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occasions, if he had not been fettered by the decrees of his own credulous church.

For a copious list of modern ecclesiastical historians, I would refer to Fabricius, Bibliotheca Græca, vol. XII. p. 161. and Salutaris Lux Evangelii, &c. c. V. p. 64. Ittigius, Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ primi a Christo nato seculi selecta Capita, (Præf.) Weismannus, Hist. Ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, p. 28.

The name and the writings of Mosheim are too illus trious to require much comment: but if Tillemont and the French historians were warped by the spirit of Romanism, Mosheim and others of his school are to be read with caution, as having been influenced by that love of scepticism, which has shewn itself so much more openly and more dangerously in the German divines of our own day. I would observe also, that the Ecclesiastical History of Mosheim, which is more known and studied in this country than any of his other works, is by far the least satisfactory as recording the state of the church in the first century. That interesting and momentous period occupies only 146 pages in the English translation of the work: and it is to be regretted that an account, which is so meagre and superficial, has not been superseded by some history in our own language, which is written more in detail, and in a spirit more congenial with the forms and institutions of our own church. There are however two other works of Mosheim, which deserve much greater praise, and much more attention than they commonly meet with in this country. These are Institutiones Historie Christiane Majores, and De Rebus Christianorum ante Constantinum Magnum Commentarii. The first contains a very elaborate and detailed account of the affairs of the church in the first century: and it was the intention of the author to have illustrated the history of the six first centuries on the same plan: but this scheme was never completed. The other work, as the title implies, records the events of the three first centuries, and of about twenty-five years of the fourth century. The reader of ecclesiastical history will find every point connected with

those times illustrated in these two works. The most copious and accurate references are given to original writers : every fact and every statement is submitted to the most minute and rigid criticism: and though a member of the Church of England will sometimes think, that the conclusions of Mosheim are erroneous, I should be unwilling to suppose that he did not mean to be strictly impartial, and that he was not guided by a sincere love of truth. I would also observe, that Mosheim published several dissertations upon subjects connected with ecclesiastical history, which have been collected into two volumes, and published for the second time with considerable additions in 1767. It is impossible to speak too highly of the use and importance of these admirable dissertations.

There is an ecclesiastical history now in progress in Germany, which promises to be of considerable value in this department of theology. . I allude to the Allgemeine Geschichte der Christlichen Religion und Kirche, published at Hamburg by Dr. Aug. Neander. The first part of the second volume has already appeared, which carries the history nearly to the end of the fourth century. I have derived no small advantage from this learned work in composing the Notes to the following Lectures; and it is to be hoped, that, when completed, the whole will be translated into English. The writer is a theorist, as are many of his countrymen; and I could wish that some of his observations had not been made: but he has investigated with great patience of research, and with a very original train of thought, the early history of the church; and if he carries into execution, what he has partly promised to undertake, a full and special history of the church in the time of the apostles, he will probably confer a lasting benefit on literature in general.

I may now mention the names of some other writers, who have directed their attention particularly to the history of early heresies. The first place is deservedly claimed by Ittigius, to whose work I have already referred, de Hæresiarchis ævi Apostolici et Apostolico proximi, seu primi et

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secundi a Christo nato Seculi Dissertatio, Lipsiæ, 1690. This laborious and valuable work is directed specifically to the investigation of the subject, which I have proposed for discussion in these Lectures; and it would be endless to point out the benefit which I have derived from a perusal of it. Ittigius also published Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ primi a Christo nato Seculi selecta Capita, Lipsiæ, 1709; the fifth chapter of which contains an account of the early heresies, with some additional observations, which were not in the former work.

I would next mention the work of Buddeus, entitled, Ecclesia Apostolica, Jenæ, 1729. which contains a minute and critical account of all the heresies of the first century. There is also another treatise by the same author, Dissertatio de Hæresi Valentiniana, which though belonging more pro perly to the history of the second century, is of considerable service in the present investigation.

The following work of Colbergius will be found to contain much useful information, de Origine et Progressu Heresium et Errorum in Ecclesia. 1694.

Van Till also wrote a short treatise de primi Sæculi Adversariis, which is closely connected with this subject, and which forms the preface to his Commentarius in IV. Pauli Epistolas. Amsterdam, 1726.

