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that through death he might faithful as a servant, in the destroy him who hath the pow. whole of his house; for a testier of death, that is, the impos- mony of those things which tor;* 15 and might deliver those were to be spoken afterward: who, through fear of death, 6 but Christ, as a Son, over were all their lifetime subject his own house ; whose house to slavery.

we are, if we keep the confi16 For indeed death doth not dence and the glorying of our in any manner take hold of an- hope firm to the end. gels ; but it taketh hold of the 7 WHEREFORE, as the holy seed of Abraham. 17 Where- spirit saith, “ To-day, if ye will fore it was right for Christ in hear his voice, 8 harden not all things to be like his breth- your hearts, as in the provocaren ; that he might be a mer- tion, in the day of trial in the ciful and faithful high-priest in desert: 9 where your fathers things relating to God, to make tried me, proved me, and saw reconciliation for the sins of my works forty years: 10 wherethe people.f 18 For in that he fore I was grieved with that himself hath suffered, having generation, and said, “They albeen tempted, he is able to as- ways err in heart; and they sist those who are tempted. have not known my ways:' 11

Ch. III. 1 WHEREFORE, holy so in mine indignation I sobrethren, partakers of a heaven- lemnly said, “They shall not ly calling, consider Jesus the enter into my rest:'" 12 so Apostle and High-Priest of our likewise take heed, brethren, profession ; 2 who was faithful lest there be in any of you an to him that appointed him, as evil heart of unbelief, in falling Moses also was faithful in the away from the living God: 13 whole of his house. 3 For this but exhort one another daily, person was counted worthy of while it is called to day; lest more glory than Moses, inas- any of you be hardened through much as he who formed the the deceitfulness of sin. house hath more honour than 14 For we are made partakthe house.

ers of Christ, if we retain the 4 (For every house is formed beginning of our confidence by some one; but he who form- firm to the end; 15 while it is ed all things] is God.) said, “To-day, if ye will hear

5 And Moses indeed was his voice, harden not your not an angel, or superior spirit. The words might be rendered. Since then the children partook

non of flesh and blood, he also completely shared in the same.” Im. Ver. note. * the idolatrous and persecuting power. The death of Christ introduced a dispensation which, by gradually putting an end to heathenism and idolatry, and establishing the doctrine of a future life, abolished the power of death, and raised man above the fear of dissolution. See 2 Tim. i. 10,

+ The expression is remarkable : Els to inaoxeolai tas duastias, not to propitiate God, but to propitiate the sins of the people. The meaning probably is, q. d. to remove all legal obstructions and disqualifications, so that those, who were excluded as sinners from the privi. leges of the old covenant, might be admitted to the benefits of the new dispensation, and might be called and made holy. See Theol. Rep. vol. v. p. 164.


and Wetstein in loco.

hearts, as in the provocation.” lief; 7 God again limiteth a 16 For some, when they had certain day, saying by David, heard, provoked: however, not “ To-day,” after so long a time, all who came out of Egypt as it is said, “ To-day if ye shall under Moses.

hear his voice, harden not your 17 But with whom was God hearts." 8 For if Joshua* had grieved forty years ? was it not given them

rest, then

God with those who sinned, whose would not afterward have spokcarcases fell in the desert ? 18 en of another day.

, o therefore

say that they should not enter a keeping of rest to the people into his rest, but to those who of God. 10 For he that hath believed not? 19 So we see, entered into God's rest, hath that they could not enter in, rested also from his own works, because of unbelief.

as God did from his. CH. IV. 1 Let us fear there. 11 Let us earnestly endeavour, fore, lest, a promise being left therefore, to enter into that rest; of entering into his rest, any of lest any one fall after the same you should appear to come example of unbelief. short of it. 2 For we have had 12 For the word of God is the glad tidings proclaimed to lively and energetic, and sharpus, as they also had ; but the er than any two-edged sword, word which they heard did not and pierceth, even to the dividprofit them, not being mixed ing asunder of soul and spirit, with faith in those who heard it. and of the joints and marrow,

