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THESE considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind, and exhibit the continuance of the UNION as a primary object of a patriotic desire. Is there a doubt, whether a common government can embrace so large a sphere ? -let experience solve it. To listen to mere speculation, in such a case, were criminal. We are authorized to hope that a proper organization of the whole, with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective sub-divisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. It is well worth a fair and full experiment. With such powerful and obvious motives to union, affecting all parts of our country, while experiment shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those, who, in any quarter, may endeavour to weaken its hands.
1 In contemplating the causes which may disturb our union, it occurs as matter of serious concern, that any ground should be furnished for characterising parties, by gece graphical discriminations-Northern and Southern-Atlantic and Western ; whence designing men may endeavour to excite a belief,
that there is a real difference of local interests and views. One of the expedients of party, to acquire influence within particular districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. You cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and heart-burnings which spring from these misrepresentations : they tend to render alien to each other, those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection.--The inhabitants of our western country have lately had a useful lesson on this head : they have seen, in the negotiation by the executive, and in the unanimous ratification by the senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that event, throughout the United States, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propogated among them, of a policy in the general government, and in theatlantic states, unfriendly to their interests, in regard to the Missisippi ; they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties, that with GreatBritain, and that with Spain, which secure to them every thing they could desire,in respect to our foreign relations, towards confirming their prosperity. Will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these ad.
vantages on the union by which they were procured ? Will they not henceforth be deaf to those advisers, if such they are, who would sever them from their brethren, and connect them with aliens ? mora,
To the efficacy and permanency of your union, a government for the whole is indispensable. No alliances, however strict, between the parts, can be an adequate substitute; they will inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances, in all times, have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay, by the adoption of a constitution of government better calculated than your former for an intimate union, and for the efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the offspring of your own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation, and mature deliberation, completely free in its principles, in the distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing, within itself, a provision for its own a. mendment, has a just claim to your confi. dence, and your support. Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty.. The basis of our political systems isthe right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government. But, the constitution which at any time exists, 'till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacred andobligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government, pre-suppose the duty of every individual to obey the es. tablished government.
ALL obstructions to the execution of the làws, all combinations and associations, un. der whatever plausible character, with the real character to direct, controul, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordinary force, to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation, the will of a party, often a small, but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the illconcerted and incongruous projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans, digested by common coun. cils, and modified by mutual interests.
HOWEVER combinations or associations of the above description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely in the course of time and things, to become potent engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men, will be enabled to subvert the power of the people, and to usurp for themselves the reins of government; destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. *.
TOWARDS the preservation of your gov. ernment, and the permanency of your pres. ent happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily discountenance irregular opposition to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care, the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. One method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the constitu. tion, alterations which will impair the ener. gy of the system, and thus to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. In all