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God's vindi&tive wrath is not in it,) yet even they shrink from it, and loth they are to taste it.
3. Thirdly, Both the one and the other may be impatient and fretful in adversity; it is the very nature of flesh and blood to be fo. • The wicked are like the troubled sea, which cannot rest, whose " waters cait forth mire and dirt,” Isa. lvii. 20. It is an allusion to the unstable and stormy ocean: you know there is naturally an estuation and working in the sea, whether it be incensed by the wind or no : but if a violent wind blow upon the unquiet ocean, O what a raging and foaming is there! what abundance of tralh and filth doth it at such times cait out!
Now, though grace make a great difference betwixt one and another, vet I dare not say, but even a gracious heart may be very unquiet and tumultuous in the day of affliction. Sanctified souls have their passions and lusts which are too little mortified; even as sweetbrier and holy-thistles have their prickles, as well as the worthless bramble. Jonah was a good man, yet his foul was fadly distempered by adverse providences; Jonah iv. 9. “ Yea, (faith he, and that to « his God) I do well to be angry, cven unto death.”
4. Fourthly, But the one and the other may be weary of the rod, and think the day of adversity a tedious day, wishing it were once at an end. Babylon shall be weary of the evil that God will bring upon it, Jer. li. ult. And O chat none of Zion's children were weary of adversity too ! How sad a moan doth Job make of his long-continued affiction, Job xvi. 6, 7. “ Though I speak, my grief is not assuaged; " and though I forbear, what am I ealed ? But now he hath made " me weary.”
And if you look into Psalm vi. 3, 6. you may see another strong Christian even tired in the way of affliction : « My soul (faith David “ in that place) is fore vexed, but thou, O Lord, how long ? I am " weary with my groaning."
5. Fifthly, Both the one and the other may be driven to their knees by adversity. “ Lord, in trouble have they visited thee; they have "s poured out a prayer when thy chastening was upon them,” Ifa. xxvi. 16. Not that a godly person will pray no longer than the rod is at his back; O no; he cannot live long without prayer, how few calls foever he hath to that duty by the rod; but when the rod is on his back, he will be more frequently and more fervently upon his knees ; indeed many gracious hearts are like children's tops, which will go no longer than they are whipt; they cannot find their knees and their tongues till God find a rod to excite them. A dangerous symptom. The fame affliction may put å gracious and graceless soul to their knees; but though in the external matter of duty, and in the external call or occasion of duty, they seem to agree, yet is there a i vast difference in the principles, manner, and ends of these their duties; as will evidently appear in its proper place in our following discourse.
But by what hath been said in this section, you inay see how in
fome things the holy upright foul acts too like the unsanctified, and
in other things how much the hypocrite may act like a faint ; he may X be externally humbled, fo was Abab; he may pray under the rod,
Mal. ii. 13. yea, and request others to pray for him, fo Jid Simon, Acts viii. 24.
SÉCT. III. D UT though the found and unfound heart differ not in some exD ternal carriages under the rod, yet there are effects of adversity which are proper to either, and will discriminate them. To which end let us first see what effects adverfiiy is usually followed withal in unfound and carnal hearts : and we shall find among others, these five symptoms of a naughty heart appearing under crosses and afilictions.
1. First, A graceless heart is not quickly and easily brought to see the hand of God in thofe troubles that befal it, and to be duly affected with it; Isa. xxvi. 11. « Lord, when thy hand is lifted up, they will
not fee:" when it has smitten, or is lifted up to smite, they Thut their eyes; it is the malice of this man, or the negligence of that, or the unfaithfulness of another, that hath brought all this trouble upon me. Thus the creature is the horizon that terminates their sigbt, and beyond that they usually see nothing. Sometimes indeed the hand of God is so immediately manifested, and convincingly discovered in afflictions, that they cannot avoid the light of it; and then they may, in their way, pour out a prayer before him ; but ordinarily they impute all to fecond causes, and overlook the first cause of their troubles.
2. Secondly, Nor is it usual with these men under the rod to retire into their clofets, and search their hearts there, to find out the particular caufe and provocation of their affliction : “No man repent« ed him of his wickedness, saying, What have I done ?" Jer. viii. 6. What curfed thing is there with me, that hath thus incensed the anger of God against met God visits their iniquities with afflictions, but they visit not their own hearts by felf-examinations. God judges them, but they judge not themselves; He fbews their iniquities in a clear glars, but none faith, What have I done? This phrase, What have I done is the voice of one that recollects himself after a rath action; or the voice of a man astonished at the discovery amictions make of his lips; but no such voice as this is ordinarily heard among carnal men.