3 For we who have believed and is a discerner of the thoughts do enter into rest, as God saith ; and intentions of the heart : 13 “ So in mine indignation I said, nor is there any creature that • They shall not enter into my is not manifest before it: but rest :)" although his works all things are naked and opened were finished from the founda- to the eyes of Him with whom tion of the world.

we have to do. 4 For Moses somewhere 14 Having therefore a great speaketh thus of the seventh High-priest, who hath passed day, “ And God rested on the into the heavens, Jesus the Son seventh day from all his works." of God, let us hold fast our 5 And in this place it is said profession. 15 For we have not again, “ They shall not enter a High-priest who cannot have into my rest.

compassion for our infirmities; 6 Since therefore it remain- but one who was tempted in all eth that some must enter there- things like ourselves, though in, and those, to whom glad without sin. 16 Let us therefore tidings were first proclaimed, come with confidence to the entered not in, because of unbe- ) throne of favour, that we may

• Gr. Jesus : which is the same as Joshua in the Hebrew. Joshua is evidently the person here spoken of.

obtain mercy, and receive fa 11 CONCERNING whom we vour for the purpose of season- have many things to say, and able help

hard to be explained, since ye Ch. V. 1 For every high- are dull of hearing. priest taken from among men,

12 For although by this time, is appointed for men in things ye ought to be teachers, yet have relating to God, that he may ye need that one should teach offer gifts and sacrifices for sins; you again what are the first ele2 being one who can be mildly ments of the oracles of God; affected towards the ignorant, and ye are become such as have and those who wander out of need of milk, and not of strong the way; since he himself also food. 13 For

every one who is compassed with infirmity. 3 partaketh of milk is unskilled And because of this infirmity in the doctrine of justification: he ought, as for the people, so for he is a babe: 14 but strong for himself also, to offer sacri- food belongeth to persons fullfices for sins.*

grown, even to those who, by 4 And no man taketh this house, have their senses exercised nour to himself, but he that is to the discernment both of good called of God, as was Aaron. 5 and of evil. So Christ also glorified not CH. VI. 1 Wherefore let us himself to be made a High-leave discoursing on the prinpriest; but God who said to ciples of the doctrine of Christ, him, " Thou art my Son, to-day and go on to perfection; not I have adopted thee :" 6 as laying again the foundation of also God saith in another psalm, reformation from dead works, " Thou art a priest to the age, and of faith towards God, 2 of according to the order of Mel- the doctrine of baptisms, and of chisedec."

putting on of hands, and of the 7 And Christ, when, the resurrection of the dead, and of days of his flesh, he had offered the aionian judgment: 3 and up prayers and supplications this will we do, if God perwith a strong cry, and with mit. tears, to him who was able to 4 For with regard to those save him from death, and was who have been once enlightenheard for his godly reverence, ed, and have tasted the heaven8 though he was a Son, yet he ly gift, and have been made learned obedience from the partakers of a holy spirit, 5 and things which he suffered; 9 and, have tasted the good word of having been made perfect, be- God, and the mighty works of came the author of aionian sal- the coming age, 6 and yet have vation to all who obey him; 10 fallen away, it is impossible to having been called by God a renew them again to a reformaHigh-priest according to the tion; since they are crucifying order of Melchisedec.

in themselves afresh the son * In what sense Christ is said to offer a sacrifice for sin for bimself is explained in the note upon chap. vii. 27.

of God, and are thus making of end of all gain-saying. 17 In him a public example.

which matter God, being more 7 For the land which drink- abundantly willing to show to eth in the rain that often com- the heirs of the promise the eth upon it, and produceth herb- immutability of his counsel, inage useful to those for whom it terposed by an oath: 18 that is tilled, receiveth blessing from by two immutable things, in God: 8 but that which beareth which it was impossible for thorns and briars, whose end is God to speak falsely, we might to be burned, is rejected, and is have strong consolation, who about being cursed.

