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The data and the observations originally obtained have been necessary in our regular Weather Bureau service. This valuable statistical material has accumulated, and we have been unable, with the restricted ordinary running forces of the Bureau, to have it assembled into comparable and statistical form which would be useful and valuable.


Mr. SANDLIN. The next item is: Horticultural protection: For investigations, observations, and reports, forecasts, warnings, and advices for the protection of horticultural interests, $31,857.

You had $65,500 for 1932; $59,200 for 1933; you have $44,905 for this year, and for 1935 the estimate is $31,857.

Dr. CLARK. The following statement is presented: Appropriation: 1932

$65, 500 1933

59, 200 1934.

44, 905 Estimated obligations, 1934.

30, 544 Budget estimate, 1935.

31, 857 Increase, Budget 1935, compared with estimated obligations, 1934.. 1, 313

The reduction of $13,048 in the estimate of $31,857 for 1935 below the appropriation of $44,905 for 1934 consists of: Impoundment of 635 percent of 15 percent pay cut.

-$1, 750 Curtailments in 1934 working funds.

-12, 611 5 percent salary restoration.

+1, 313 Total.

-13, 048

WORK DONE UNDER THIS APPROPRIATION By means of expressly trained personnel, intensive specialized work is con; ducted in the field under this appropriation for the protection and benefit of horticultural crops. The work at present is conducted principally in the States of Washington, Oregon, California, Alabama, Florida, New York, and Texas. It embraces the Fruit-Frost Service for the protection of orchards and the FruitSpray Service for aid in spray operations in which weather conditions are an mportant factor.


Mr. CANNON. What is the nature of that service, Doctor?

Dr. CLARK. In the citrus-fruit areas of California and the deciduous areas of Washington and Oregon, as well as in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas, and in the citrus-growing areas of Alabama and Florida, a very important problem of the growers is protection against damage by frost.

Mr. CANNON. A few hours of frost in one night can ruin millions of dollars' worth of fruit?

Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir. Mr. CANNON. But what I am at a loss to understand, Doctor, is this: I understand the nature of this is that you give them warning in advance; but even if they have warning, they have not developed any practical way of preventing injury from frost, have they?

Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir; in a very substantial and valuable way.
Mr. CANNON. By the use of smudges?

Dr. CLARK. By the use, of what is popularly known as "smudging," but in reality it is the heating of the lower strata of the atmosphere that counts; and this is what caused the need for and later development of this service. For example, it developed in Southern California, around the big citrus districts of Pomona and that territory, and some 10 years ago we assigned several of our young and able meteorologists to a study of the matter in cooperating with the citrus growers and orchardists. The results were so highly satisfactory that the growers now pay a considerable portion of the expense, to enable us to cooperate with them on a more extensive scale than is possible under our appropriation alone.

As to operation in practice, the local growers, cooperating through their associations, equip the orchards with heaters of various makes, placed throughout the orchards. Some burn oil and some hard fuels—mostly oil.

Mr. CANNON. Doctor, do they operate through the production of heat itself or through the production of a smoke which holds the heat?

Dr. CLARK. The smoke has some little effect, but heat is the controlling factor.

Mr. Cannon. It seems to me that in the vast areas the production of sufficient heat would be an impossible task.

Dr. CLARK. The character of the topography and the climatic conditions in this citrus area lends itself peculiarly to the control of the few degrees between loss and the protection necessary, which can be given by artificial heating.

Our men are located in the vicinities of these fields. They get observations throughout the orchards as to local temperatures, they prepare weather maps and get the forecasts from our district forecast center in San Francisco, giving them a picture of larger movements of air and their effect on the local climate. By these and from formulae which they have worked out they can predict very accurately, and advise the growers as to whether or not heating will be necessary. They immediately disseminate the information by radio and otherwise, throughout the area and contact the growers and their organizations by telephone hook-ups. The growers have men all ready to go out and start their fires.

I have here a very interesting description of all of this in a bulletin issued by the Department of Agriculture-Farmers' Bulletin 1588, Frost and the Prevention of Frost Damage. It contains a comprehensive explanation of the methods which are being used.