3. Thirdly, An unsound professor, if left to his choice, would rather chufe sin than affliction ; and fees more evil in that than in this.
And it cannot be doubted, if we consider the principle by which all unregenerate men are acted, is fense, not faith. Hence Job's friends would have argued his hypocrisy, Job xxxvi. 21. And had their application been as right as their rule, it would have concluded it ; This (viz: fin) haft thou chofen, rather than-affligion.
I do not say that an upright man cannot commit a moral evil, to escape a penal evil. O that daily observation did not too plentifully furnith us with fad instances of that kind ! But upright ones do not, dare not, upon a serious deliberate discussion and debate, chuse fin rather than aMiction; what they may do upon sürprisals and in the violence of temptation, is of another nature.
But a false and unfound heart discovers itself in the choice it makes upon deliberation, and that frequently when sin and trouble come in competition. Put the case, faith Augustine, a ruffian thould with one hand set the cup of drunkenness to thy mouth, and with the other a dagger to thy brcast, and say, drink or die; thou shouldest rather! chuse to die fober, than to live a drunkard: And many Christians have refifted unto blood, striving against fin, and, with renowned Mofes, chofen affliction the worst of afflictions, yea, death itself in the most formidable appearance, rather than fin; and it is the habitual temper and resolution of every gracious heart so to do, though those holy refolutions are sometimes over-borne by violence of temptation.
But the hypocrite dreads less the defilement of his soul, than the loss of his estate, liberty, or life. If you ask upon what ground then doth the apostle suppose, i Cor. xiii. 3. a man may give his body to be burnt, and not have charity ; that the salamander of hypocrisy may live in the flame of martyrdom? The answer is at hand; They that chuse death in the sense of this text, do not chuse it to escape sin, : but to feed and indulge it. Those strange adventures (if any such be) are rather to maintain their own honour, and enrol their names among worthy and famous persons to posterity ; or out of a blind zeal to their espoused errors and mistakes, than in a due regard to the glory of God, and the preservation of integrity. I fear to speak it, ; but it must be spoken, (saith * Hierom), That even martyr iom it« felf, when suffered for admiration and applause, profits nothing, '; • but that blood is shed in vain.'
4. Fourthly, It is the property of an unregenerate soul, under adversity, to turn from creature to creature for support and comfort, and not from every creature to God alone. So long as their feet can touch ground, I mean, feel any creature-relief or confort unler them, they can subsistand live in a Mictions ; but when they lose ground, when all creature-refuge fails, then their hearts fail too.
Thus Zedekiah, and the self-deceiving Jews, when they saw their own Itrength failed them, and there was little hope left that they should deliver themselves from the Chaldeans, what do they in that strait ? Do they, with upright Jeholhaphat say, “Our eyes are unto * « thee ??" No, their eyes were upon Egypt for luccour, not upon Heaven; well, Pharaoh and his aids are left still, ail hope is not Vol. V.
rat, and's luppore; or life. The
* Timeo dicere, fed dicendum eft; martyrium ipfum fi ideo fiat ut admirationi et laudi babea. tur a fratribus ; fruftra fanguis effufus ef. Hier.
fure al comfort themate be loft, andhis, the L
gone, Jer. xxxvii. 9. See the like in Ahaz, in a fore plunge and diftress, he courts the king of Aflyria for help, 2 Chron. xxviii. 22, 23. That project failing, why then he will try what the gods of Damalcus can do for him ; any way rather than the right way, FleElere je nequeail Tuperos, Acheronta movebo.
So it is with many others : if one child die, what do they do, run to God, and comfort themselves in this, the Lord liveth, though my child die. If an estate be lost, and a fainiiy finking, do they with David comfort themselves in the everlasting covenant, ordered and sure ? No; but if one relation die, there is another alive ; if an eftate be loft, yet not all; something is left still, and the case will mend.
As long as ever such men have any visible encouragement, they will | hang upon it, and not make up all in Christ, and encourage them
selves in the Lord. To tell them of rejoicing in the Lord, when the fig-tree blossoms not, is what they cannot underttand.
