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needful comfort within their reach. But then there is nothing wasted, no money spent at the alehouse or the gin-shop. The writer of the "Original" was well acquainted with the state of the London poor, and his account of many of them is unhappily too true: we trust that there are very few of our village readers whom this description would suit.
"The greatest evils, perhaps, under which the lower classes labour, arise from ignorance of domestic economy. It is certainly below the mark to say that, on an average, labourers' families might live much better than they now do for one-third less expense. Waste and discomfort are but too often the chief characteristics of their management; the bitter consequences of which are, strife, sickness, debt, misery, recklessness, and crime. Their purchases are often bad in quality, small in quantity, and high in price; their meals wasteful and uuwholesome; their clothes neglected, and every thing about them without any plan or method. The unthrifty, uncomfortable condition of the labouring classes depends greatly upon the mode of their education, so far as they have any. There is no class of persons to whom domestic comfort is of so much importance as to those who have to earn their livelihood by hard labour; and there is no greater contrast than that between a well-ordered and a cheerless home. In the one case, when the husband returns from his work, he finds a kindly welcome, a cheerful fire, quiet children, as good a meal as his means will allow, ready prepared, every want and every habit attended to, an universal neatness, and everything in its place. The other case is the reverse of all this; and in addition, perhaps, the wife is absent, or intoxicated, and some article taken to the pawnbroker's to furnish the means of indulgence; angry words follow, and then blows. The husband flies to the public-house, where a welcome awaits him; his wife breaks in upon him, and at last, for peace, is invited to partake of his enjoyments, which, on such occasions, ever end in excess and crime, and bring the family to the parish. Women, brought up in ignorance of comfort, of course are careless of the means of providing for it. They are heedless how they marry, and when married, never
think of the duties of their situation. A greater degree of self-dependence is especially to be desired among the labouring classes, which can only be produced by a greater degree of prudence; and there is nothing so likely to produce prudence as the cultivation of domestic economy, because, without foresight, there can be little or no comfort. The power which the lower orders possess, of living from hand to mouth, frequently tends to their ruin, by preventing the necessity of providing beforehand; and there is, perhaps, nothing which is more injurious to their interests than being able to make their marketings on Sunday mornings. They must have a strange idea of what an English labourer ought to be, who think him incapable of sufficient prudence to have one week's wages in store. Considering how powerful by nature is female influence, there can be no one mode so sure of increasing the stock of human happiness and human virtue, as a quiet perseverance on the part of women in studying to promote the comforts of home. There is, on the part of the upper classes, a general desire to attend to the interests of those below them, though the means pursued are frequently the reverse of judicious. I believe there is no way in which the labouring class can be so effectually served as by instructing them in the arts of domestic economy, because a well-ordered home is the best security for good order in everything else. To those who take an interest in schools, and generally in the training of children and young people, I would suggest the idea of introducing a sort of exercise in domestic economy, and of affording every facility and encouragement for its practice. In my intercouse with the labouring classes, what I have observed they seem most to want to learn is, to market, and make purchases on the most advantageous terms; to apply the art of cookery to preparing food in an economical, wholesome, and palatable manner; in the country, to brew and bake; to light a fire expeditiously and economically; to keep up a fire economically; to make a fire expeditiously'; to set out a table neatly and quickly; to clear away expeditiously; to cut out, make,
7 The best and quickest mode of restoring a neglected fire, is to stir out the ashes, and with the tongs to fill up the spaces between the bars with cinders.
and mend linen, and to keep other clothes in good order; to wash and get up linen; to dry and clean shoes; to sweep and clean rooms quietly and quickly; to keep them neat and comfortable; and lastly, to prepare proper food for children and the sick. The difference in the way of doing these things is great, and the difference in point of comfort as great." (From Useful Hints for the Labourer.)
EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS AUTHORS.
WOULD you judge of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of any pleasure? Take this rule. Whatever weakens your judgment, impairs the tenderness of your conscience, obscures your sense of God, or takes off the relish of spiritual things-in short, whatever increases the authority of your body over your mind, that thing is sin to you, however innocent it may be in itself.-Advice of his Mother to John Wesley.
When we are alone, we have our thoughts to watch; in our families, our tempers; in society, our tongues. Sent by T. C. The cup of sorrow is in constant circulation. We must all drink, and some of us drink deeply. It is not material whose turn comes first; the thing is, to benefit by the draught; for it requires very little self-knowledge to convince us that we are unequal to prosperity, and unable to sustain it without growing careless, or attaching ourselves too strongly to the things which perish, to the exclusion of things eternal.-Grant.