Mr. Cannon. Evidently it has demonstrated its value. I notice that this year, in the face of a general decrease in the bill, you are increasing it $1,315. Is that an extension of the service or an increase in the cost of the current service?

Dr. CLARK. The item referred to is not an extension; it is to provide the 5 percent salary restoration.

Mr. CANNON. You are asking for the same amount that you had last year?

Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir.

Mr. SINCLAIR. Are you not doing anything along this line to protect any other crop except the fruit crop?

Dr. CLARK. These men that we have in the field in southern California are there during the months of November to February. They then move north into central and northern California and into Oregon; i nto the big pear territory around Medford; and the deciduous fruit district of Washington, where similar services are operated.

Mr. Sinclair. It would not prove practical or feasible, probably, for grain farming or flax or something of that kind?

Dr. CLARK. It would be a very expensive and probably not an economical project.

Mr. CANNON. Doctor, would this service be effective in connection with fruit sprays, assuming a particularly heavy wind which would prevent the use of sprays?

Dr. CLARK. Listed here is the forecast of possible rain.
Mr. CANNON. Which would wash the spray off?

Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir. The spray must be put on either a certain time before or after the rain. In some instances it is on account of washing it off; in other instances, if the spray is put on at a certain time, it will burn the foliage substantially.

Mr. CANNON. That would depend on the nature of the spray?
Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir.
Mr. CANNON. The early lime sprays would burn?
Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir.

Mr. CANNON. But the later sprays, the bordeaux and the arsenic sprays, would not. Then this is a matter of both wind and rain?

Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir; climatic conditions which are best suited to the spray, on account of the spray and on account of the character of insect.

Mr. CANNON. You have never extended this service to the apple, peach, and pear orchards; it is exclusively for citrus fruits?

Dr. Clark. As I had stated incidentally before, these experts and local meteorologists that give this local service do go into the pear area in Medford, Oreg., and the deciduous areas, where they have organized similar protective methods in the growers' organizations, and also into certain apple orchards of the State of Washington, New York, Ohio, and to a small extent in a few other States.

Mr. Cannon. May I ask if they have given any expression recently of appreciation or lack of appreciation of this service?

Dr CLARK Yes, sir As late as December 22, 1933, Mr. Paul S. Armstrong, general manager of the California Fruit Growers' Exchange, which is the general comprehensive organization in California dealing with this problem, wrote to the Secretary of Agriculture, and I will, with your permission, quote one paragraph of his letter:

Representing an organization of over 13,000 growers of citrus fruit in California and Arizona, I would like to record with you our belief that the Weather Bureau is of outstanding importance to agriculture. The frost-warning service is especially valuable to us and there are other services performed by the Weather Bureau which are of direct and practical benefit to this industry.

We have a considerable number of similar appreciative statements from the growers on the coast and in Texas and Florida on this work.

Mr. CANNON. How long has this service been rendered?

Dr. CLARK. We made our first investigational work on it some 15 years ago, and it was started in a more intensive form 12 years ago.

Mr. Cannon. Long enough for its value to be demonstrated?

Dr. Clark. Yes, sir; it is demonstrated. As I previously stated, there are now bulletins prepared on the subject, and, rather interestingly, there is a departmental moving-picture film made of the actual conduct of the work there and the operation of the heaters during the night. That is of great interest to students of this subject. In fact, we have had calls from several European countries for the use of the film, as demonstrating this practicable and valuable work in agricultural meteorology.

Mr. SINCLAIR. How cool, for instance, must it get at a certain place for you to predict safely that they will have a frost there? How many degrees do you allow?

Dr. CLARK. Those are formulae that these local meteorologists have established by relative readings from year to year, and they differ in the different areas; but they can and do forecast them with great accuracy.

Mr. SINCLAIR. Their information covers a series of years?

Dr. Clark. Yes, sir; their formulas are based on established data secured over a series of years; so their formulas and their methods have been confirmed.

Mr. SINCLAIR. It would be more certain to come in the northern part of the United States than in the sourthen part?

