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OF UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE FOR THE PEOPLE,
EDINBURGH: W. & R. CHAMBERS.
Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1862, by
J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO.,
CHIVASSO—CHLAMYPHORUS. CHIVA'SSO, a small city of Piedmont, Northern they are held in the utmost contempt and detestItaly, situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of ation by their peasant neighbours, who are often the Po, about 15 miles north-east of Turin. It was indolent and destitute. They are looked upon as formerly a place of considerable military importance, covetous and malicious, and scarcely would the but its fortifications were destroyed in 1804 by the daughter of a small farmer, or well-to-do day. French. The lampreys of C. are celebrated through- labourer, become the wife of one of them, so that out Piedmont. It has manufactures of bricks, they mostly marry among themselves. From time earthenware, soap, &c., and a trade in the agricul- immemorial, the C. and B. have been field-labourers, tural produce of the district. Pop. about 8000. cattle-dealers, butchers, &c. Many of them are very CHIVE, or CIVE (Allium schoenoprasum), a
good-looking. The young women are handsome, plant of the same genus with the leek and onion clear-complexioned, with large black eyes. See (see ALLIUM), a perennial, foot in height, Michel, Histoire des Races Maudites de la France with very small
, flat, clustered bulbs, increasing by et de l'Espagne (2 vols. Par. 1847). its bulbs so as to form a sort of turf. The leaves CHLADNI, ERNST FLORENS FRIEDRICH, founder are tubular, cylindrical-tapering, radical, nearly as of the science of acoustics, was born at Wittenberg, long as the almost leafless flowering-stem, which is November 30, 1756. He studied law in his native terminated by a hemispherical, many flowered, not place, and also in Leipsic, where, in 1782, he bulbiferous umbel of bluish red, or, more rarely, was made Doctor of Laws. C. ultimately abandoned flesh-coloured flowers. The stamens are included juridical studies altogether, devoted his mind to within the perianth. This rather pretty little plant i natural science, and, being acquainted with music, grows wild on the banks of rivers, and in marshy or was led to observe that the laws of sound were by occasionally flooded places in the middle latitudes no means so well established as those of other of Europe and Asia. It is a rare native of Britain. branches of physics. He therefore began to apply In some of the mountainous districts of Europe a his knowledge of mathematics and physics to variety is found, larger and stronger in all its parts, acoustics, and travelled for ten years (after 1802) and with flowering-stems more leafy. Chives—the through Germany, Holland, France, Italy, Russia, name is generally used in the plural—are commonly and Denmark, giving lectures on the subject, which cultivated in kitchen-gardens, often as an edging were very successful. He died in Breslau, April 3, for plots, and are used for flavouring soups and 1827.—C's writings include, Discoveries concerning dishes. Their properties are very similar to those the Theory of Sound (1787), Acoustics (1802), New of the onion. The part used is the young leaves, Contributions to Acoustics (1817), and Contributions which bear repeated cuttings in the season.
to Practical Acoustics, with Remarks on the making CHIZEROTS AND BURINS form one of those of Instruments (1822). C. also wrote several essays peculiar races in France that live isolated in the on meteoric stones. midst of the rest of the population,
and are despised CHLAMY'PHORUS (Gr. chlamys-bearing ; and hated by their neighbours. They live in the chlamys, a soldier's cloak), a very remarkable genus arrondissement of Bourg-en-Bresse, in the depart of mammalia of the order Edentata, ranked by ment of Ain; and the communes of Sermoyer, naturalists in the same family with the armadillos, Arbigny, Boz, and Ozan belong to them. Accord but differing in important respects from them, and ing to tradition, they are descended from the from all other known quadrupeds. Only one species Saracens. Although industrious and prosperous, is known, C. truncatus, five or six inches long, a CHLOPICKI-CHLORIMETRY.
native of the interior of Chili, living underground Cracow, and withdrew altogether from public life. like the mole, which it much resembles in its habits, He died at Krzeschowitz, 30th September 1854. and feeding on the same kind of food. Its fore-feet are adapted for digging, although in a different anhydrous alcohol is acted upon by dry chlorine
CHLOʻRAL (C,C1,H0,) is a body formed when manner from those of the mole. destitute of sutures ; there are resemblances to the gas. It is an oily liquid with a peculiar penetrating
CHLORANTHA'CEÆ, a natural order of exogenons plants, closely allied to the peppers; herbaceous and half-shrubby plants, with jointed stems, opposite simple leaves, and minute stipules between them. The flowers are in terminal spikes, and are destitute of calyx and corolla, but have each a small scale or bract. The stamens are lateral ; either only one or few, and partly cohering. The ovary is one-celled, immediately crowned with the stigma; the ovule is pendulous; the fruit a drupe or one-seeded berry; the embryo naked, not in a fleshy sac as in the peppers. The number of known species is small: all of them are tropical, or natives of China and Japan. They are generally aromatic, and some of them, as species of Chloranthus in the
East Indies, and of Hedyosmum in the West Indies Chlamyphorus.
