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LIST OF WRITERS

IN THE SEVENTEENTH VOLUME.

J. G. A. . . J. G. ALGER.

! G. G. . . . . Gordon Goodwin. AJA. SIR ALEXANDER JOHN ARBUTHNOT, A. G. .... The Rev. ALEXANDER GORDON. K.C.S.I.

J. A. H. . . J. A. Hamilton. T. A. A. . . T. A. ARCHER.

R. H. . . . . ROBERT IIarrison. G. F. R. B. G. F. Russell BARKER.

W. J. H... PROFESSOR W. JEROME HARRISON. T. B. . . . . THOMAS BAYNE.

T. F. H. .. T. F. HENDERSON.
W. B. . . . . The Rev. William BENHAM, B.D.,

J. H. . . . . Miss Jennett HUMPHREYS.
F.S.A.

| R. H-T. ... The Late Robert Hunt, F.R.S. G. T. B. . . G. T. BETTANY.

W. H. ... The Rev. William Hunt. A. C. B. . . A. C. Bickley.

B. D. J. . . B. D. JACKSON. B. H. B. . . The Rev. B. H. BLACKER.

'A. J. .. .. The Rev. Augustus Jessopp, D.D. W. G. B. . . The Rev. PROFESSOR BLaikie, D.D.

R. J. J.. .. The Rev. R. JENKIN JONES. G. O. B. . . G. C. Boase.

H. G. K. . . H. G. KEENE, C.I.E. G. S. B. . . G. S. BOULGER.

C. K. .... Charles Kent. A. H. B. . . A. H. BULLEN.

J. K. . . . . Joseph Knight. H. M. C. . . H. MANNERS CHICHESTER. J. K. L. . . PROFESSOR J. K. LAUGHTON. M. C-.... Miller Christy.

S. L. L. . . S. L. LEE. T. C. .... THOMPSON Cooker, F.S.A. W. B. L... THE Rev. W. B. LOWTHER. W. P. C. . . W. P. COURTNEY.

H. R. L. . . The Rev. H. R. LUARD, D.D. L. C. .. .. LIONEL Cust.

J. A. F. M. J. A. Fuller Maitland.
J. D. . JAMES Dixon, M.D.

L. M. M... Miss MIDDLETON.
J. W. E... The Rev. J. W. Essworth, F.S.A. N. M..... Norman MOORE, M.D.
F. E. . . . . Francis EsPINASSE.

T. 0. .... The Rev. THOMAS OLDEN.
L. F. .... Louis Fagan.

N. D. F. P. N. D. F. PEARCE.
J. G. .... JAMES Gairdner.

R. L. P. . . R. L. POOLE.
S. R. G. . . S. R. GARDINER, LL.D). S. L.-P.... STANLEY LANE-POOLE.
R. G. . . . . Richard GARNETT, LL.D. J. M. R. . . J. M. Rigg.

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C. J. R.... The Rev. C. J. Robinson.
L. C. S. . . LLOYD C. Sanders.
J. M. S. . . J. M. SCOTT.
G. B. S. . . G. BARNETT SMITH.
L. S. . . . . LESLIE STEPHEN.
H. M. S... H. MORSE STEPHENS.
C. W. S... C. W. SUTTON.
H. R. T. .. H. R. Tedder.

T. F. T. .. PROFESSOR T. F. Tour.
R. H. V. . . LIEUT.-COLONEL VETCH, R.E.
A. V. . . . . Alsager Vian.
A. W. W... PROFESSOR A. W. WARD, LL.D.
M. G. W... The Rev. M. G. WATKINS.
F. W-T... FRANCIS Watt.
C. W-H. . . Charles Welch.
W. W. ... WARWICK WROTH.