5. Fiftbly, To conclude; an unfound heart never comes out of the furnace of affliction purged, mortified, and more fpiritual and holy than when he was cast into it ; his scum and dross is not there feparated from him ; nay, the more they are afflicted, the worse they are. « Why should ye be smitten any more ? ye will revolt more
" and more," Ifa. j. 5. And, to keep to our metaphor, consult Jer. Į VI 29. God had put that incorrigible people into the furnace of af
fliction, and kept them long in that fire ; and what was the issue? Why, faith the prophet, « The bellows are burnt, the lead is con« Tumed of the fire, the founder melteth in vain, &c. reprobate fil« ver shall men call them, because the Lord bath rejected them."
If the fire of affliction be continually blown till the very bellows be burnt, that is, the tongue, or rather the lungs of the prophet, which have some resemblance; though these be even spent in reproving, and threatening, and denouncing woe upon woe, and judgment upon judgment; and God fulfils his word upon them ; yet still they are as before ; the drofs remains : though Jerusalem be made a pot, and the inhabitants the flesh boiling in it, as is noted (pertinently to my discourse) in Ezek. xxiv. 6, 13. the scum remains with them, and cannot be separated by the fire ; and the reason is plain, because no
affliction in itself purges fin, but as it is fanctified, and works in the į virtue of God's blefling, and in pursuance of the promises.
O think on this you that have had thousands of afflictions in one kind and another, and none of them all have done you good i they have not mortified, humbled, or benefited you at all: And thus you Tee what the effects of adversity are, when it meets with a graceless
effects adversity and affliction use to have when they meet with an bonest and sincere heart : Only, before I come to particulars, I think it needful to acquaint thee, that the fruits of amfictions are most-1 ly after-fruits, and not so discernible by the Christian himself under the rod, as after he hath been exercised by it, Heb. xii. 11. and calmly refleets upon what is past; nor doth every Christian attain the fame measure and degree ; some rejoice, others commonly submit; but I think these Teven effects are ordinarily found in all upright hearts that pass under the rod.
I. First, The sincere and upright soul betakes itself to God in af 1 fliction ; Job. i 20. When God was smiting, Job was praying; when , God afflicted, Job worshipped : So David, Psalm cxvi. 3, 4. " I « found sorrow and trouble, then called I upon the name of the « Lord.” And when the messenger of Satan buffeted Paul. “ For « this cause (faith he) I befought the Lord thrice,” 2 Cor. xii. 8. 1 Alas! whither should a child go in distress, but to its father?
2. Secondly, He sees and owns the hand of God in his afflictions, how much or little toever of the instruments of trouble appear. The Lord hath taken away, saith Job, Job i. 21. God hath bidden him, faith David, 2 Sam xvi. 10. If the blow come from the hand of a wicked man, yet he fees that wicked hand in God's righteous hand, Psalm xvii. 14. And this apprehension is fundamental to all that communion men 'have with God in their afflictions, and to all that peaceableness and gracious subinision of their spirits under the rod: He that sees nothing of God in his troubles, hath nothing of God in his soul.
3. Thirdly, He can justify God in all the afflictions and troubles that come upon him, be they never so severe. « Thou art just in all ** « that is brought upon us,” faith Nehemiah, Neh. ix. 33: “ Thou « hast punished us less than our iniquities deserve,” saith Ezra, Ezra ix. 13. « It is of the Lord's mercies we are not consumed," saith the church, Lam. iii. 22. Are we in Babylon? It is a mercy we are not in hell. If God condemn him, yet he will justify God; If God cast him into a sea of trouble, yet he will acknowledge, in all that fea of trouble, there is not one drop of injustice. If I have not deserved such usage from the hands of men, yet I have deserved worse than this at the hands of God.
4. Fourthly, Afflictions use to melt and humble gracious hearts; there is an habitual tenderness planted in their spirits, and a just occasion quickly draws it forth: And so usual a thing it is for gracious hearts to be humbled under the afflictings of God, that affliction is upon that score called humiliation : The effect put for the cause, to thew where one is, the other will be, 2 Cor. xii. 21 My God will humble me, i, e. he will afflict me with the sight of your fins and disorders; and if a gracious soul be so apt to be humbled for other men's sins, much more for his own.
5. Fifthly, The upright soul is inquisitive under the rod, to find out that evil for which the Lord contends with him by affliction ; Job x. 2. « Shew me wherefore thou contendest with me:" And