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mechanics and other persons employed by contractors or subcontractors in the execution of any contract or contracts within the State of Kansas, or within any county, city, township or other municipality thereof, shall be deemed to be employed by or on behalf of the State of Kansas, or of such county, city, township, or other municipality thereof.

§ 3828. All contracts hereafter made by or on behalf of the State of Kansas, or by or on behalf of any county, city, township or other municipality of said State, with any corporation, person or persons for the performance of any work or the furnishing of any material manufactured within the State of Kansas, shall be deemed and considered as made upon the basis of eight hours constituting a day's work; and it shall be unlawful for any such corporation, person, or persons to require or permit any laborer, workman, mechanic or other person to work more than eight hours per calendar day in doing such work or in furnishing or manufacturing such material, except in the cases and upon the conditions provided in section 1 of this act [sec. 3827].

§ 3829. Any officer of the State of Kansas, or of any county, city, township or municipality of said State, or any person acting under or for such officer, or any contractor with the State of Kansas, or any county, city, township or other municipality thereof, or other person violating any of the provisions of this act, shall for each offense be punished by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $1,000, or by imprisonment not more than six months, or both fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the court.

MARYLAND.

ACTS OF 1898, CHAPTER 458. No mechanic or laborer employed by the mayor and city council of Baltimore, or by any officer, agent, contractor or subcontractor under them, shall be required to work more than eight hours per day as a day's labor: Provided, further, That this section shall not apply to the employees of the tire department, Bay View Asylum or the Baltimore City Jail. Any such officer, agent, contractor or subcontractor who shall require any mechanic or laborer to work more than eight hours per day, contrary to the provisions of this section, shall be fined not less than ten dollars nor more than fifty dollars for each and every offense, one-half of such fine to go to the informer; said fines to be collected as other fines are collected by law.

Approved April 9, 1898.

MASSACHUSETTS.

REVISED LAWS OF 1902, CHAPTER 106. Section 19. Nine* hours shall constitute a day's work for all laborers, workmen and mechanics who are employed by or on behalf of the Commonwealth or of any county, city or town therein, except as provided in the following section.

§ 20. In a city or town which by a vote taken by ballot at an annual election accepts the provisions of this section or has accepted the corresponding provision, of earlier laws, eight hours shall constitute a day's work for

*Changed to eight hours by an amending law, Jenacted as this report passes through the press (Chapter 517, approv d June 22, 1906).

all laborers, workmen or mechanics who are employed by such city or town. If a petition for such vote, signed by one hundred or more registered voters of a city, or twenty-five or more registered voters of a town, is filed with the city or town clerk, respectively, thirty days or more before an annual election, such vote shall be taken at such election.

§ 21. Contracts by or on behalf of the Commonwealth, requiring the employment of manual labor, shall provide that persons employed in manual labor thereunder shall not be required to work more than nine hours in each day and that said nine hours shall constitute a day's work.

MINNESOTA.

ACTS OF 1901, CHAPTER 310. Section 1. The service of all laborers, workmen and mechanics employed upon any public works of, or work done for the State of Minnesota, whether said work is done by contract or otherwise, shall be, and is hereby limited, and restricted to eight hours in any one calendar day; and it shall be unlawful for any officer of the State, or any person acting for or on behalf thereof, or any contractor or subcontractor for any part of any public works of, or work done for such State, or any persons, corporation, or association whose duty it shall be to employ or to direct and control the services of such laborers, workmen or mechanics, or who has in fact the direction or control of the services of such laborers, workmen or mechanics to require or permit them or any of them to labor more than eight hours in any one calendar day and except in cases of extraordinary emergency caused by fire, flood or danger to life and property, and except to work upon public, military or naval works or defenses in time of war, except in cases of employment of labor in agricultural pursuits: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to apply to the employment of labor on work now in progress, whether contracted for or not.

