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lowship with each other, and the blood of Jesus Christ, his Son, cleanseth us from all sin.

CHAP. I. 1 CONCERNING the Word of Life,* him, who was from the beginning,t whom we have heard, whom we have seen with our eyes, whom we have looked upon, and our hands have handled ; 2 (for the Life was manifested, and we have seen, and bear witness, and declare to you the life, the aionian life, which was with the Father, and was manifested to us ;) 3 him whom we have seen and heard we declare to you, that ye also may have fellowship with us; and indeed our fellowship is with the Father, and with his son Jesus Christ. 4 And these things we write to you, that your joy may be completed.

5 NOW this is the declaration which we have heard from him, and made known to you; that God is light, and in him there is no darkness. 6 If we say that we have fellowship

3 AND we hereby know that we know him, if we keep his commandments. 4 He who saith, "I know him," and keepeth not his commandments, speak

we speak falsely, and conform not to the truth; 7 but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, God and we have fel

with him, and walk in darkness, eth falsely, and the truth is not in him. 5 But whosoever keepeth his word, the love of God is truly perfected in him : hereby we know that we are in him.


8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. 9 If we confess our sins, God is faithful and just to forgive us sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteous. 10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make him false, and his word is not in us.

CH. II. 1 My dear children, I write these things to you, that ye may not sin. Yet if any one sin, we have a righteous advocate with the Father, even Jesus Christ: 2 and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world.

The Word of Life, i. e. Jesus Christ, who is called the Word, Luke i. 2; John i. 1; and the Word of God, Rev. xix. 13. "He was the divinely inspired teacher of the doctrine of a future life. The attentive reader will observe the resemblance between the introduction to the Epistle and that to the Gospel of John, which mutually illustrate and explain each other, and are a presumptive proof that both were written by the same author." Im. Ver. note.

T Not from the beginning of time, but from the beginning of our Saviour's ministry. See John i. 1, and the note there.

Or: "That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked on, and our hands have handled, as concerning the Word of Life. Newcome.

§ that which, Gr. and Newcome.

6 He who saith that he abideth | and ye have overcome the evil

in him, ought himself so to walk propensity. as he walked.

15 Love not the world, nor 7 Beloved, I write not a the things which are in the new commandment to you, world. If any one love the but an old commandment which world, the love of the Father ye had from the beginning: the is not in him; 16 for all that is old commandment is the word in the world, (the desire of the which ye have heard [from the flesh, and the desire of the beginning]. 8 Again, a new com- eyes, and the pride of life,) is mandment I write to you: which not of the Father, but is of the thing is true in him and in you world. 17 And the world passalso for the darkness is pass-eth away, and the desire [of it]: ing away, and the true light but he that doth the will of now shineth. God abideth to the age.

9" He who saith that he is in the light, and hateth his brother, is in darkness until now. 10 He who loveth his brother, abideth in the light, and he hath no cause of stumbling. 11 But he who hateth his brother, is in darkness, and walketh in darkness, and knoweth not whither he goeth, because the darkness hath blinded his eyes."

12 I write to you, dear children, because your sins are forgiven you on account of his name. 13 I write to you, fathers, because ye have known

21 I write not to you because ye know not the truth: but behim who was from the begin-cause ye know it, and that no ning. I write to you, young falsehood is of the truth. 22 men, because ye have over- Who speaketh falsely, but he come the evil propensity.* I who denied that Jesus is the write to you, children, because Christ? He is antichrist, who ye have known the Father. 14 I denieth the Father and the Son. have written to you, fathers, be- 23 Whosoever denieth the Son, cause ye have known him who hath not the Father: but he was from the beginning. I have who acknowledgeth the Son, written to you, young men, be- hath also acknowledged the Facause ye are strong, and the ther. 24 Let that [therefore] word of God abideth in you, abide in you, which ye have

18 Little children, the latter hour is come: and as ye have heard that antichrist will come, so even now there are many antichrists; by which we know that the latter hour is come. 19 They went out from us, but they were not of us for if they had been of us, they would have remained with us; but they went out that it might be made manifest that all are not of us. 20 But ye have an unction from the holy spirit and know all things.

q. d. you have subdued vicious habits and inclinations. Or, you have triumphed over per


heard from the beginning. If that which ye have heard from the beginning shall abide in you, ye also will abide in the Son, and in the Father.

25 And this is the promise which he promised us, even aionian life. 26 These things I write to you concerning those who would deceive you. 27 But

ceived from him abideth in you, and ye need not that any one teach you: but as that unction teacheth you of all things, and is true, and is not falsehood, even as it hath taught you, abide in him. 28 And now, dear children, abide in him; that, when he shall be manifested, we may have confidence, and may not be ashamed before him at his appearance.

the unction which ye have re-deceive you. He who worketh righteousness is righteous, as he is righteous: 8 he who committeth sin, is of the impostor;* for the impostor hath sinned from the beginning: for this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the impostor. 9 Whosoever is born of God, doth not commit sin; for his seed abideth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God. 10 In this the children of God are manifest, and the children of the impostor: whosoever doth not practice righteousness, is not of God; nor he who loveth not his brother.

29 Ir ye know that he is righteous, be assured that every one who worketh righteousness is born of him.

CH. III. 1 Behold what great love the Father hath bestowed on us, that we should be called children of God: the world therefore knoweth us not, because it knew him not.

gresseth also the law : for sin is a transgression of the law. 5 And ye know that Christ was manifested to take away [our] sins and in him is no sin. 6 Whosoever abideth in him, sinneth not: whosoever sinneth, hath not seen him, nor known him.