The work of Fabricius, entitled, Salutaris Lux Evangelii toti orbi exoriens, Hamburgi, 1731, contains a fund of information concerning the early history of the Gospel. The eighth chapter is especially devoted to a consideration of the philosophers and heretics who opposed the rise of Christianity: but the heresies are discussed very briefly.

The same may be said in some respects of the work of Weismannus, entitled, Introductio in memorabilia ecclesiastica Historiæ sacre Novi Testamenti, or Historia ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, though the references to other writers are by no means so copious. The thirty-fourth section in the first century is devoted to a History of the Heresies of the apostolic Age.

The Prolegomena of Lampe to his Commentarius ana

lytico-exegeticus Evangelii secundum Joannem, Amsterdam, 1724, contains nearly all the information which we possess concerning the thirty last years of the first century. It deserves to be read with great attention, though I cannot but look upon many of the conclusions as erroneous.

The name of Vitringa is well known in several departments of theological learning: but I would confine myself at present to his Observationes Sacræ, the best edition of which was printed in three volumes at Amsterdam in 1727. This work contains dissertations upon various subjects: and in the following Lectures I have availed myself of those de Sephiroth Kabbalistarum, (vol. I. p. 125.) de Occasione et Scopo Prologi Evangelii Joannis Apostoli, (vol. II. p. 122.) de Statu Ecclesiæ Christianæ a Nerone ad Trajanum, (vol. III. p. 900.) de Hæresibus natis in Ecclesia Apostolica, (p. 922.)

The following works I have either not been able to meet with, and am indebted for a knowledge of their titles to Mosheim, or I am acquainted with them only by partial and occasional reference, as not being immediately connected with the subject under discussion.

Voigtius, Bibliotheca Hæresiologica.

Langius, Hæresiologia sæculi post Christum primi et secundi.

Pfaffius, Institutiones Historiæ Ecclesiasticæ sæculi primi.

Hartmannus, de Rebus gestis Christianorum sub 'Apostolis. 1699. 1710.

Dodwell, Dissertationes in Irenæum.
Alstedius, Chronol. llæres.

A further account of these and other works connected with the history of heresy may be seen in Mosheim, Instit. Maj. p. 322.; and still more copiously in Sagittarius, Introductio ad Historiam Ecclesiæ, tom. I. p. 812; tom. II. p. 655. Also in Walchius, Bibliotheca Theologica, c. VII. sect. 10. vol. III. p. 742.

There is also a work written in Italian by Travasa, entitled, Istoria Critica delle Vite degli Eresiarchi del primo

secolo; and another in German by Godf. Arnold, entitled, Unpartheyische Kirchen und Ketzer Historie von Anfang des Neuen Testaments bis auf das Jahr Christi, 1688, Frankfort, 1700-15, or An impartial History of the Church and of Heretics from the commencement of the New Testament to the year of Christ 1688. The latter work has been greatly extolled by some writers, and as vehemently condemned by others, according as they have approved or disapproved of the liberal and philosophical spirit which appears to have influenced the author c.

Another German work may also be mentioned, which will perhaps be thought less objectionable, Entwurf einer vollständigen Historie der Kezereien, &c. or Sketch of a complete History of Heresies, &c. by C. W.F. Walchs, Leipsic, 1762, &c. in eleven volumes, the first of which contains an account of the early heresies.

To many persons it is needless to mention the collection of Dissertations in four volumes folio, which form so valuable an appendix to the Critici Sacri. In investigating the heresies of the Apostolic age, I have been particularly indebted to the Dissertation of J. S. Saubertus de voce Aéyos, of B. Stolbergius de Agapis, of E. R. Rothius, de Nicolaitis, and of J. M. Langius de Genealogiis nunquam finiendis, &c. and some others, to which I have referred in the course of these Lectures.

An inquiry into the heresies of the first century might appear to exclude a consideration of the tenets of the Manichees. But though Manes, or Manichæus, who gave the name to these heretics, did not appear till the end of the third century, it is well known that the tenets which he espoused had been held before under different names. There is a work upon this particular subject, which may be recommended to the attention of the reader, and which throws light upon the history of many heretics who preceded Manes. I allude to the treatise of J. Ch. Wolfius, entitled, Manichismus ante Manichæos, Hamburgi, 1707;

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• Mosheim has given an account of this work, Instit. Maj. p. 329.

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