The temper of every man is to be judged of by the thing he most esteems; and the object of his esteem may be measured by the prime object of his thanks. What is it, then, that opens thy mouth in praises, that fills thy heart, and lifts up thy hands in grateful acknowledgments to thy great Creator and Preserver? Is it that thy bags and thy barns are full, that thou hast escaped this sickness or that danger? Alas! God may have done all this for thee in anger! All this fair sunshine may serve only to harden thee in thy sins. He may have given thee riches and honour, health and power, with a curse; and if so, it will be found but a poor comfort to have had never so great a share of God's bounty, without his blessing.
But has He, at any time, kept thee from thy sin? stopped thee in the prosecution of thy lust? defeated the malicious arts and stratagems of thy mortal enemy, the tempter? And does not the sense of this move and affect thy heart more than all the former instances of temporal prosperity, which are but, as it were, the promiscuous scatterings of his common providence, while these are the distinguishing kindnesses of his special grace?-Dr. South.
Sent by M. A.
A continual sense of the Divine presence is the best and the only right restraint from vice, and the strongest and most encouraging motive to virtue. The world may be so deceived by a counterfeit honesty and affected piety as to applaud them; but the eyes of the Lord cannot be deceived; they are in every place; within us, as well as without He sees our hearts as well as actions. The evil we commit He observes in its most secret springs as well as its effects; in its nature and degrees of guilt as well as outward appearance; that so He may justly punish the good we do He as distinctly views, that so He may give a due reward. He is both judge and witness too. No time, no place can exclude his constant and unerring inspection. How should the reflection of God's omniscience and omnipresence deter the wicked from sin, and shame the hypocrite! How should it animate the good man to slight the unjust censures and despise the vain applause of man!-Wogan.
Sent by Rev. T. FARLEY.
EXTRACTS FROM NEWSPAPERS, &c.
STATE OF THE STREETS.-The City Police Commissioner, in consequence of the filthy state of the streets, has issued the following order; and it is agreeable to find that it extends to every day in the week, for the streets of the city are generally in a worse condition on Sundays than on any other days: "The police-constables are ordered to summon every occupier of a house or other tenement within the city who shall not keep sufficiently swept and cleansed all footways and watercourses adjoining to the premises occupied by them. That there may be no excuse from ignorance of the law in this respect, the constable is directed to intimate to the person so offending that he is liable to a penalty of 40s. for every such offence; and that for the continuance or repetition thereof he will assuredly be summoned. The constables will observe, that this order is to be enforced every day in the week."
NEW FOOD FOR SHEEP.-A Correspondent in a weekly paper says:"While at Genoa, in 1837, I observed every one collecting carefully the
fruit of the horse chesnut, and upon inquiry I learned that the butchers and holders of grazing stock bought it readily at a certain price per bushel, to give to sheep that were fattening. The horse chesnuts were well crushed, something in the way that apples are for making cyder; then about two pounds weight are given to each sheep morning and evening. Sheep eat it greedily. It must be portioned out to them, as too much would disagree with them, it being of a very heating nature. The butcher told me that it gave an excellent rich flavour to the meat. The Geneva mutton is noted for being as highly flavoured as any in England or Wales.
EXTRAORDINARY FOSSIL.-We yesterday had sent, for our inspection, a very remarkable remain of a former world, the far-tooth of a Mammoth, or Mastodon, in very excellent preservation, which was found, about three weeks ago, among some gravel in the bed of the Trent, a few miles from Nottingham. The tooth weighs nine pounds and a quarter, and is, perhaps, the most perfect specimen which has ever been seen in England. What is most extraordinary is the fact of its being met with in a neighbourhood where no geological remains of any note have yet been discovered. Though found among gravel, it shows no evidence whatever of having been subjected to any friction. The fang is almost perfect, though the outer coating, or tartar, with which the tooth was apparently covered, is at one end removed, and discloses the enamel, as though that end had been above the gravel in the water, and subject to the washing of ages. We should recommend a diligent search, both among the gravel and in the neighbouring bank, from which the tooth might probably be washed, in order to see if any other remnant of this antediluvian monster (which, judging by the size of the tooth, must have been some twenty feet high) can be discovered.—Birmingham Advertiser.
"EVERY LITTLE'S A HELP."-The following verses convey appropriate instruction to every man who neglects to do any act on the ground that his individual aid can be of little consequence :—
What if the little rain should say,
"So small a drop as I
Can ne'er refresh those thirsty fields:
What if a shining beam of noon
Should in its fountain stay,
Because its feeble light alone
Doth not each rain-drop help to form
The cool, refreshing shower?
And every ray of light to form
And beautify the flower?
A true Christian, living in the world, is like a ship sailing on the ocean. It is not the ship being in the water which will sink it, but the water getting into the ship. So, in like manner, the Christian is not ruined by being in the world, which he must needs do while he remains in the body; but by the world being in him.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS.
We have received the communications of L. S. R.; M. A. Gilbert; Veritas; S.; P. S. L.; X. Y. Z.; T. N.; E. A.; S. A.; and T. D.