7 Dear children, let no one

2 Beloved, now we are the children of God, and it hath not yet been manifested what we shall be: [but] we know that, when Christ shall be manifested, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. 3 And every one who placeth this hope in him, purifieth himself, even as he is pure. 4 Whosoever committeth sin, trans

11 For this is the charge which ye heard from the beginning, that we love one another. 12 Not as Cain, who was of that evil disposition, and slew his brother. And why did he slay him? Because his own works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 13 Wonder not, [my] brethren, if the world hate you. 14 We know that we have passed over from death to life, because we love the brethren. He who loveth not his brother abideth in death.

* not a real, but a hypothetical and fictitious being: the principle of evil personified: the sup posed cause of evil. See Ch. ii. 13, 14.

15 Whosoever hateth his brother is a manslayer: and ye know that no manslayer hath aionian life abiding in him. 16 Hereby we know the love of God, because that person laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren. 17 But whosoever hath the good things of the world, and seeth his brother in need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how abideth the love of God in him? 18 [My] dear children, let us not love in word and tongue only, but in deed and truth. 19 And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him. 20 For if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth all things. 21 Beloved, if our hearts condemn | us not, then we have confidence towards God: 22 and whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things which are pleasing in his sight. 23 And this is his command- | ment, that we should believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and should love one another as he hath given us commandment. 24 And he who keepeth his commandments abideth in Him, and He in him. And hereby, we know that he abideth in us, by the spirit which he hath given us.

CH. IV. 1 BELOVED, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they be of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world. 2 Hereby ye know the spirit of God: every spirit which confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh,* is of God. 3 And every spirit which confesseth not Jesus, is not of God. And this is that spirit of antichrist, of which ye have heard it should come; and it is now already in the world.

4 Dear children, ye are of God, and have overcome them: for he who is in you is greater than he who is in the world. 5 They are of the world: therefore they speak of the world, and the world heareth them. 6 We are of God. He who knoweth God, heareth us: he who is not of God, heareth not us. Hereby we know the spirit of truth, and the spirit of error.

7 BELOVED, let us love one another: for love is of God: and every one who loveth is born of God, and knoweth God. 8 He who loveth not, knoweth not God; for God is love. 9 Herein the love of God was manifested towards us; that God sent his well-beloved Sont into the world, that we might live through him.

10 Herein is love; not that we loved God, but that he loved us, and sent his Son to be a

That is, that Jesus Christ was a real man, in opposition to the Gnostics and Docete who taught that Christ was a man only in appearance. See Dr. Priestley in loco.

+ Gr. only-begotten Son. It is applied to Isaac, Heb. xi. 17, though Abraham had other sons. The same word in the Hebrew is translated indifferently μovoyevns only-begotten, and ayaяntos well-beloved. This word μovoyevns is applied to Christ by the evangelist John four times in the gospel, and once in this epistle and by no other writers of the New Testament. See John i. 14, 18.

propitiation for our sins.* 11 | brother, whom he hath seen, Beloved, if God so loved us, love God, whom he hath not we also ought to love one an- seen? 21 And we have this other. 12 No one hath seen commandment from him, that God at any time. If we love he who loveth God, love his one another, God abideth in us, brother also. and the love of him is perfected in us. 13 Hereby we know that we abide in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his spirit. 14 And we have seen, and we bear witness, that the Father sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world.

15 Whosoever shall confess that Jesus is the Son of God, God abideth in him, and he in God. 16 And we have known and believed the love which God hath to us. God is love; and he who abideth in love, abideth in God, and God in him. 17 Hereby love is perfected among us; to the end that we may have confidence in the day of judgment: because as that person is, so are we in this world.

18 There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment: wherefore he who feareth is not made perfect in love. 19 We love him, because he first loved us. 20 If any one say, "I love God," and yet hate his brother, he speaketh falsely: for how can he who loveth not his

CH. V. 1 WHOSOEVER believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of God; and whosoever loveth the Father, loveth also the Son.† 2 Hereby we know that we love the children of God, when we love God, and keep his commandments; 3 for this is the love of God, that we keep his commandments: and his commandments are not burdensome; 4 for all that is born of God, overcometh the world, and this is the victory which overcometh the world, even our faith. 5 Who is he that overcometh the world, but he who believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?

6 This is he who came with water and blood, even Jesus Christ not with water only, but with water and blood. And it is the spirit which beareth testimony; for the spirit is truth. 7 For there are three that bear testimony, 8 the spirit, and the water, and the blood. and these three agree in one. 9 If we receive the testimony of man, the testimony of God is greater: for this is the testimony

i. e. to be the medium of the reconciliation of sinners by his gospel. See chap. ii. 2. Gr. and whosoever loveth him who begat, loveth him also who is begotten by him.

The received text reads, "For there are three who bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Spirit, and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness in earth." N. B. This text concerning the heavenly witnesses is not contained in any Greek manuscript which was written earlier than the fifteenth century. It is not cited by any of the Greek ecclesiastical writers; nor by any of the early Latin fathers, even when the subjects upon which they treat would naturally have led them to appeal to its authority. It is therefore evidently spurious; and was first cited (though not as it now reads) by Virgilius Tapsensis, a Latin writer of no credit, in the latter end of the fifth century; but by whom forged, is of no great moment, as its design must be obvious to all. See Im. Ver. note.

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