§ 2. Each and every contract to which the State of Minnesota is hereinafter a party, and every contract made for, or on behalf of the said State, which contract may involve the employment of laborers, workmen or mechanics, shall contain a stipulation that no laborer, workman or mechanic in the employ of the contractor 'or any subcontractor doing or contracting to do any part of the work contemplated by the contract, shall be required or permitted to work more than eight hours in any one calendar day, except in cases of extraordinary emergency caused by fire, flood or danger to life or property, and except to work upon public, military or naval work, or defenses in time of war, and except in cases of employment of labor in agricultural pursuits, and each and every such contract shall stipulate a penalty for such violation of the stipulation directed by this act, of ten (10) dollars for each laborer, workman or mechanic, for each and every calendar day in which he shall labor more than eight hours, and the inspector or officer, or person whose duty it shall be to see that the provisions of any such contract are complied with, shall report to the proper officer of such State, all violations of the stipulation in this act, provided for in each and every such contract, and the amount of the penalities (penalties] stipulated in any such contract shall be withheld by the officer or person whose duty it shall be to pay the moneys due under such contract, whether the violations for which such penalties were imposed by contractor, his agents or employees, or any subcontractor, his agents or employees, no person, on behalf of the State of Minnesota shall rebate or permit (remit] any penalty imposed under any stipulation herein provided for, unless upon a finding which he shall make up and certify that such penalty was imposed by reason of an error of fact. Nothing in this act shall be construed to authorize the collection of said penalty from the State. This act shall not apply to any contract work done for any town or county in this State.

§ 3. Any officer of the State of Minnesota, or any person acting for, or on behalf thereof, who shall violate the provisions of this act shall be dēemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and be subject to a fine or imprisonment, or both, at the discretion of the court, the fine not to exceed five hundred dollars ($500), nor the imprisonment more than one year. Nothing in this act shall be construed to apply to work or labor in constructing or repairing roads or highways.

MONTANA.

CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE 18. Section 4. A period of eight hours shall constitute a day's work on all works or undertakings carried on or aided by any municipal; county or State government, and on all contracts let by them, and in mills and smelters for the treatment of ores, and in underground mines.

§ 5. The legislature by appropriate legislation shall provide for the enforcement of the provisions of this article.

Act of submission approved December 10, 1903.
Amendments adopted November, 1904.

ACTS OF 1905, CHAPTER 50. Section 1. A period of eight (8) hours shall constitute a day's work on all works or undertakings carried on or aided by any municipal, county or State government, and on all contracts let by them, and in mills and smelters for the treatment of ores, and in underground mines.

§ 2. Every person, corporation, stock company or association of persons who violate any of the provisions of section one (1) of this act shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than one hundred dollars ($100) nor more than five hundred ($500) dollars or by imprisonment in the county jail for not less than thirty days nor more than six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. Approved March 1, 1905.

NEBRASKA.

ACTS OF 1903, CHAPTER 17. Section 123. In all cities governed by this act [cities having less than forty thousand and more than twenty-five thousand inhabitants), where work is performed upon the streets, sewers, boulevards or in parks, etc., or by virtue of any contract with any person, company, or companies, or corporations, for such city, shall be done by union labor and be paid for at the rate of two dollars ($2) per day: Provided, That when skilled labor is employed by the city, said labor shall be paid the current scale of union wages Provided, That eight hours shall constitute a day's labor. An act of 1901, repealed by the above, contained the same provision as to hours,

NEVADA.

ACTS OF 1903, CHAPTER 37. Section 1. On public works, all works or undertakings carried on or aided by the State, county or municipal governments, eight hours shall constitute a day's labor.

§ 2. Any violation of the provisions of this act shall be deemed a misdemeanor and shall subject the employee as well as the person or persons acting on behalf of the State, county or municipal government in the employment of such employee, to a fine of not less than ten dollars nor more than fifty dollars, and in case any contract is let for any State, county or municipal government work, the contractor or contractors violating the provisions hereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than fifty dollars for each and every man so employed by such contractor or contractors and in addition thereto such contract shall be forfeited and be null and void: Provided, That nothing herein shall be so construed as to prevent the preservation or protection of property in cases of emergency. (As amended by ch. 32, Acts of 1905.)

