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even less than in the record year 1902. The mean percentage of the unemployed in the year 1905 was 11.2 as compared with 16.9 in 1904, 17.5 in 1903 and 14.8 in 1902, or an average of 16.4 per cent for the three years. The accompanying chart exhibits the

relative number of the unJAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEP OCT NOVIDEO

employed at the end of each month in 1905, as compared with the mean for the three years 19027, and makes clear the wide difference between condi. tions of employment in 1905 and those of the preceding years.

With only a few exceptions, every industry made a better showing in 1905 than in 1902, 1903

or 1904; in five groups of trades (metal trades, musical trades, tobacco trades, restaurants and retail trade, and public employment), the ratio of the unemployed was slightly higher than in 1902, when all trades were exceptionally busy (see table opposite). While the unwonted activity in the building trades and the generally peaceful relations between employers and employees therein, were influential factors in keeping down the percentage of idleness in 1905, they were not of themselves sufficient to account for the difference. In the combined trades, exclusive of the building industry, the ratio of the unemployed was smaller than usual in nearly every month; only in February, August and September did the 1905 percentage rise above that of 1902, the most favorable of the years immediately preceding.

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TABLE 2.-UNEMPLOYMENT IN THE COMBINED TRADES EXCLURIVE OF THE BUILDING IN

DUSTRY.
Number
NUMBER IDLE.

PER CENT IDLE.
reporting.
MONTH.

1905. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. January..

70,745 10,878 13,300 14,678 10,854 15.8 19.1 20.7 15.3 February.

70, 258 8,588 11,709 12,848 10,144 12.4 16.7 17.5 14.4 March.

71,366 10,056 11,380 14,017 10,408 14.7 16.0 19.9 14.6 April. 67,935 9,684 9,551 12,515 6,312 13.8 14.3

18.8

9.3 May

68,161 9,762 8,355 12,558 4,564 14.3 12.2 18.7 6.7 June. 69,021 10,227 8,703 9,765 5,413 14.7

12.8 14.5 7.8 July.

68,532 12,136 9,120 10,543 6,062 16.8 12.5 15.6 8.8 August...

70,083 4,912 9,381 7,941 5,734 6.8 13.0 11.3 8.2 September... 70,180 4,646 5,792 7,758 5,009 6.8 8.0 10.8 7.1 October...

67,020 6,689 8,983 7,327 3,827 9.9 12.5 10.2 5.7 November... 67,592 9,939 11,068 6,669 3,778 14.6 15.4 9.2 5.6 December..... 67,875 14,173 15,315 11,125 8,218 20.7 21.4 15.3 12.1

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TABLE 3-PERCENTAGE OF UNEMPLOYED MEMBERS OF REPRESENTA TIVE TRADE UNIONS: BY INDUSTRIES.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Mean.
33.6 34.3
19.1
12.9 7.6

13.4
23.5

18.1
23.8
29.7 20.8

18.8
38.3

12.9 19.8
41.5
18.8

5.6 4.5
20.3
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TABLE 3-PERCENTAGE OF UNEMPLOYED MEMBERS OF REPRESENTATIVE TRADE UNIONS: BY

INDUSTRIES—Concluded.
GROUPS OF TRADES.

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
X. Restaurants and retail trade:

1902.
1903.
1904.

1905.
XI. Public employment:
1902.

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1905.
XII. Stationary engine tending:

1902.
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XIII. Miscellaneous:

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That one of the principal factors in the favorable labor market of 1905 was the lessened importance of labor disputes is demonstrated by the statistics concerning the causes of idleness, which may be summarized as follows:

NUMBER OF WAGE EARNERS IDLE IN CONSEQUENCE OF STRIKE OR LOCKOUT. YEAR. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 1902. 131

6,690
246

497 1903.

1,086 2,083 5,274 9,668 15,983 9,991 7,755 3,803 1,821 1,479 1,645 1904. 2,541 1,559 6,820 2,963 3,712 1,647 4,982 4,824 4,829 3,194 2,660 2,760 1905. .... 3,036 2,775 3,288 2,197 1,266 1,197 561 675 487 609 756 70 8

In 1902 the causes of idleness were tabulated for only four months. These are nevertheless sufficient to show that strikes and lockouts were on a much smaller scale than in 1903 and 1904. The earlier months of 1905 indicated a continuation of the labor troubles, but they gradually quieted down and in the latter half of the year compared not unfavorably with 1902.

TABLE 4.-MEMBERS OF REPRESENTATIVE TRADE UNIONS IDLE ON ACCOUNT OF LABOR

DISPUTES.
Metals,

Food
All Building Trans- Clothing, machine

Wood and Other AT END OF- trades. trades. portation etc. trades. Printing working. liquors. trades. January.. 3,036 2,200

198..

612 26 February. 2,775 1,936

202.

612 25 March. 3,288 2,341

305

612 30
April..
2,197 1,466

216
15

500
May.
1,266 1,200
50

12
June.
1,197 967

175
10

37 8 July

561
110

350
85

10
5

1 August. 675 216

340
81

12

2 24 September.. 487 212

38
2
211

24 October 609 469

129
2

1

8 November..

756
562 15

68

2
95

6

8 December..... 708 530

40
60

2
65

3

8

UNEMPLOYMENT IN PREVIOUS YEARS.

The system of monthly reports on the state of employment was instituted in 1902 but data for comparison with earlier years can be drawn from the quarterly returns of all trade and labor unions, beginning in 1897. For three years, 1897-99, quarterly reports were collected by the Bureau four times a year, thus fur. nishing a complete record for each year. Since 1899 the Bureau has been unable to collect such reports for every quarter and has therefore confined its record to the first and third quarter of each year. From the monthly and quarterly reports the follow

ing figures have been compiled concerning the proportion of the unemployed at the four dates in each year:

TABLE 5.-PERCENTAGE OF TRADE UNIONISTS IDLE AT THE END OF

Mean of MARCH

JUNE.

SEPTEMBER. DECEMBER. Mar. and Sept.

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A.-All unions.
B.-Representative unions, containing about one-fourth of all unionists.

While these figures give some indication of the trend of business conditions, they do not furnish an adequate record. The series is complete for only two months, March and September, and the mean percentages for those months would indicate that there was more idleness in 1905 than in 1902, and considerably more in 1904 than in 1903, whereas complete figures for 12 months in each have already proved the contrary. More satisfaetory statistics, however, may be drawn from the reports regarding the duration of employment, which are concisely summarized in the table opposite.

In the first three months of 1905 it appears that 31,638, or 8.7 per cent of the 364,544 wage earners reporting, did not work at all, whereas in the third quarter the number idle fell to 7,491 or only 2.0 per cent. Of the number employed (column 5), nearly all reported the duration of their employment (column 6), which the first quarter averaged 65.67 days and in the third quarter 73.55 days. If, however, the aggregate number of days of employment (column 8) be distributed over all wage earners including those who were idle as well as those who had employment (column 9), the average duration of employment in the first quarter was only 59.9 days and 72 days in the third quarter--the total number of working days in a quarter being 77. Combining the averages of the last column for 1897 to 1899, it is found that the duration of employment in 1897 averaged 227 days, in 1898 232 days and in 1899 258 days,-out of 308 working days in the year. As figures exist only for two quarters of each year thereafter, estimates have been made for

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