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such as would serve to swell the aggregate of general happiness. The hurtful effects of hatred then extend far beyond the positive mischiefs which can distinctly be marked out, as its undoubted offspring.
36. Since the stronger hatred is, the greater are the mischiefs arising from it, the manner of its growth is a material part of our subject. And if it has once taken root, its increase is by no means slow. When you shew disgust and aversion towards any man, you naturally excite in him aversion towards yourself; which will, in some manner, increase your dislike to him. And thus you display to each other only your unpleasing qualities, whilst your pleasing ones are entirely unseen and unknown. Whereas each of you to his own friends shews only those qualities, those looks, manners, actions, which are adapted to conciliate esteem and love. The consequence is, that your friends think the object of your hatred unreasonably malevolent, and his friends think you the same; the disgust and ill will increases and spreads; and in the end supplies the seeds of lasting enmity: and that between numbers of beings intended to love and cherish each other; and to raise a fund of comfort and enjoyment improving and enlarging itself beyond any assignable limits, and continuing till time shall be no more.
37. The third thing proposed, after considering the nature of hatred, and its effects, good and evil, was to suggest something tending towards the discipline and regulation of that dangerous sentiment. Some men
may think that such a sentiment cannot be too much weakened; that wholly to extinguish it would be best. And some moralists, not only profane but sacred, have condemned it in such terms as would, if followed in their literal sense, reduce it to nothing. But moral precepts are seldom or never to be taken in a literal sense, when delivered occasionally, or in familiar language. They may reasonably, and in perfect conformity to custom, which gives the law in all language, be couched in general terms, without any exceptions or limitations, in all circumstances where exceptions would be entirely
useless. Where the persons taught want impelling only one way. What utility could possibly result from advising men to eat and drink freely, whose principal fault was carrying indulgence to excess? And if a precept be addressed to mankind at large, enjoining them to avoid an evil which can be only avoided by avoiding the occasions of it, would it follow, that, till the occasions can be avoided, such evil is forbidden? Go not to Law, says a friend, be sure to avoid law-suits; that is, keep at a distance from all occasions of legal contention; but does such advice imply, that when such occasions cannot be warded off, a man is never to call in the protection of the Magistrate? why then is he a member of civil Society? That man, says another, is most comfortable who has nothing to do with medicine; true; that man is blessed indeed who always enjoys good health. Let the sword rest in its scabbard, says a third; an excellent precept, if understood as discouraging all occasions of war; but it is grossly misunderstood if it be taken as a prohibition of all self-defence. Now all this applies to hatred; which is generally found in an excessive and very rarely in a defective state those therefore who give moral instructions, see and feel, that they have very great need to discourage, and little or none to encourage it. And the less systematical any set of precepts is, or the more artlessly arising from particular circumstances, the less likely are they to specify limitations and exceptions. Now no practical directions are so little systematical as those of the scriptures; none owe their origin more tọ particular incidents; it is therefore by no means matter of surprize if we find hatred there forbidden, in some passages, in general terms, and ranked amongst the works of the flesh, amongst the vicious passions of barbarous heathens, as opposed to the gentle and benevolent affections of true Christians: nor can we wonder if our church prays to be delivered from hatred. But we must not conclude from thence, that every emotion of disgust is sinful. "Do not I hate them," says the Psalmist, cxxxix. 21." that hate thee? I hate them with perfect hatred, "I count them mine enemies." “Ye that love the Lord, hate cvil." Although therefore we ought to keep our minds pure from that kind
and degree of hatred which St. Paul reckons amongst the works of the flesh, and describes as unworthy of a Christian, yet we must not pretend to be more than men whilst we live amongst men. As it is no excellence to be slow in distinguishing between good and evil, so is it no way meritorious to be insensible to the difference when it is perceived; or to the qualities commonly called odious. Whilst we are liable to be incommoded by such qualities, we should judge ill to lay aside that defence which the author of nature hath graciously provided. Suppose hatred in its best state, not to be recommended in Scripture; neither is parental love (Ogden Ser. xii. on Commandments.) If hatred, in its ordinary state, be forbidden in Scripture, so is killing, so is swearing, so is drinking wine,; yet none of these universally; though they are forbidden in general terms, and no exceptions are mentioned. The gratification of our animal appetites is not the subject of scriptural exhortation: and yet the scripture wishes not either the individual man or his species to be extinct; nor could any man be accounted the more perfect for wanting animal appetites. Hereafter, we shall be as the angels which are in heaven;" but in this life we are not angels; we are men. (i.) Mark xii. 25.
