state of what is called · Private Bill Legislation, and thinks that this might eventually be remedied by a transfer of much of its business to County Representative Assemblies, as those members of such assemblies who might be elected by the rate-payers should become through education more thoroughly capable of executing the duties to be entrusted to them.
In the Appendix, some previous publications with reference to the Devon County School, by his Lordship and others, are reproduced.
New and completed Edition of Arnott's Physics. Elements of Physics or Natural Philosophy
written for General Use in Plain or Nontechnical Language. By NEIL ARNOTT, M.D, F.R.S. &c. Physician Extraordinary to the Queen, Member of the Senate of the University of London. Sixth Edition, thoroughly revised, and containing in the Second PART (to be published in October next, price i0s. 6d.) the new completing Chapters on Electricity and Astronomy, with an Outline of Popular Mathematics. PART I. 8vo. pp. 430, price 10s. 6d. cloth.
[February 13, 1864. IN
publishing the first volume and half of this work, successive editions of the unfinished book were rapidly called for, but that after the fifth he would not print it again until he should be able to complete it to his satisfaction. In the meantime, besides his direct professional business, he could not avoid giving assistance in some parts of the public service where it was requested—as by the General Board of Health in regard to Sanitary affairs, and when the Government honoured him by appointing him Member of the Senate of the New University of London. Such engagements bave delayed the completion of this work, until by withdrawing from professional labours, as now, he has full command of bis time.
In the INTRODUCTION the Author says, in relation to the importance of Physics, . In the course of the preceding disquisition, we have seen that Physics or Natural Philosophy, the subject of the present volume, is fundamental to the other parts of science, and is therefore that of which a certain amount of knowledge is indispensable in a sound education. Bacon truly calls it " the root of the sciences and arts." That its importance has not been marked by the place which it has held in common plans of education, is owing chiefly to the misconception that deep knowledge of technical mathematics, which only a few have leisure to acquire, was a necessary preliminary.'.
In relation to Mathematics he says, “Now it is true that a certain amount of mathematical knowledge is necessary to the student, but it is equally true that the mathematical knowledge acquired by individuals generally, in the common experience of early years, is sufficient to enable students, with a little help, to comprehend the fundamental laws of nature; nearly as the knowledge of language obtained at the same time and in the same way is sufficient, without previous study of abstract grammar, to enable persons to understand conversation on all common subjects. Few persons in civilised society are so ignorant as not
to know that a square has four equal sides, and four equal corners or angles, that every point in the circumference of a circle is at the same distance from the centre, or who do not immediately discover whether a tree or pillar observed stands upright or leans, whether a table is level or inclined, whether two lines are parallel or not, and so forth. Now these are fundamental mathematical perceptions, and it will be shown in the Mathematical Appendix to this work, that such truths reach far in explaining the great phenomena of nature.'
In relation to the importance of Physics to Medical Practitioners, he says, • And Physics is also an important foundation of the healing art. The medical man, indeed, is the engineer preeminently; for it is in the animal body that the highest perfection and the greatest variety of mechanism are found. Where, to illustrate Mechanics, is to be seen a system of levers and hinges, and moving parts, like the limbs of an animal body; where such an hydraulic apparatus, as in the heart and blood-vessels ; such a pneumatic apparatus, as in the breathing chest; such acoustic instruments, as in the ear and larynx; such an optical instrument, as in the eye; in a word, such variety and perfection, as in the whole of the visible anatomy? All these structures, then, the medical man should understand, as a watchmaker knows the parts of a time-piece which he is entrusted to repair.'