DICTIONARY

OF

NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY

Edward

Edward

EDWARD, EADWARD, or EAD- fighting between the Kentishmen and the WEARD, called THE ELDER (d.924), king of Danes. Meanwhile Æthelwald was preparthe Angles and Saxons, the elder son of King ing to attack the kingdom, and in 904 he Ælfred and Ealhswyth, was brought up most came to Essex from over sea' with a fleet carefully at his father's court with Ælfthryth, that he had purchased, received the submishis sister, who was next above him in age; sion of the people, and obtained more ships they were both beloved by all, and were edu- from them. With these he sailed the next cated as became their rank, learning psalms year to East Anglia and persuaded the Danes and English poetry and reading English books to join him in an invasion of Mercia. They (ASSER, P.485). Eadward distinguished him-overran the country, and even entered Wessex, self in his father's later wars with the Danes, crossing the Thames at Cricklade in Wiltand the taking of the Danish camp on the shire, and then ravaged as far as Bredon in Colne and the victory at Buttington in 894 | Worcestershire. Eadward retaliated by laying are attributed to him (ÆTHELWEARD, p.518). waste the western districts of East Anglia, Although he had no special part of the king- and then ordered his army to return. The dom assigned to him, he bore the title of king Kentishmen refused to obey the order, and in 898, probably as his father's assistant waited to give battle to the Danes. A fierce (KEMBLE, Coder Dipl. 321). He was, we are conflict took place, and the Danes kept the told, as good a soldier as his father, but not battle-ground, but they lost more men than 80 good a scholar (FLOR. WIG.) On Ælfred's the English, and among the slain was the death, which took place on 28 Oct. 901, he atheling Æthelwald. His death put an end was chosen by the 'witan' to succeed to the to the war. The next year (906) the peace kingdom (ETHELWEARD, p. 519), and was which Ælfred had made with Guthrumcrowned on the Whitsunday following. His Æthelstan was renewed at Eadward's dictasuccession was disputed by one of his cousins, tion at Ittingford, and he and the Danish the ætheling Æthelwald, a son of Æthelred, under-king of East Anglia, Guthrum Eohe the fourth son of Æthelwulf, who seized on ricsson, joined in putting out laws which, two of the king's vills, Wimborne in Dorset- though binding both on the English and the shire and Twynham (Christ Church) in Hamp- Danes, expressly recognised and confirmed shire. The king led an army against him and the differences between the usages of the two encamped at Badbury, near Wimborne, but peoples, though, indeed, these differences were Æthelwald shut himself up in the town with very superficial (THORPE, Ancient Laws, p.71). his men and declared that he wouldeither. The death of Æthelwald delivered Eadlive there or lie there' (A.-S. Chron.) Never-ward from a dangerous rival, and enabled him, theless he escaped by night, and went to the as soon as opportunity offered, to enter on Danes in Northumbria, who received him as his great work, the widening and strengthenking. Eadward entered Wimborne and senting of his immediate kingdom and the rethe lady with whom thelwald lived back duction of princes who reigned beyond its to her nunnery, for she had taken the veil borders to a condition of dependence. He before she joined her lover. For two or styled himself in his chartersAngul-Saxothree years after this Eadward seems to have num rex,' treating the two races over which reigned in peace, save that there was some he reigned as one people. The treaty of 878

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92

had left his house the kingship of the western them from the Mercian ealdormanry, and de half of the Mercian Angles and of the Saxons finitely united them to the West-Saxon land. of the south ; his father had ruled over both After the accession of Æthelfæd as sole ruler, as separate peoples; he, though as yet there with the title of the Lady of the Mercians, was little if any fusion between them, seems she carried on with extraordinary vigour the to have marked by this change in the royal work, already begunduring her husband's life, style his intention to treat them as one of guarding her dominions from attack by (GREEX, Conquest of England, p. 192). At building 'burhs' or fortified settlements at the same time an important political distinc- different points of strategic importance, such tion existed between them, for the Mercians as Tamworth and Stafford (see under ETHELwere still governed by their own ealdorman, FLEDA). Meanwhile Eadward pursued a simidescended probably from the line of ancient | lar policy in the south-east. No longer waiting Mercian kings. This, however, proved to be for the Danes to attack him, he advanced his a source of strength rather than of weakness, border by building two burhs at Hertford to for the ealdorman Æthelred had married the hold the passage of the Lea, and then marched king's sister Æthelflad see ETHELFLEDA), into Essex and encamped at Maldon, while and Eadward owed much of the prosperity of his men fortified Witham on the Blackwater. his reign to this marriage, and much too to the He thus added a good portion of Essex to fact that no son was born of it to carry on the his dominions, and much folk submitted to old line of separate, though now dependent, him that were before under the power of the rulers,