Again; suppose some heavenly being were to address us, saying, 'Let there be no more hatred amongst you;' though we should not understand him of any particular kind or degree of hatred, yet we should conceive his true meaning to be, Let all occasions of hatred entirely cease.' It is indeed desirable that those qualities should cease which commonly excite hatred, in which case our hatred would die away, and soon vanish from the earth; but it is not desirable that the qualities should continue to corrupt our finest enjoyments, and we be deprived of that sentiment, by which we are enabled quickly to discern and forcibly to counteract them.
Thus much may be necessary in order to clear our way, and furnish us with distinct ideas of the subject before us. We may now proceed to some practical
consequences resulting from what has been advanced. Some rules of action belong to the object of hatred, and others to him who feels the passion in his own breast, Any man may conceive himself in either of these cha racters; for any man may be hated, and any man may hate. (k.)
38. A man may become the object of hatred, either by his own faults, or by the faults of others. In order to avoid becoming such by his own faults, he should make it his study to please, He should watch the means by which he at any time grows unpleasing, and the circumstances by which he seems to recommend himself to favour. Men who are very seriously and passionately pious and virtuous, are apt sometimes to neglect this part of their duty; but such negligence is very hurtful to the cause of piety and virtue; as well as to their own particular happiness. And it is by no means encouraged in the holy Scriptures. St. Paul tells us, that we must not let our "" good be evil spoken of." Rom, xiv. 16. That we must provide things hopest," that is decent, honourable, in the sight of all men," Rom. xii. 17. That every one of us must
please his neighbour for his good, to edification," Rom. xv. 2. And he sets forth himself as an example of endeavouring to please, not with interested views, but with a view to promoting the cause of religion." [ please all men, says he, 1 Cor. x. 33. " in all things, not seeking mine own profit, but the profit of many, that they may be saved." St. Peter, also, 1 Pet. iii. 8. enjoins the Christians not only to be of one mind, to love as brethren, and to be pitiful, but also to be courteous, Men must not then think an amiable behaviour and appearance a thing beneath the notice of a devout and religious character; nor must the devout be forward to accuse all who dislike them, of hating religion. Our Saviour warmly reproved the Pharisees; they would say that he disliked whatever was good and venerable; he reproved nothing but hypocrisy and spiritual pride.
It would be natural for any one who agreed to what has been said, and was desirous of doing his duty, to ask, by what methods am I to avoid being an object of hatred, and render myself pleasing to my neighbour?
We can only answer, that the methods of forming an amiable character are numerous, complicated and refined: they must constitute a separate subject of investigation. A considerable progress may be made by a sincere desire to please, founded, not on vanity or selfinterest, but on truly virtuous and religious principles; by a high sense of the importance of the duty; and above all, by that which has the sanction both of reason and revelation, by perpetual attention to the feelings of others; by entering into their views and wishes; and endeavouring, without ostentation, to promote them in the most easy and effectual manner. Common men
may do much good by acting after the best models, and according to their best feelings; and the more improved may do more by scrutinizing the mind, and analysing the principles of pleasing. (1)
39. But a man may become an object of hatred chiefly or entirely by the faults of others; I mean by the faults of those who dislike him; or by their prejudices. No man therefore will be perfect, who after all his endeavours to please, has not fortitude enough to bear to be disliked, without wavering in his duty. We have before (13.) said so much of the virtuous being hated by by the vicious, that we need not dwell long on our present topic. If the poor man finds that he" is hated of his own neighbour;" if the deformed perceives himself to be regarded with some degree of aversion; if the magistrate, or the parent, or the preceptor, finds, that in order to prevent evil he must be contented to appear to those whom he loves, in an odious light; there is but one sort of conduct that is right; to pardon the effect of prejudice, and of first impression on the inconsiderate: to enter into their feelings; and to wait with patience for the hour of returning kindness: forwarding such a happy return by assisting them in every method of overcoming their aversions. And yet the fortitude here recommended should not be such as to admit of no diffidence. Whilst a man is the most resolute in bearing up up against what seems unmerited hatred, he ought frequently to ask himself whether it may not be merited. And he ought to take particular care, that a false shame