and South America, are used as antispasmodics,
stimulants, stomachics, and tonics. The roots of osteology of birds in the ribs and their union to the Chlorunthus officinalis and C. brachystachys have sternum ; the hinder part of the body is altogether been ranked among the most efficacious remedies unlike that of any other known animal, in its in fevers and other diseases requiring continual terminating quite abruptly, as if cut off almost and active stimulants, and instances have occurred where its thickness is greatest, or as if the back of great benefit from their employment during the were suddenly bent down at right angles, the prevalence of epidemics in Java. C. inconspicuus is tail not springing from where the line of the the Chu-Lan of the Chinese ; its leaves, spikes of back appears to terminate, but far below. The flowers, and berries are used by them for imparting whole upper and hinder parts of the body, are a peculiar fragrance to tea. All the teas which covered with a coat of mail, made up of a series of have what is called the cowslip favour owe it to square plates; the under parts and legs are covered this plant. with long silky hair. The tail is very peculiar ; it is covered with small scales, is expanded at the atom of chlorine and five atoms of oxygen, and
CHLO'RIC ACID (CIO,) is a compound of one tip, and is usually incurved along the belly, but is is generally met with in combination with potash, furnished with such muscles as to suggest the pro- as the white crystalline salt, chlorate of potash bability of its being employed to throw back the
(KO,C103). This salt is mainly interesting from earth in excavations.
the readiness with which it parts with its oxygen CHLOPICKI, JOSEPH, a Polish general, and to combustibles, as when thrown on red-hot charDictator of Poland during the revolution of 1830, coal, when it causes violent deflagration. The salt was born in Galicia in 1772. He entered the army is employeil in the fabrication of certain kinds in 1787, attracted the notice of Kosciusko during of lucifer-matches, which give a slight explosion the first insurrection of the Poles, and after the when struck. If a crystal of chlorate of potash be storming of Praga, 9th November 1794, when the placed on a piece of paper saturated with turpenhopes of the patriots were extinguished for awhile, tine, and a drop or two of oil of vitriol added, it he passed into the service of the new Cisalpine causes the inflaming of the turpentine with explosive Republic, and distinguished himself in various battles. rapidity. The chlorate of potash is also used in In 1806 when Bonaparte called the Poles to arms, medicine, with the view of imparting oxygen to the C., among others, obeyed, and fought gallantly at blood. Eylau and Friedland. He was subsequently sent CHLORIMETRY, or CHLORO'METRY, is by the emperor into Spain, and in 1812 followed him the process of estimating the proportion of available to Russia, taking part in the bloody engagements chlorine in bleaching powder 19. v.), which may at Smolensk and Moskwa. After the relics of the vary from 20 to 36 per cent. The process depends invading force had returned, C. left the imperial upon the great power with which chlorine, in the service, on account of receiving certain slights in act of being liberated from its compounds, causes the way of his professional advancement. After the oxidation of many substances. The salt genethe taking of Paris by the allies in 1814, he led back rally used is pure crystallised sulphate of iron, to Poland the remains of the Polish troops who had which, in its ordinary state, gives a deep blue fought under Bonaparte, and was well received by colour, with a drop of ferridcyanide of potassium, the Emperor Alexander, who made him a general of but ceases to do so when it has been fully oxidised, division. When the second insurrection of the or converted from a proto-salt into a per-salt, Poles broke out in 1830, C., who foresaw the hope through the influence of chlorine. It being known less nature of the attempt, concealed himself ; but that 78 grains or parts of sulphate of iron are the voice of the nation called him forth from his oxidised by 10 grains or parts of chlorine, the mode hiding-place, and on the 5th December 1830, he was of procedure in C. is as follows : 78 grains of elected dicta or. His moderate views, however, fine crystals of the sulphate of iron are dissolved involved him in disputes with the extreme patriotic in water slightly acidulated with hydrochloric acid party, and on the 231 January 1831, he resigned his in a white porcelain basin. A given quantity of office; but, to prove his sincerity, he entered the the bleaching powder-say 50 grains-is dissolved Polish army as a simple soldier, and took part in in a little tepid water, and introduced into a tall the murderous battles at Wavre and Grochow. measure-glass called a chlorimeter or burette (figs. 1, After the suppression of the insurrection, C. went to 2, and 3), similar to an alkalimeter, which is divided