Danish men' (ib.) Then, perhaps, followed The first measure of defence against Danish ! a period of rest as far as Eadward and the attacks was taken by Ethelred and his wife, West-Saxons were concerned, though Æthelwho in 907 • restored,' that is fortified and flæd still went on with her work, securing colonised, Chester, and thus gained a port that the Mercian border against the Danes and might be used by ships employed in keeping the Welsh. In 915 Eadward was suddenly off invasion by the Irish Ostmen, and esta- called on to defend his land from foreign inblished a stronghold commanding the Dee. vasion, for a viking fleet from Brittany under In 910 Eadward was again at war with the two jarls sailed into the Severn, attacked the Danes ; they seem to have broken the peace, Welsh, and took the Bishop of Llandaff priand in return an army of West-Saxons and soner. Eadward ransomed the bishop, and Mercians ravaged Northumbria for the space sent a force to guard the coast of Somerset. of forty days. A battle was fought on 6 Aug. The Northmen landed, and were defeated with at Tettenhallin Staffordshire,where the Danes great loss by the levies of Gloucester and were defeated. Then Eadward went into Kent Hereford; they then made attempts to land to gather his fleet together, for the Northmen at Watchet and Porlock in Somerset, but infested the Channel, and he bade a hundred were beaten off. Some landed on one of the ships and their crews meet him there, so well Holms in the Bristol Channel, and many of had his father's work in naval organisation them died of hunger on the island. Finally prospered. While he was in Kent in 911 the the remainder of them sailed away to IreNorthmen, reckoning that he had no other land. Later in the year Eadward began to force at his disposal beyond that in his ships advance his border in a new direction, and (A.-S. Chron.), again broke the peace, and, re- attacked the Danish settlements on the Quse; fusing to listen to the terms offered them by he took Buckingham after a siege of four the king and the witan,'swept over the whole weeks, and raised fortifications there. Then of Mercia to the Avon, and there embarked, the jarl Thurcytel, who held Bedford, and no doubt in ships from Ireland, and did some all the chief men there, and many of those damage to Wessex as they sailed on the Se- who belonged to the settlement of Northvern (ÆTHELWEARD, p. 519). They were ampton, submitted to him. stoutly resisted by the levy of those parts, From the submission of Thurcytel, which and sustained much loss. Eadward's army, should probably be placed under 915 (A.-S. composed of both West-Saxons and Mercians, Chron., Mercian; FLORENCE; under 918, acdefeated them at Wodensfieldin Staffordshire, cording to A.-S. Chron., Winton, followed by with the loss of their two kings, Halfdan and GREEN), the chronology of the reign is very Ecwils, and many of their principal men. In confused. In this attempt to deal with it, as the course of this or of the next year the eal- | far as seems necessary for the present purpose, dorman Æthelred died, and Eadward gave the the Mercian has for obvious reasons been ealdormanship of Mercia to his widow Æthel-preferred to the Winchester version of the flæd. At the same time he annexed London Chronicle,' considerable weight has been and Oxford, 'with all the lands which be- given to Florence of Worcester, and the deaths longed thereto' (A.-S. Chron.), he detached of Æthelflæd in 918 and Eadward in 924 have

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