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ACTS OF 1899, CHAPTER 202. Section 1. It shall not be lawful for the state, or any county, city, town, township or borough, or other municipal corporation within this state, or for any board, committee, commission or officer thereof, or for any officer, board, body or organization having charge of any public work or any construction, whether the same be a building, excavation, pipelaying, bridge or dock building, sewer or drainage construction, road building, paving, or any other form or kind of public work which shall be undertaken and done at public expense, or for any person or corporation, to employ as a mechanic or iaborer upon such public work or construction, or any part thereof, any person who is not at the time of such employment a citizen of the United States; any contractor or officer who shall violate the provisions of this act shall forfeit and pay the sum of one hundred dollars, to be recovered in an action of debt in any court of competent jurisdiction, with costs, and such penalty when recovered shall be paid into the treasury of the state, county, city or other municipal corporation within which and under whose authority such officer or contractor claims to act: Provided, The provisions of this act shall not apply to any contract now in force.
ACTS OF 1905, CHAPTER 39. Section 39. In order to foster and encourage the use of local materials and labor, hereafter any bridge or culvert constructed upon the provisions of this act in this territory shall be constructed, whenever practicable and more economical, of material produced in this territory, using local labor in its construction.
BRIGHTLY'S DIGEST, 1893-1903, PAGE 722. Sestion 1. None but citizens of the United States shall be employed in any capacity in the erection, enlargement or improvement of any public building or public work within this commonwealth: Provided, That apprentices to a trade or profession who may be under twenty-one years of age shall not be subject to the provisions of this act: Provided, That the provisions of this act shall not apply to public work where the cost thereof is paid in whole or in part from assessments of benefits.
§ 2. The person or persons who may be by law empowered to enter into a contract for the erection, enlargement or improvement of any public building or public work shall insert in such a contract a stipulation or covenant that the provisions of section one of this act will be fully complied with.
REVISED STATUTES AND CODES, 1902. Section 624.
No laborers shall be compelled to work more than eight hours per day, and they shall be, if possible, residents of the municipality.
CONSTITUTION, ARTICLE 19. Section 1. No person not a citizen of the United States or who has not declared bis intention to become such, shall be employed upon or in connection with any state, county or municipal works or employment.
§ 2. The legislature shall, by appropriate legislation, see that the provisions of the foregoing section are enforced.
ACTS OF 1897, PAGE 58. Section 1. All printing for which the state of Montana is chargeable, including reports of state officers, state 'boards, pamphlets, blanks, letter heads, envelopes, and printed matter of every kind and description, save and except certificates of appointment and election to office, shall have the label of the branch of the International Typographical Union of the city in which they are printed.
§ 2. Any officer of the state who shall accept any printed matter, save and except certificates named in section 1, for which the state is chargeable, which does not bear a label indicating that it was printed in an office under the jurisdiction of the International Typographical Union, shall be subject to a fine of fifty dollars for each and every offense.
NEBRASKA. [Chapter 17 of the Acts of 1903, relating to cities, provides in section 123 that public work performed by contract shall be done by union labor; see under Hours of Labor.]
COMPILED LAWS OF 1899.
Section 1515. On and after the passage of this act the state printer shall cause to be affixed to all public printing the union label recognized by the organization known as the International Typographical Union.
CONTRACT SYSTEM FORBIDDEN OR REGULATED.
POLITICAL CODE, SECTION 3233. Section 3233. All work done upon the public buildings of this state must be done under the supervision of a superintendent, or state officer or officers having charge of the work, and all labor employed on such buildings, whether skilled or unskilled, must be employed by the day, and no work upon any such building must be done by contract.
THE STATE OF EMPLOYMENT.
A continuous record of the fluctuations in the labor market is maintained by the Bureau on the basis of monthly reports from secretaries of some 200 organizations of workmen, representing 85 different trades and occupations in the principal industrial centers of the State. The number of workmen included in these monthly reports approximates 100,000, or substantially onefourth of all the members of trade unions in the State. Summaries of the statistics are regularly published in the Department's Quarterly Bulletin in March and September, and the principal figures for 1905 are reproduced in Tables C to G (pages 4-13) of the Appendix. It appears that the number of unions reporting in 1905 varied from 199 in January to 191 in June, while it remained constant at 192 during the remainder of the year. The number of wage earners reported on varied from 91,088 in October to 97,345 in January. The diminution was mainly due to changes in the building trades' unions.
The following table brings the figures for 1905 into comparison with those of previous years:
TABLE 1.--NUMBER AND PROPORTION OF UNEMPLOYED WAGE EARNERS.
Examination of these figures shows that late in 1902 business activity began to slacken and that a slight depression continued until April, 1904, when an improvement began which has since continued without marked interruption; and that since April 1905, the relative amount of industrial idleness has been