Dr. CLARK. Yes, sir; quite so, but the frost hazard is general as crops are out and subject to harm much earlier in the South.


Mr. SANDLIN. We will take up the next item:

Aerology: For the maintenance of stations for observing, measuring, and investigating atmospheric phenomena, including salaries and other expenses, in the city of Washington and elsewhere, $1,081,059.

Dr. CLARK. The following is submitted in connection with this estimate: Appropriation, 1932

$1, 709, 340 Appropriation, 1933

1, 465, 440 Appropriation, 1934.

1, 280, 605 Estimated obligations, 1934.

1,033, 470 Budget estimate, 1935

1,081, 059 Increase, Budget 1935, compared with estimated obligations, 1934 . 47, 589

The reduction of $199,546 in the estimate of $1,081,059 for 1935 below the appropriation of $1,280,605 for 1934 consists of: Impoundment of 634 percent of 15 percent pay cut.

- $63, 467 Curtailments in 1934 working funds.

- 183, 668 5 percent salary restoration..

+47, 589

– 199, 546


The principal activity conducted under this appropriation is that of supplying meteorological service for Commercial Airways, designated as such by the Department of Commerce under provisions of the Air Commerce Act of 1926. In additior, other projects of work include investigational studies of the upper air in the interest of general weather forecasting and air navigation, the issuance of aviation forecasts and warnings, and the continuation of the aerological survey of the United States.


An allotment of $850 under the National Industrial Recovery act has been made for improvement of the Weather Bureau building at Sandberg, Calif.


The station at Sandberg is conducted for the benefit of the project “Commercial Airways Meteorological Service."

The money was made available November 18, 1933, and will be obligated during the fiscal year 1934.

An allotment under the Civil Works Administration aggregating $47,505 has been made and allocated to projects and States as follows: Project:

Amount Aerological Survey of the United States.-

$47, 505 States: Amount States-Continued.

Amount California. $4, 040. 00 New Mexico.

$1, 087. 50 District of Columbia .. 4, 177. 50 New York,

1,200.00 Florida. 1, 472. 50 Ohio.

4, 702. 50 Georgia

1, 887. 50

1, 910. 00 Illinois 1, 800. 00 Texas.

8, 527. 50 Indiana.1, 202. 50 Utah..

2, 862. 50 Massachusetts.

1, 180.00

562. 50 Michigan. 902. 50 Washington.

502. 50 Minnesota 832. 50 Wyoming

1, 037. 50 Missouri..

4, 822. 50 Nebraska. 1, 677. 50

47, 505. 00 New Jersey

1, 127. 50 The money was made available November 27, 1933, and will be obligated during the fiscal year 1934.

Mr. SANDLIN. I wish you would explain, please, just what you do with these funds and what is accomplished by this expenditure.

Dr. CLARK. As you know, the aviation industry has developed rapidly and comprehensively, and in 1926 the Congress passed the Air Commerce Act of 1926, placing certain regulation and control of civil and commercial flying, over established airways, in the United States Department of Commerce. The same act provides that,

Within the limits of the appropriations which may be made for such purpose, it shall be the duty of the Chief of the Weather Bureau, under the direction of the Secretary of Agriculture, (a) to furnish such weather reports, forecasts, warnings, and advices as may be required to promote the safety and efficiency of air navigation in the United States and above the high seas, particularly upon civil airways designated by the Secretary of Commerce under authority of law as routes suitable for air commerce, and (b) for such purposes to observe, measure, and investigate atmospheric phenomena, and establish meteorological offices and stations.

So the Weather Bureau has established and maintained weather service along the airways. We have superimposed, as it were, on our already established Weather Bureau parent organization, which has been in operation some 70 years, back since the days when the Weather Bureau was the Signal Corps of the Army, an organization and personnel to provide a forecast and warning service along the airways. It has been done economically and efficiently, through close cooperation and working arrangements with the Department of Commerce, and, as I have said, by the utilization of facilities and stations and personnel already available in the Weather Bureau.


A reference to an airway map [exhibiting] of the United States will show the comprehensive distribution of the civil airways and weather service. Along those airways we have established weather stations.

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