And in relation to the rtance of Physics to persons generally, he says, 'The laws of Physics having an influence so extensive as appears from these paragraphs, it need not excite surprise that all classes of society are at last discovering the deep interest they have to understand them. The lawyer finds that in many of the causes tried in his courts, an appeal must be made to Physics,as in cases of disputed inventions ; accidents in navigation, and travelling; disputes respecting steam-engines, and machines generally ; questions arising out of the agency of winds, rains, water. currents, &c. : the statesman in Parliament is constantly listening to discussions respecting bridges, roads, canals, docks, telegraphs, and the mechanical industry of the nation: the clergyman finds everywhere among the facts of nature, the most intelligible and striking proofs of God's wisdom and goodness; the sailor in his ship bas to deal with one of the most admirable machines in existence : and soldiers, while studying how to defend their country, find its safety and its rank among the nations to depend greatly on the perfection to which their knowledge of Physics bas brought their rifled artillery (as made by Armstrong, Whitworth, and others), their iron-clad ships, and other parts of their military engineering: the landowner, in making improvements on his estates,
building, draining, irrigating, road-making, &c. : worth, when called in by the Secretary at War the farmer, equally in these particulars, and in to assist the Government, succeeded in producing all the machinery of agriculture: the manufac- a rifle for infantry and for sportsmen such as turer, of course, to the widest extent: the mer- has never been equalled. The construction of chant who has to purchase, and distribute over this rifle, and the principles on which its exthe world the products of manufacturing industry cellence is dependent, are explained in terms so -- all these are interested in Physics, and even simple and clear as to be intelligible to any the man of letters, that he may not, in drawing reader, however unacquainted he may previously illustrations from the material world, repeat the have been with the subject. scientific heresies and absurdities which have This great object being achieved so far as conheretofore prevailed, and which, by shocking the cerned small arms, Mr. Whitworth was requested now better informed public, would lower the by the Government to extend a similar improveestimation in which literature would be held : ment to rifled artillery; and here he had to enand, lastly, parents of either sex, wbose conversa- counter a distinguished and most successful comtion and example have such powerful effect on petitor in Sir William Armstrong. Sir J. Emerson the character of their children, quickly rising to Tennent has recounted the discoveries and invenbe their successors ;-all should have knowledge tions of Sir William in various departments of of Physics, as one important part of their educa- mechanical science, and he has given the amplest tional acquirements.'
details and description of the Armstrong gun,
Then follows a relation of the events which The Story of the Guns. By Sir JAMES have marked the various stages in the rivalry EMERSON TENNENT, K.C.S. LL.D. F.R.S. &c.
between the two great artillerists, Sir William Pp. 386; with 33 Engravings on Wood.
and Mr. Whitworth, with clear descriptions of
the system of rifling adopted by the latter. Every Post 8vo. price 7s. 6d. cloth.
step in the progress of this national competition [January 16, 1864.
is exhibited with minuteness, from the early ONE
NE of the questions of the day which has defiance which iron plate offered to artillery, to
excited the largest share of interest and the ultimate victory of the gun, first by sending anxiety, is, without doubt, the contest so long in solid shot through the armour-plate of ships of progress between the great engineers who have war, and eventually by piercing it with explosive been eagerly competing for the honour of pro
shell. viding rifled arms and artillery for the naval and Without assuming to decide which of the two military service of the country. But however rival guns is the superior, the Author brings the intense the curiosity felt on reading the reports story of their struggle down to the present in the daily press, of the performance of the moment, when a series of trials is about to comWhitworth gun to-day, followed by that of the mence, which must decide their respective claims, Armstrong cannon to-morrow, the ordinary reader on all the various grounds of capacity, rangs, is discouraged, by having no connected narrative accuracy, facility, and endurance. of what went before, in order to elucidate what is passing now, and enable him to form a con- FIomes without Hands : being an Account of jecture of what is still in prospect. The only the Habitations constructed by various Anirecords that exist are to be found in news- mals, classed according to their Principles of papers and periodicals, in pamphlets of transient
Construction. By the Rev. J. G. Woon, notoriety, and in Blue-books laid before Parlia
M.A. F.L.S. Author of "The Illustrated ment, which attract even a less transitory notice. The work of Sir J. EMERSON TENNENT tells
Natural History,' &c. With very numerous the story from ils commencement to the present time,
Illustrations engraved on Wood by G. Peardescribing the condition of things as regards both son, from Original Drawings made by small arms and artillery which rendered improve- F. W. Keyl and E. A. Smith under the ment indispensable, and the measures taken to Author's superintendence expressly for this attain it. It gives an account of the champions work. Parts I. II, and III. 8vo. Pp. 32 who essayed a passage-at-arms in this scientific tournament, and relates the disappearance one by
each, with Frontispieces and several Illusone of the various aspirants who first entered the
trations in the Text, price 1s. each Part,
sewed. lists, down to the pending struggle of the two
[Jan. 1, Feb. 1 and 29, 1864. conspicuous knights who still hold and contest the THIS work, which is in course of publication
As improvement began with the musket, the Parts, begins with the BURROWERS, of which the Author explains the steps by which Mr. Whit- following examples are illustrated :
Burrowing Mammalia :
distinct chapters, of which the first, on the Mass of Mole, Fox, Prairie Dog, Rabbit, Chipping the Globe, includes a concise account of the phases Squirrel, Polar Bear, Pichiciago, Armadillo, through which the Earth has probably passed Aard Vark, Mallangong, Gopher.