have fled for refuge to lay hold 9 But, beloved, though we on the hope set before us; 19 thus speak, we are persuaded which hope we have as a sure better things of you, and things and stedfast anchor of the soul, which belong to salvation. 10 and as entering into the part For God is not unjust, 80 as to within the veil; 20 whither our forget your work and the love forerunner, Jesus, hath entered which ye have shown towards for us, being made a high-priest his name, in that ye have mi- to the age, according to the ornistered to the wants of the der of Melchisedec. saints, and still minister. 11 But CH. VII. 1 For this Melchiwe desire that every one of you sedec, king of Salem, priest of show the same earnestness, to the Most High God, who met the full assurance of your hope Abraham returning from the to the end : 12 that ye be not slaughter of the kings, and slothful, but imitators of those I blessed him, 2 to whom even who through faith and patience Abraham gave a tenth part of inherit the promises.

all the spoils, first being by in13 For when God made his terpretation king of righteouspromise to Abraham, because ness, and then king of Salem he could swear by no greater, also, (which is, king of peace,) 34 he sware by himself, 14 saying, without recorded father, without 66 Assuredly I will greatly bless recorded mother, without genethee, and I will greatly multi- alogy, having neither beginning ply thee.” 15 And accordingly, of days nor end of life,* but rewhen Abraham had waited pa- sembling the son of God, contiently, he obtained the promise. tinueth a priest during life. 16 For men indeed swear by

4 Now consider how great one who is greater: and an oath this man was, to whom even the for confirmation is to them an patriarch Abraham gave a tenth

* Of whose father, mother, pedigree, birth, and death we have no acount." Wakefield; who prefers this intelligible though free translation of the original to what must appear a strange paradoxical account to common readers. See his note. The short account of Melchisedec is contained in Genesis xiv. The writer runs a parallel between Melchisedec and Christ. Met chisedec was a priest, though not of a priestly family : of the termination of his priesthood we have no account: he was a king as well as a priest; and of an order superior to Aaron, who virtually paid tithes to Melchisedec in his ancestor Abraham. In all these respects Melchisedee is a type of Christ, who is a priest after the order of Melchisedec, and not after the order of Aaron." Im. Ver. note.

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part of the spoils. 5 And indeed | cording to the likeness of Mel. those who are of the sons of chisedec, 16 who became such, Levi, who receive the office of not according to the law of a the priesthood, have a com- carnal commandment, but acmandment to take tithes from cording to the power of an endthe people according to the law, less life; 17 for the scripture witthat is, from their own brethren, nesseth, “ Thou art a priest to though these are descendants the age, according to the order from Abraham : 6 but he whose of Melchisedec. pedigree is not from the same 18 For indeed there is a disstock with them, received tithes annulling of the former comfrom Abraham, and blessed him mandment, because of its weakwho had the promises.

ness and unprofitableness; 19 7 Now, without any contra-(for the law made nothing perdiction, the less is blessed by fect;) but it was the bringing in the greater. 8 And here men of a better hope, through which who die receive tithes; but we draw near to God. 20 And there he received them, of whom inasmuch as he became a priest it is witnessed that he liveth. not without an oath ; 21 (for 9 And, if I may so speak, Levi they were made priests without also, who receiveth tithes, pay an oath ; but he with an oath, ed tithes through Abraham. 10 through that being who said to For he was yet unborn, when him, “The Lord sware, and Melchisedec met him.

will not repent, • Thou art a 11 If therefore perfection priest to the age, [according to were by the Levitical priest- the order of Melchisedec];") hood, (for under it the people 22 by so much was Jesus made received the law,) what further the surety of a better covenant. need was there that another 23 And they indeed were priest should arise according to many priests, because they were the order of Melchisedec, and not suffered to continue, by reathat he should not be called ac son of death : 24 but this percording to the order of Aaron? son, because he continueth to 12 For, the priesthood being the age, hath a priesthood which changed, there is of necessity a passeth not from one to another. change also of the law.

25 Wherefore he is also able to 13 Now he of whom these save in the fullest degree those things are spoken belongeth to who come to God through him, another tribe, no one of which since he ever liveth to interpose gave attendance at the altar. 14 for them. For it is manifest that our Lord 26 For such a high-priest sprang out of Judah; of which became us, who is holy, harmtribe Moses spake nothing con- less, undefiled, separated from cerning priesthood. 15 And it sinners, and made higher than is still far more evident; be- the heavens ; 27 who needeth cause another priest ariseth ac- not, as the high-priests, daily

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