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to which he gave the name of Fernandina. This Navarrete takes to be Little Inagua, distant no less than twenty-two leagues from Gran Caico. Besides, in going to Little Inagua, it would be necessary to pass quite close to three islands, each larger than Turk's Island, none of which are mentioned in the journal. Columbus describes Fernandina as stretching twenty-eight leagues S. E. and N. W.; whereas Little Inagua has its greatest length of four leagues in a S. W. direction. In a word, the description of Fernandina has nothing in common with Little Inagua. From Fernandina Columbus sailed S. E. to Isabella, which Navarrete takes to be Great Inagua; whereas this latter bears S. W. from Little Inagua, a course differing 90° from the one followed by Columbus. Again : Columbus, on the 20th of November, takes occasion to say that Guanahani was distant eight leagues from Isabella; whereas Turk's Island is thirtyfive leagues from Great Inagua. Leaving Isabella, Columbus stood W. S. W. for the island of Cuba, and fell in with the Islas Arenas. This course drawn from Great Inagua, would meet the coast of Cuba about Port Nipe ; whereas Navarrete supposes that Columbus next fell in with the keys south of the Jumentos, and which bear W. N. W. from Inagua: a course differing 45° from the one steered by the ships. After sailing for some time in the neighborhood of Cuba, Columbus finds himself, on the 14th of November, in the sea of Nuestra Señora, surrounded by so many islands that it was impossible to count them ; whereas, on the same day, Navarrete places him off Cape Moa, where there is but one small island, and more than fifty leagues distant from any group that can possibly answer the description. Columbus informs us that San Salvador was distant from Port Principe forty-five leagues; whereas Turk's Island is distant from the point supposed by Navarrete to be the same, eighty leagues. On taking leave of Cuba, Columbus remarks that he had followed its coast for an extent of one hundred and twenty leagues. Deducting twenty leagues for his having followed its windings, there still remain one hundred. Now, Navarrete only supposes him to have coasted this island an extent of seventy leagues. Such are the most important difficulties which the theory of Navarrete offers, and which appear insurmountable. Let us now take up the route of Columbus as recorded in his journal, and, with the best charts before us, examine how it agrees with the popular and traditional opinion, that he first landed on the island of San Salvador. We learn from the journal of Columbus that, on the 11th of October, 1492, he continued steering W. S. W. until sunset, when he returned to his old course of west, the vessels running at the rate of three leagues an hour. At ten o'clock he and several of his crew saw a light, which seemed like a torch carried about on land. He continued running on four hours longer, and had made a distance of twelve leagues farther west, when at two in the morning, land was discovered ahead, distant two leagues. The twelve leagues which they ran since ten o'clock, with the two leagues’ distance from the land, form a total corresponding essentially with the distance and situation of Watling's Island from San Salvador; and it is then presumed, that the light seen at that hour was on Watling's Island, which they were then passing. Had the light been seen on land ahead, and they had kept running on four hours, at the rate of three leagues an hour, they must have run high and dry on shore. As the Admiral himself received the royal reward for having seen this light, as the first discovery of land, Watling's Island is believed to be the point for which this premium was granted. On making land, the vessels were hove-to until daylight of the same 12th of October; they then anchored off an island of great beauty, covered with forests, and extremely populous. It was called Guanahani by the natives, but Columbus gave it the name of San Salvador. Exploring its coast, where it ran to the N. N. E., he found a harbor capable of sheltering any number of ships. This description corresponds minutely with the S. E. part of the island known as San Salvador, or Cat Island, which lies east and west, bending at its eastern extremity to the N. N. E., and has the same verdant and fertile appearance. The vessels had probably drifted into this bay at the S. E. side of San Salvador, on the morning of the 12th, while lying to for daylight; nor did Columbus, while remaining at the island, or when sailing from it, open the land so as to discover that what He had taken for its whole length was but a bend at one end of it, and that the main body of the island lay behind, stretching far to the N. W. From GuanaHani, Columbus saw so many other islands that he was at a loss which next to visit. The Indians signified that they were innumerable, and mentioned the names of above a hundred. He determined to go to the largest in sight, which appeared to be about five leagues distant; some of the others were nearer, and some farther off. The island thus selected, it is presumed, was the present island of Concepcion; and that the others were that singular belt of small islands, known as La Cadena (or the chain), stretching past the island of San Salvador in a S. E. and N. W. direction: the nearest of the group being nearer than Concepcion, while the rest are more distant. Leaving.San Salvador in the afternoon of the 14th for the island thus selected, the ships lay by during the night, and did not reach it until late in the following day, being retarded by adverse currents. Colum

bus gave this island the name of Santa Maria de la vol v-16

Concepcion: he does not mention either its bearings from San Salvador, or the course which he steered in going to it. We know that in all this neighborhood the current sets strongly and constantly to the W. N. W.; and since Columbus had the currents against him, he must have been sailing in an opposite direction, or to the E. S. E. Besides, when near Concepcion, Columbus sees another island to the westward, the largest he had yet seen ; but he tells us that he anchored off Concepcion, and did not stand for this larger island, because he could not have sailed to the west. Hence it is rendered certain that Columbus did not sail westward in going from San Salvador to Concepcion ; for, from the opposition of the wind, as there could be no other cause, he could not sail towards that quarter. Now, on reference to the chart, we find the island at present known as Concepcion situated E. S. E. from San Salvador, and at a corresponding distance of five leagues. Leaving Concepcion on the 16th of October, Columbus steered for a very large island seen to the westward nine leagues off, and which extended itself twentyeight leagues in a S. E. and N. W. direction. He was becalmed the whole day, and did not reach the island ountil the following morning, 17th of October. He named it Fernandina. At noon he made sail again, with a view to run around it, and reach another island

called Samoet; but the wind being at S. E. by S., the

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