NEW YORK.

[See Appendix I.]

PENNSYLVANIA.

ACTS OF 1897—ACT NO. 379. Section 1. On and after the passage of this act eight hours out of the twenty-four of each day shall make and constitute a legal day's work for mechanics, workmen and laborers in the employ of the State, or any municipal corporation therein, or otherwise engaged on public works.

§ 2. This act shall apply to all mechanics, workingmen and laborers now or hereafter employed by the State, or any municipal corporation therein, through its agents or officers, or in the employ of persons contracting with the State or said corporation for the performance of public work, and in all such employment none but citizens of the United States, or aliens who shall have legally declared their intention to become such, who have been residents of the State in which such work is to be done for the six months next preceding the date of such employment, shall be employed by the State or any municipal corporation therein, or by any person or persons contracting with the same; and every contract hereafter made for the performance of public work must comply with the requirements of this section: Provided, That nothing in this act shall affect contracts in existence at the time of the passage of this act.

§ 3. Any officer or officers or agents of the State, or of any municipal corporation therein, who shall willfully violate or otherwise evade the provisions of this act, shall be deemed guilty of malfeasance in office, and upon conviction thereof may be removed by the governor or head of the department to which said officer is attached.

§ 4. Any person or persons contracting with the State or any municipal corporation therein, and any officer or agent of the State or any municipal corporation therein, who shall fail to comply with, or attempt to evade the provisions of this act shall, upon conviction thereof, be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and be punished by a fine not exceeding one thousand dollars,

PORTO RICO.

ACTS OF 1904. Section 1. Eight hours shall constitute the maximum length of a workingday for any work performed and paid out of funds from the municipalities, school boards, and all other dependencies of the people of Porto Rico.

§ 2. In all contracts for work to be paid out of the funds of the people of Porto Rico, municipalities or school boards, each of said contracts shall contain a provision limiting a day's work to eight hours.

§ 3. In works of a public nature, a working day may be lengthened only in cases where the lives and property of the inhabitants of a municipality or of the insular government would be endangered, if same were not done. This act shall not apply to the insular police force, internal revenue agents, telegraph operators and telegraph messengers, nor to the clerks of the departments of the insular government when, in the opinion of the heads of such departments, work beyond eight hours by them is necessary in the interest of the public service.

§ 4. Any person who shall willfully or maliciously violate the provisions of this act, except as specified in section 3 hereof, shall be guilty of misdemeanor. Approved March 10, 1904.

UTAH.

CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE 16. Section 6. Eight hours shall constitute a day's work on all works or undertakings carried on or aided by the State, county or municipal governments;

REVISED STATUTES, 1898. Section 1336 (as amended by chapter 98, Acts of 1903). Eight hours shall constitute a day's work in all penal institutions in this State, whether State, county or municipal, and on all works and undertakings carried on aided by the State, county or municipal governments. Any officer of the State or of any county or municipal government, or any person, corporation, firm, contractor, agent, manager or foreman, who shall require or contract with any person to work in any penal institution or upon such works or undertakings, longer than eight lours in one calendar day, except in cases of emergency, where life or prop rty is in imminent danger, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. The original law, enacted in 1894, contained the same provision as to hours.

WASHINGTON.

ACTS OF 1903, CHAPTER 44. Section 1. It is a part of the public policy of the State of Washington that all work “by contract or day labor done” for it, or any political subdivision created by its laws, shall be performed in work days of not more than eight hours each, except in cases of extraordinary emergency. No case of extraordinary emergency shall be construed to exist in any case where other labor can be found to take the place of labor which has already been employed for eight hours in any calendar day.

§ 2. All contracts for work for the State of Washington, or any political subdivision created by its laws, shall provide that they may be canceled

or

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