before reaching its actual condition of land, sea, Burrowing Birds :
and atmosphere. The second explains the struc
ture and arrangement of the Crust of the Earth. Sand Martin, Kingfisher, Puffin, Toucan,
The third treats of the Elevation of Land, the Level Woodpecker.
of the Sea, and the Heat of the Interior of the Burrowing Crustacea :
Globe. The fourth discusses the important subject Land Crab, Robber Crab.
of Ancient Climate. The Series of Life is consiBurrowing Molluscs :
dered in a fifth chapter, and the Lapse of Time in Solen, Pholas, Shipworm.
The Author then applies himself to explain in Burrowing Spiders and Insects :
due order (in the seventh chapter) the Succession Trapdoor Spider, Wasp, Ant Lion. Burrower of Rocks in the Crust of the Earth, beginning with Eees of various kinds ; Burrower Beetles of the general basis of granitic and metamorphic various kinds; and many others.
rocks, and ascending to the latest glacial and The PENSILE NESTS will come next in order; postglacial formations, and modern products of and these will be followed by the Social, the the sea and fresh waters. Summaries of organic ERECTED, the TERRESTRIAL, the AERIAL (or remains are given in each great group of strata. Branch) Nests, the SUBAQUATIC, and the Mis- To this succeeds (in chapter 8) an entirely CELLANEOUS Nests. The Buildings of the BEAVER new section or division of the work, entitled will be figured from original drawings.
• Lithology,' in which, by descriptions and diaThe whole of the ILLUSTRATIONS are being grams, the Author endeavours to remove some of drawn expressly for this work, and will present the difficulties which beset beginners in their characteristic episodes in the life of each ANIMAL. attempts to recognise rocks, and the minerals The subjects have all been suggested by the which compose them. Plutonic rocks and mineAuthor, and the Drawings are submitted to his rals, volcanic rocks and minerals, metallic deposits, inspection before they are engraved. Figures of metamorphic rocks, and rocks formed in water, all the most remarkable examples will be given; are accurately and carefully described. After the and in every instance the ARCHITECT will be last chapter, which consists of tables and calcudrawn together with its HABITATION, and will in lations and other information useful to the geolomost cases be represented as engaged in some gist while employing thermometers, barometers, occupation which identifies its species and mode and clinometers, a short Glossary follows, arranged of workmanship.
on a new plan. A full descriptive reference is
given to the four plates of figures; and the diaA Guide to Geology. By John Phillips, M.A. grams are explained in the text.
LL.D. F.R.S. F.G.S. Professor of Geology in the University of Oxford. Fifth Edition ;
The Alpine Journal ; a Record of Mountain pp. 336, with 4 Plates and 53 Diagrams on
Adventure and Scientific Observation. By Wood. Fcp. 8vo. price 4s. cloth.
Members of the ALPINE CLUB. Edited by [January 1, 1864.
H. B. GEORGE, M.A. Fellow of New Col
lege, Oxford. No. V. THE first edition of this work was published in
8vo. pp. 48, with THE 1834, and was readily accepted by teachers
Frontispiece representing the Dent d'Herens of science as a grammar of the elementary truths
from the Valpelline, and 4 Woodcuts, price and theoretical results of geological research, so
1s. 6d. sewed. To be continued Quarterly. far as they had then been confirmed by observa
[March 1, 1864. tion. The volume has since been corrected from THE CONTENTs of the Firth Number are as relate to the classification of strata, in accordance Ascent of the Dent d'Herens. By W. E. Hall, with the progress of discovery. In regard to the M.A. older rocks the conclusions of MURCHISON and Ascent of El Viejo, an Extinct Volcano in SEDGWICK, and with reference to the more recent Central America. By CHARLES Eden. deposits those of Sir CHARLES LYELL, FORBES, Ascent of the Viescherhorn. By A. W. Moore. PRESTwich, and other eminent geologists, have Expedition to Cape Reykjanes. By T. W. been adopted and incorporated.
Evans, M.P. F.R.G.S. In the present much enlarged although cheaper The Finsteraar-joch. By H. B. GEORGE, M.A. edition, the Author has rearranged the whole in Notes and Queries.